CONSOLIDATION, civil law. The union of the usufruct with the estate out of which it issues, in the same person which happens when the usufructuary acquires the estate, or vice versa. In either case the usufruct is extinct. In the common law this is called a merger. Ley. El. Dr. Rom. 424. U. S. Dig. tit. Actions, V.
2. Consolidation may take place in two ways: first, by the usufructuary surrendering his right to the proprietor, which in the common law is called a surrender; secondly, by the release of the. proprietor of his rights to the usufructuary, which in our law is called a release.
CONSOLIDATION RULE, practice, com. law. When a number of actions are brought on the same policy, it is the constant practice, for the purpose of saving costs, to consolidate them. by a rule of court or judge's order, which restrains the plaintiff from proceeding to trial in more than one, and binds the defendants in all the others to abide the event of that one; but this is done upon condition that the defendant shall not file any bill inequity, or bring any writ of error for delay. 2 Marsh. Ins. 701. For the history of this rule, vide Parke on Ins. xlix.; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 1 6, s. 4. And see 1 John. Cas. 29; 19 Wend. 23; 13 Wend. 644 5 Cowen, 282,; 4 Cowen, 78; Id. 85; 1 John. 29; 9 John. 262.
2. The term consolidation seems to be rather misapplied in those cases, for in point of fact there is a mere stay of proceedings in all those cases but one. 3 Chit. Pr. 644. The rule is now extended to other cases: when several actions are brought on the same bond against several obligors, an order for a stay of proceedings in all but one will be made. 3 Chit. Pr. 645 3 Carr. & P. 58. See 4 Yeates, R. 128 3 S. & R. 262; Coleman, 62; 3 Rand. 481; 1 N. & M. 417, n.; 1 Cow n 89; 3 Wend. 441; 9 Wend. 451; M. 438, 440, n.; 5 Cowen, 282; 4 Halst. 335; 1 Dall. 145; 1 Browne, Appx. lxvii.; 1 Ala. R. 77; 4 Hill, R. 46; 19 Wend. 23 5 Yerg. 297; 7 Miss. 477; 2 Tayl. 200.,
3. The plaintiff may elect to join in the same suit several causes of action, in many cases, consistently with the rules of pleading, but having done so, his election is determined. He cannot ask the court to consolidate them; 3 Serg. & R. 266; but the court will sometimes, at the instance of the defendant, order it against the plaintiff. 1 Dall. Rep. 147, 355; 1 Yeates, 5; 4 Yeates, 128; 2 Arch. Pr. 180; 3 Serg. & R. 264.


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