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Dictionary, legal meaning of, BACHELOR... BURYING-GROUND

    14.8.17  

BACHELOR. The first degree taken at the universities in the arts and sciences, as bachelor of arts, & c. It is called, in Latin, Baccalaureus, from bacalus, or bacillus, a staff, because a staff was given, by way of distinction, into the hands of those who had completed their studies. Some, however, have derived the word from baccalaura, others from bas chevalier, as designating young squires who aspire to the knighthood. (Dupin.) But the derivation. of the word is uncertain.

BACK-BOND. A bond given by one to a surety, to* indemnify such surety in case of loss. In Scotland, a back-bond is an instrument which, in conjunction with another which gives an absolute disposition, constitutes a trust. A declaration of trust.


BACK-WATER. That water in a stream which, in consequence of some obstruction below, is detained or checked in its course, or reflows.

2. Every riparian owner is entitled to the benefit of the water in its natural state. Whenever, therefore, the owner of land dams or impedes the water in such a manner as to back it on his neighbor above, he is liable to an action; for no one has a right to alter the level of the water, either where it enters, or where it leaves his property. 9 Co. 59; 1 B. & Ald. 258; 1 Wils. R. 178; 6 East, R. 203; 1 S. & Stu. 190.; 4 Day, R. 244; 7 Cowen, R. 266; 1 Rawle, R. 218; 5 N. R. Rep. 232; 9 Mass. R. 316; 7 Pick. R. 198; 4 Mason, R. 400; 1 Rawle, R. 27; 2 John. Ch. R. 162, 463; 1 Coxe's. R. 460. Vide, Dam; Inundation; Water-course; and 5 Ohio R. 322.

BACKING, crim. law practice. Backing a warrant occurs whenever it becomes necessary to execute it out of the jurisdiction of the magistrate who granted it; as when an offender escapes out of the county in which he committed the offence with which he is charged, into another county. In such a case, a magistrate of the county in which the offender may, be found, endorses, or writes his name on the back of the warrant, and thereby gives authority to execute it within his jurisdiction. This is called backing the warrant. This may be from county to county, if necessary.

BACKSIDE, estates. In England this term was formerly used in conveyances and even in pleadings, and is still, adhered to with reference to ancient descriptions in deeds, in continuing the transfer of the same. property. It imports a yard at the back part of, or behind a house, and belonging thereto: but although formerly used in pleadings, it is now unusual to adopt it, and the word yard is preferred. 1 Chitty's Pr. 177; 2 Ld. Raym. 1399.

BADGE. A mark or sign worn by some persons, or placed upon certain things for the purpose of designation. Some public officers, as watchmen, policemen, and the like, are required to wear badges that they may be readily known. It is used figuratively when we say, possession of personal property by the seller, is. a badge of fraud.


BAILIWICK. The district over which a sheriff has jurisdiction; it signifies also the same as county, the sheriff's bailiwick extending over the county.

2. In England, it signifies generally that liberty which is exempted from the sheriff of the county over which the lord of the liberty appoints a bailiff. Vide Wood's Inst. 206.

BAIR-MAN, Scottish law. A poor insolvent debtor left bare.

BAIRN'S PART, Scottish, law. Children's part a third part of the defunct's free movables, debts deducted, if the wife survive, and a half if there be no relict.

BALANCE, com. law. The amount which remains due by one of two persons, who have been dealing together, to the other, after the settlement of their accounts.

2. In the case of mutual debts, the balance only can be recovered by the assignee of an insolvent, or the executor of a deceased person. But this mutuality must have existed at the time of the assignment by the insolvent, or at the death of the testator.

3. The term general balance is sometimes used to signify the difference which is due to a party claiming a lien on goods in his hands, for work or labor done, or money expended in relation to those and other goods of the debtor. 3 B. & P. 485; 3 Esp. R. 268.

BALANCE SHEET. A statement made by merchants and others to show the true state of a particular business. A balance sheet should exhibit all the balances of debits and credits, also the value of merchandize, and the result of the whole. Vide Bilan.

BALANCE OF TRADE, Com. law. The difference between the exports and importations, between two countries. The balance of trade is against that country which has imported more than it has exported, for which it is debtor to the other country.

BALIVA. A bailiwick or jurisdiction.

BALIVO AMOVENDO, Eng. practice. A writ to remove a bailiff out of his office.

BALLASTAGE, mar. law. A toll paid for the privilege, of taking up ballast from the bottom of the port. This arises from the property in the soil. 2 Chit. Com. Law, 16.

BALLOT, government. A diminutive ball, i. e. a little ball used in giving votes; the act itself of giving votes. A little ball or ticket used in voting privately, and, for that purpose, put, into a box, (commonly called a ballot-box,) or into some other contrivance.

BALNEARII, civil law. Stealers of the clothes of person who were washing in the public baths. Dig. 47, 17; 4 Bl. Com. 239; Calviui Lex. Jurid.

BAN, A proclamation, or public notice any summons or edict by which a thing is forbidden or commanded. Vide Bans of Matrimony; Proclamation; Cowell's Interp.

BANC or BANK. The first of these is a French word signifying bench, pronounced improperly bank. 1. The seat of judgment, as banc le roy, the king's bench banc le common pleas, the bench of common pleas.

2. The meeting of all the judges or such as may form a quorum, as, the court sit in banc. Cowell's Interp.

BANCO. A commercial term, adopted from the Italian, used to distinguish bank money from the common currency; as $1000,

BANDIT. A man outlawed; one who is said to be under ban.

BANE. This word was formerly used to signify a malefactor. Bract. 1. 2, t. 8, c. 1.

BANISHMENT, crim. law. A punishment inflicted upon criminals, by compelling them to quit a city, place, or country, for, a specified period of time, or for life. Vide 4 Dall. 14. Deportation; Relegation.


BANKS OF RIVERS, estates. By this term is understood what retains the river in its natural channel, when there is the greatest flow of water.

2. The owner of the bank of a stream, not navigable, his in general the right to the middle of the stream. Vide Riparian Proprietor.

3. When by imperceptible increase the banks on one side extend into the river, this addition is called alluvion. (q. v.) When the increase is caused by the sudden transfer of a mass of earth or soil from the opposite bank, it is called an increase by avulsion. (q. v.)

BANNITUS. One outlawed or banished. See Calvini Lex.

BANS OF MATRIMONY. The giving public notice or making proclamation of a matrimonial contract, and the intended celebration of the marriage of the parties in pursuance of such contract, to the end that persons objecting to the same, may have an opportunity to declare such objections before the marriage is solemnized. Poth. Du Mariage, partie 2, c. 2. Vide Ban.

BAR, actions. A perpetual destruction or temporary taking away of the action of the plaintiff. In ancient authors it is called exceptio peremptorid. Co. Litt. 303 b Steph. Pl. Appx. xxviii. Loisel (Institutes Coutumieres, vol. ii. p. 204) says, "Exceptions (in pleas) have been called bars by our ancient practitioners, because, being opposed, they arrest the party who has sued out the process, as in war (une barriere) a barrier arrests an enemy; and as there have always been in our tribunals bars to separate the advocates from the judges, the place where the advocates stand (pour parler) when they speak, has been called for that reason (barreau) the bar."

2. When a person is bound in any action, real or personal, by judgment on demurrer, confession or verdict, he is barred, i. e. debarred, as to that or any other action of the like nature or degree, for the same thing, forever; for expedit reipublicae ut sit finis litim.

3. But there is a difference between real and personal actions.

4. In personal actions, as in debt or account, the bar is perpetual, inasmuch as the plaintiff cannot have an action of a higher nature, and therefore in such actions he has generally no remedy, but by bringing a writ of error. Doct. Plac. 65; 6 Co. 7, 8 4 East, 507, 508.

5. But if the defendant be barred in a real action, by judgment on a verdict, demurrer or confession, &c., he may still have an action of a higher nature, and try the same right again. Lawes, Pl. 39, 40. See generally, Bac. Ab. Abatement, N; Plea in bar. Also the case of Outram v. Morewood, 3 East, Rep. 346-366; a leading case on this subject.

BAR, practice. A place in a court where the counsellors and advocates stand to make their addresses to the court and jury; it is so called because formerly it was closed with a bar. Figuratively the counsellors and attorneys at law are called the bar of Philadelphia, the New York bar.

2. A place in a court having criminal jurisdiction, to which prisoners are called to plead to the indictment, is also called, the bar. Vide Merl. Repert. mot Barreau, and Dupin, Profession d'Avocat, tom. i. p. 451, for some eloquent advice to gentlemen of the bar.

BAR, contracts. An obstacle or opposition. 2. Some bars arise from circumstances, and others from persons. Kindred within the prohibited degree, for example, is a bar to a marriage between the persons related; but the fact that A is married, and cannot therefore marry B, is a circumstance which operates as a bar as long as it subsists; for without it the parties might marry.

BAR FEE, Eng. law. A fee taken time out of mind by the sheriff for every prisoner who is acquitted. Bac. Ab. Extortion.

BARBICAN. An ancient word to signify a watch-tower. Barbicanage was money given for the support of a barbican.

BARGAIN AND SALE, conveyancing, contracts. A contract in writing to convey lands to another person; or rather it is the sale of a use therein. In strictness it is not an absolute conveyance of the seizin, as a feoffment. Watk. Prin. Conv. by Preston, 190, 191. The consideration must be of money or money's worth. Id. 237.

2. In consequence of this conveyance a use arises to a bargainee, and the statute 27 Henry VIII. immediately transfers the˜20legal estate and possession to him.

3. A bargain and sale, may be in fee, for life, or for years.

4. The proper and technical words of this conveyance are bargain and sale, but any other words that would have been sufficient to raise a use, upon a valuable consideration, before the statute, are now sufficient to constitute a good bargain and sale. Proper words of limitation must, however, be inserted. Cruise Dig. tit. 32, c. 9; Bac. Ab. h. t. Com. Dig. h. t.; and the cases there cited; Nels. Ab. h. t. 2 Bl. Com. 338.

5. This is the most common mode of conveyance in the United States. 4 Kent, Com. 483; 3 Pick. R. 529; 3 N. H. Rep. 260; 6 Harr. & John. 465; 3 Wash. C. C. Rep. 376; 4 Mass. R. 66; 4 Yeates, R. 295; 1 Yeates, R. 828; 3 John. R. 388; 4 Cowen's R. 325; 10 John. R. 456, 505; 3 N. H. Rep. 261; 14 John. R. 126; 2 Harr. & John. 230; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 207 7 8.

BARGAINEE. A person to whom a bargain is made; one who receives the advantages of a bargain.

BARGAINOR. A person who makes a a bargain, and who becomes bound to perform it.

BARGEMEN. Persons who own and keep a barge for the purpose of carrying the goods of all. such other persons who may desire to employ them. They are liable as common, carriers. Story, Bailm. 496.

BARLEYCORN. A lineal measure, containing one-third of an inch. Dane's Ab. c. 211, a. 13, s. 9. The barleycorn was the first measure, with its division and multiples, of all our measures of length, superfices, and capacity. Id. c. 211, a. 1 2, s. 2.

BARN, estates. A building on a farm used to receive the crop, the stabling of animals, and other purposes.

2. The grant or demise of a barn, without words superadded to extend its meaning, would pass no more than the barn itself, and as much land as would be necessary for its complete enjoyment. 4 Serg. & Rawle, 342.

BARON. This word has but one signification in American law, namely, hushand: we use baron and feme, for hushand and wife. And in this sense it is going out of use.

2. In England, and perhaps some other countries, baron is a title of honor; it is the first degree of nobility below a viscount. Vide Com. Dig. Baron and Feme; Bac. Ab. Baron and Feme; and the articles. Hushand; Marriage; Wife.

3. In the laws of the middle ages, baron or bers, (baro) signifes a great vassal; lord of a fief and tenant immediately from the king: and the words baronage, barnage and berner, signify collectively the vassals composing the court of the king; as Le roi et son barnage, The king and his court. See Spelman's Glossary, verb. Baro.

BARONS OF EXCHEQUER, Eng. law. The name given to the five judges of the Exchequer formerly these were baros of the realm, but now they are chosen from persons learned in the law.

BARRACK. By this term, as used in Pennsylvania, is understood an erection of upright posts supporting a sliding roof, usually of thatch. 5 Whart. R. 429.

BARRATOR, crimes. One who has been guilty of the offence of barratry.

BARRATRY, crimes. In old law French barat, baraterie, signifying robbery, deceit, fraud. In modern usage it may be defined as the habitual moving, exciting, and maintaining suits and quarrels, either at law or otherwise. 1 Inst. 368; 1 Hawk. 243.

2. A man cannot be indicted as a common barrator in respect of any number of false and groundless actions brought in his own right, nor for a single act in right of another; for that would not make him a common barrator.

3. Barratry, in this sense, is different from maintenance (q. v.) and champerty. (q. v.)

4. An attorney cannot be indicted for this crime, merely for maintaining another in a groundless action. Vide 15 Mass. R. 229 1 Bailey's R. 379; 11 Pick. R. 432; 13 Pick. R. 362; 9 Cowen, R. 587; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Hawk. P. C. B. 1, c. 21; Roll. Ab. 335; Co. Litt. 368; 3 Inst. 175.

BARRATRY, maritime law, crimes. A fraudulent act of the master or mariners, committed contrary to their duty as such, to the prejudice of the owners of the ship. Emer. tom. 1, p. 366; Merlin, Repert. h. t.; Roccus, h. t.; 2 Marsh. Insur. 515; 8 East, R. 138, 139. As to what will amount to barratry, see Abbott on Shipp. 167, n. 1; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 61; 9 East, R. 126; 1 Str. 581; 2 Ld. Raym. 1349; 1 Term R. 127; 6 Id. 379; 8 Id. 320; 2 Cain. R. 67, 222; 3 Cain. R. 1; 1 John. R. 229; 8 John. R. 209, n. 2d edit.; 5 Day. R. 1; 11 John. R. 40; 13 John. R, 451; 2 Binn. R. 274; 2 Dall. R. 137; 8 Cran. R. 39; 3 Wheat. R. 168; 4 Dall. R. 294; 1 Yeates, 114.

2. The act of Congress of April, 30, 1790, s. 8, 1 Story's Laws U. S. 84, punishes with death as piracy, "any captain or mariner of any ship or other vessel who shall piratically and feloniously run away with such ship or vessel, or any goods or merchandize to the value of fifty dollars; or yield up such ship or vessel to any pirate or if any such seamen shall lay violent hands upon his commander, thereby to binder or prevent his fighting in defence of his ship, or goods, committed to his trust, or shall make a revolt in the said ship."

BARREL. A measure of capacity, equal to tliirty-six gallons.

BARREN MONEY, civil law. This term is used to denote money which bears no interest.

BARRENNESS. The incapacity to produce a child. This, when arising from impotence, is a cause for dissolving a marriage. 1 Fodere, Med. Leg. §254.

BARRISTER, English law. A counsellor admitted to plead at the bar.

2. Ouster barrister, is one who pleads ouster or without the bar.

3. Inner barrister, a serjeant or king's counsel who pleads within the bar.

4. Vacation barrister, a counsellor newly called to the bar, who is to attend for several long vacations the exercise of the house.

5. Barristers are called apprentices, apprentitii ad legem, being looked upon as learners, and not qualified until they obtain the degree of serjeant. Edmund Plowden, the author of the Commentaries, a volume of elaborate reports in the reigns of Edward VI., Mary, Philip and Mary, and Elizabeth, describes himself as an apprentice of the common law.

BARTER. A contract by which the parties exchange goods for goods. To complete the contract the goods must be delivered, for without a delivery, the right of property is not changed.

2. This contract differs from a sale in this, that barter is always of goods for goods, whereas a sale is an exchange of goods for money. In the former there never is a price fixed, in the latter a price is indispensable. All the differences which may be pointed out betwen these two contracts, are comprised in this; it is its necessary consequence. When the contract is an exchange of goods on one side, and on the other side the consideration is partly goods and partly money, the contract is not a barter, but a sale. See Price; Sale.

3. If an insurance be made upon returns from a country where trade is carried on by barter, the valuation of the goods in return shall be made on the cost of those given in barter, adding all charges. Wesk. on Ins. 42. See 3 Camp. 351 Cowp. 818; 1 Dougl. 24, n.; 1 N. R. 151 Tropl. de l'Echange.

BARTON, old English law. The demesne land of a manor; a farm distinct from the mansion.

BASE. Something low; inferior. This word is frequently used in composition; as base court, base estate, base fee, &c.

BASE COURT. An inferior court, one not of record. Not used.

BASE ESTATE, English law. The estate which base tenants had in their lands. Base tenants were a degree above villeins, the latter being compelled to perform all the commands of their lords; the former did not hold their lands by the performance of such commands. See Kitch. 41.

BASE FEE, English law. A tenure in fee at the will of the lord. This was distinguished from socage free tenure. See Co. Litt. 1, 18.

BASILICA, civil law. This is derived from a Greek word, which signifies imperial constitutions. The emperor Basilius, finding the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian too long and obscure, resolved to abridge it, and under his auspices the work proceeded to the fortieth book, which, at his death, remained unfinished. His son and successor, Leo, the philosopher, continued the work, and published it in sixty books, about the year 880. Constantine Porphyro-genitus, younger brother of Leo, revised the work, re-arranged it, and republished it, Anno Domini, 910. From that time the laws of Justinian ceased to have any force in the eastern empire, and the Basilica were the foundation of the law observed there till Constantine XIII, the last of the Greek emperors, under whom, in 1453, Constantinople was taken by Mahomet the Turk, who put an end to the empire and its laws. Histoire de la Jurisprudence Etienne, Intr. a 1'etude du Droit Romain, §LIII. The Basilica were written in Greek. They were translated into Latin by J. Cujas (Cujacius) Professor of Law in the University of Bourges, and published at Lyons, 22d of January, 1566, in one vol. fo.

BASTARD. A word derived from bas or bast, signifying abject, low, base; and aerd, nature. Minshew, Co. Lit. 244; a. Enfant de bas, a child of low birth. Dupin. According to Blackstone, 1 Com. 454, a bastard in the law sense of the word, is a person not only begotten, but born out of lawful matrimony. This definition does not appear to be complete, inasmuch as it does not embrace the case of a person who is the issue of an illicit connection, during the coverture of his mother. The common law, says the Mirror, only taketh him to be a son whom the marriage proveth to be so. Horne's Mirror, c. 2, §7; see Glanv. lib 8, cap. 13 Bract. 63, a. b.; 2 Salk. 427;, 8 East, 204. A bastard may be perbaps defined to be one who is born of an illicit union, and before the lawful marriage of his parents.

2. A man is a bastard if born, first) before the marriage of his parents; but although he may have been begotten while his parents were single, yet if they afterwards marry, and he is born during the coverture, he is legitimate. 1 Bl. Com. 455, 6. Secondly, if born during the coverture, under circumstances which render it impossible that the hushand of his mother can be his father. 6 Binn. 283; 1 Browne's R. Appx. xlvii.; 4 T. R. 356; Str. 940 Id. 51 8 East, 193; Hardin's R. 479. It seems by the Gardner peerage case, reported by Dennis Le Marebant, esquire, that strong moral improbability that the hushand is not the father, is sufficient to bastardize the issue. Bac. Ab. tit. Bastardy, A, last ed. Thirdly, if born beyond a competent time after the coverture has determined. Stark. Ev. part 4, p. 221, n. a Co. Litt. 123, b, by Hargrave & Butler in the note. See Gestation.

3. The principal right which bastard children have, is that of maintenance from their parents. 1 Bl. Com. 458; Code Civ. of Lo. 254 to 262. To protect the public from their support, the law compels the putative father to maintain his bastard children. See Bastardy; Putative father.

4. Considered as nullius filius, a bastard has no inheritable blood in him, and therefore no estate can descend. to him; but he may take by testment, if properly described, after he has obtained a name by reputation. 1 Rop. Lew. 76, 266; Com. Dig. Descent, C, l2; Ie. Bastard, E; Co. Lit. 123, a; Id. 3, a; 1 T. R. 96 Doug. 548 3 Dana, R. 233; 4 Pick. R. 93; 4 Desaus. 434. But this hard rule has been somewhat mitigated in some of the states, where, by statute, various inheritable qualities have been conferred upon bastards. See 5 Conn. 228; 1 Dev. Eq. R. 345; 2 Root, 280; 5 Wheat.. 207; 3 H. & M. 229, n; 5 Call. 143; 3 Dana, 233.

5. Bastards can acquire the rights of legitimate children only by an act of the legislature. 1 Bl. Com. 460; 4 Inst. 36.

6. By the laws of Louisiana, a bastard is one who is born of an illicit union. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 27, 199. There are two sorts of illegitimate cbildren; first, those who are born of two persons, who, at the moment such children were conceived, might have legally contracted marriage with each other; and, secondly, those who are born from persons, to whose marriage there existed at the time, some legal impediment. Id. art. 200. An adulterous bastard is one produced by an unlawful connexion between two persons, who, at the time he was conceived, were, either of them, or both, connected by marriage with some other person or persons. Id. art. 201. Incestuous bastards are those who are produced by the illegal connexion of two persons who are relations within the degrees prohibited by law. Id. art. 202.

7. Bastards, generally speaking, belong to no family, and have no relations; accordingly they are not subject to paternal authority, even when they have been acknowledged. See 11 East, 7, n. Nevertheless, fathers and mothers owe alimony. to their children when they are in need. Id. art. 254, 256. Alimony is due to bastards, though they be adulterous or incestuous, by the mother and her ascendants. Id. art. 262.

8. Children born out of marriage, except those who are born from an incestuous or adulterous connexion, may be legitimated by the subsequent marriage of their father and mother, whenever the latter have legally acknowledged them for their children, either before the marriage or by the contract of marriage itself. Every other mode of legitimating children is abolished. Id. art. 217. Legitimation may even be extended to deceased children who have left issue, and in that ease, it enures to the benefit of that issue. Id. art. 218. Children legitimated by a subsequent marriage, have the same rights as if born during the marriage. Id. art. 219. See, generally, Vin. Abr. Bastards Bac. Abr. Bastard; Com. Dig. Bastard; Metc. & Perk. Dig. h. t.; the various other American Digests, h. t.; Harr. Dig. h. t.; 1 Bl. Com. 454 to 460; Co. Litt. 3, b.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t., And Access; Bastardy; Gestation; Natural Children.

BASTARD EIGNE', Eng. law. Elder bastard. By the old English law, when, a man had a bastard son, and he afterwards married the mother, and by her had a legitimate son, the first was called a bastard eigne, or, as it is now spelled, aine, and the second son was called puisne, or since born, or sometimes he was called mulier puisne. See Mulier; Eigne, 2 Bl. Com. 248.

BASTARDY, crim. law. The offence of begetting a bastard child.

BASTARDY, persons. The state or condition of a bastard. The law presumes every child legitimate, when born of a woman in a state of wedlock, and casts the onus probandi (q. v.) on the party wlio affirms the bastardy. Stark. Ev. h. t.

BASTON. An old French word, which signifies a staff, or club, In some old English statutes the servants or officers of the wardens of the Fleet are so called, because they attended the king's courts with a red staff. Vide Tipstaff.

BATTEL, in French Bataille; Old English law. An ancient and barbarous mode of trial, by Bingle combat, called wager of battel, where, in appeals of felony, the appellee might fight with the appellant to prove his innocence. It was also used in affairs of chivalry or honor, and upon civil cases upon certain issues. Co. Litt. 294. Till lately it disgraced the English code. This mode of trial was abolished in England by stat. 59 Geo.,III. c. 46.

2. This mode of trial was not peculiar to England. The emperor Otho, A. D. 983, held a diet at Verona, at which several sovereigns and great lords of Italy, Germany and France were present. In order to put a stop to the frequent perjuries in judicial trials, this diet substituted in all cases, even in those which followed the course of the Roman law, proof by combat for proof by oath. Henrion de Pansey, Auth. Judic. Introd. c. 3; and for a detailed account of this mode of trial see Herb. Antiq. of the Inns of Court, 119-145.


BATTURE. An elevation of the bed of a river under the surface of the water; but it is sometimes used to signify the same elevation when it has risen above the surface. 6 M. R. 19, 216. The term battures is applied, principally, to certain portions of the bed of the river Mississippi, which are left dry when the water is low, and are covered again, either in whole or in part by the annual swells. The word battures, in French, signifies shoals or shallows, where there is not water enough for a ship to float. They are otherwise called basses or brisans. Neuman's Marine Pocket Dict.; Dict. de Trevoux.

BAWDY-HOUSE, crim. law. A house of ill-fame, (q. v.) kept for the resort and unlawful commerce of lewd people of both sexes.

2. Such a house is a common nuisance, as it endangers the public peace by drawing together dissolute and debauched persons; and tends to corrupt both sexes by an open profession of lewdness. 1 Russ. on Cr.; 299: Bac. Ab. Nuisances, A; Hawk. B. 1, c. 74, §1-5.

3. The keeper of such a house may be indicted for the nuisance; and a married woman, because such houses are generally kept by the female sex, may be indicted with her hushand for keeping such a house. 1 Salk. 383; vide Dane's Ab. Index, h. t. One who assists in establishing a bawdyhouse is guilty of a misdemeanor. 2 B. Monroe, 417.

BAY. Is an enclosure to keep in the water for the supply of a mill or other contrivance, so that the water may be able to, drive the wheels of such mill. Stat. 27 Eliz. c. 19.

2. A large open water or harbor where ships may ride, is also called a bay; as, the Chesapeake Bay, the, Bay of New York.

BEACH. The sea shore. (q. v.)

BEACON. A signal erected as a sea mark for the use of mariners; also, to give warning of the approach of an enemy. 1 Com. Dig. 259; 5 Com. Dig. 173.

TO BEAR DATE. In the description of a paper in a declaration, to say it bears date such a day, is to aver that such date is upon it; and if, on being produced, it is dated at another day, the variance will be fatal. But if it be averred it was made on such a day, and upon its production it bears date on another day, it will not be a variance, because it might have been made one day and dated another. 3 Burr. 904.

BEADLE. Eng. law. A messenger or apparitor of a court, who cites persons to appear to what is alleged against them, is so called.

BEARER. One who bears or carries a thing.

2. If a bill or note be made payable to bearer, it will pass by delivery only, without endorsement; and whoever fairly acquires a right to it, may maintain an action against the drawer or acceptor.

3. It has been decided that the bearer of a bank note, payable to bearer, is not an assignee of a chose in action within the 11th section of the judiciary act of, 1789, c. 20, limiting the jurisdiction of the circuit court. 3 Mason, R. 308.

4. Bills payable to bearer are contra-distinguished from those payable to order, which can be transferred only by endorsement and delivery.

5. Bills payable to fictitious payees, are considered as bills payable to, bearer.

BEARERS, Eng. crim. law. Such as bear down or oppress others; maintainers. In Ruffhead's Statutes it is employed to translate the French word emparnours, which signifies, according to Kelham, undertakers of suits. 4 Ed. III. c. 11. This word is no longer used in this sense.

BEARING DATE. These words are frequently used in conveyancing and in pleading; as, for example, a certain indenture bearing date the first day of January, 1851, which signifies not that the indenture was made on that day, but simply that such date has been put to it.

2. When in a declaration the plaintiff alleges that the defendant made his promissory note on such a day, he will not be considered as having alleged it bore date on that day, so as to cause a variance between the declaration and the note produced bearing a different date. 2 Greenl. Ev. §1610; 2 Dowl. & L. 759.

BEAU PLEADER, Eng. law. Fair pleading. See Stultiloquium.

2. This is the name of a writ upon the statute of Marlbridge, 52 H. III. c. 11, which enacts, that neither in the circuit of justices, nor in counties, hundreds, or courts baron, any fines shall be taken for fair pleading; namely, for not pleading fairly or aptly to the purpose. Upon this statute this writ was ordained, directed to the sheriff, bailiff, or him who shall demand the fine; and it is a prohibition or command not to do it. Now Nat. Br. 596 2 Inst. 122; Termes de la Le 2 Reeves' Hist. Eng. Law, 70 Cowel; Crabb's Hist. of the Eng. Law, 150. The explanations given of this term are not very satisfactory.

BEDEL, Eng. law. A cryer or messenger of a court, who cites men to appear and answer. There are also inferior officers of a parish or liberty who bear this name.

BEE. The name of a well known insect.

2. Bees are considered ferae naturae while unreclaimed; and they are not more subjects of property while in their natural state, than the birds which have their nests on the tree of an individual. 3 Binn. R. 546 5 Sm. & Marsh. 333. This agrees with the Roman law. Inst. 2 1, 14; Dig. 41, 1, 5, 2; 7 Johns. Rep. 16; 2 Bl. Com. 392 Bro. Ab. Propertie, 37; Coop. Justin. 458.

3. In New York it has been decided that bees in a tree belong, to the owner of the soil, while unreclaimed. When they have been reclaimed, and the owner can identify them, they belong to him, and not to the owner of the soil. 15 Wend. R. 550. See 1 Cowen, R. 243.

BEGGAR. One who obtains his livelihood by asking alms. The laws of several of the states punish begging as an offence.

BEHAVIOUR. In old English, haviour without the prefix be. It is the manner of having, holding, or keeping one's self or the carriage of one's self with respect to propriety, morals, and the requirements of law. Surety to be of -good behaviour is a larger requirement than surety to keep the peace. Dalton, c. 122; 4 Burn's J. 355.

BEHOOF. As a word of discourse, Signifies need, (egestas, necessitas, indigentia.) It comes from behoove, (Sax. behoven,) to need or have need of. In a secondary sense, which is the law sense of the word, it signifies use, service, profit, advantage, (interesse, opus.) It occurs in conveyances of land in fee simple.

BELIEF. The conviction of the mind, arising from evidence received, or from information derived, not from actual perception by our senses, but from. the relation or information of others who have had the means of acquiring actual knowledge of the facts and in whose qualifications for acquiring that knowledge, and retaining it, and afterwards in communicating it, we can place confidence. " Without recurring to the books of metaphysicians' "says Chief Justice Tilghman, 4 Serg. & Rawle, 137, "let any man of plain common sense, examine the operations of, his own mind, he will assuredly find that on different subjects his belief is different. I have a firm belief that, the moon revolves round the earth. I may believe, too, that there are mountains and valleys in the moon; but this belief is not so strong, because the evidence is weaker." Vide 1 Stark. Ev. 41; 2 Pow. Mortg. 555; 1 Ves. 95; 12 Ves. 80; 1 P. A. Browne's R 258; 1 Stark. Ev. 127; Dyer, 53; 2 Hawk. c. 46, s. 167; 3 Wil. 1, s. 427; 2 Bl. R. 881; Leach, 270; 8 Watts, R. 406; 1 Greenl. Ev. §7-13, a.

BELOW. Lower in place, beneath, not so high as some other thing spoken of, of tacitly referred to.

2. The court below is an inferior court, whose, proceedings may be examined on error by a superior court, which is called the court above.

3. Bail below is that given to the sheriff in bailable actions, which is so called to distinguish it from bail to t-he action, which is called bail above. See Above; Bail above; Bail below.

BENCH. Latin Bancus, used for tribunal. In England there are two courts to which this word is applied. Bancus Regius, King's Bench Bancus Communis, Com- mon Bench or Pleas. The jus banci, says Spelman, properly belongs to the king's judges, who administer justice in the last resort. The judges of the inferior courts, as of the barons, are deemed to, judge plano pede, and are such as are called in the civil law pedanei judices, or by the Greeks Xauaidixastai, that is, humi judicantes. The Greeks called the seats of their higher judges Bumata, and of their inferior judges Bathra. The Romans used the word sellae and tribunalia, to designate the seats of their higher judges, and subsellia, to designate those of the lower. See Spelman's Gloss. (ad verb.) Bancus; also, 1 Reeves Hist. Eng. Law, 40, 4to ed., and postea Curia Regis.

BENCH WARRANT, crim. law. The name of a process sometimes given to an attachment issued by order of a criminal court, against an individual for some contempt, or for the purpose of arresting a person accused; the latter is seldom granted unless when a true bill has been found.

BENCHER, English law. A bencher is a senior in the inns of court, entrusted with their government and direction.

BENEFICE, eccles. law. In its most extended sense, any ecclesiastical preferment or dignity; but in its more limited sense, it is applied only to rectories and vicarages.

BENEFICIA. In the early feudal times, grants were made to continue only during the pleasure of the grantor, which were called munera, (q. v.) but soon afterwards these grants were made for life, and then they assumed the name of beneficia. Dalr. Feud. Pr. 199. Pomponius Laetus, as cited by Hotoman, De Feudis, ca. 2, says, " That it was an ancient custom, revived by the emperor Constantine, to give lands and villas to those generals, prefects, and tribunes, who had grown old in enlarging the empire, to supply their necessities as long as they lived, which they called. parochial parishes, &c. But, between (feuda) fiefs or feuds, and (parochias) parishes, there was this difference, that the latter were given to old men, veterans, &c., who, as they had deserved well of the republic, sustained the rest of their life (publico beneficio) by the public benefaction; or, if any war afterwards arose, they were called out, not so much as soldiers, as leaders, (majistri militum.) Feuds, (feuda,) on the other hand, were usually given to robust young men who could sustain the labors of war. In later times, the word parochia was appropriated exclusively to ecclesiastical persons, while the word beneficium (militare) continued to be used in reference to military fiefs or fees.

BENEFICIAL. Of advantage, profit or interest; as the wife has a beneficial interest in property held by a trustee for her. Vide Cestui que trust.

BENEFICIAL INTEREST. That right which a person has in a contract made with another; as if A makes a contract with B that he will pay C a certain sum of money, B has the legal interest in the contract, and C the beneficial interest. Hamm. on Part. 6, 7, 25 2 Bulst. 70.

BENEFICIARY. This term is frequently used as synonymous with the technical phrase cestui que trust. (q. v.)

BENEFICIO PRIMO ECCLESIASTICO HABENDO, Eng. eccl. law. A writ directed from the king to the chancellor, commanding him to bestow the benefice which shall first fall in the king's gift, above or under a certain value, upon a particular and certain person.

BENEFICIUM COMPETENTIAE. The right which an insolvent debtor had, among the Romans, on making session of his property for the benefit of his creditors, to retain what was required for him to live honestly according to his condition. 7 Toull. n. 258.

BENEFIT. This word is used in the same sense as gain (q. v.) and profits. (q. v.) 20 Toull. n. 199.

BENEFIT OF CESSION, Civil law. The release of a debtor from future imprisonment for his debts, which the law operates in his favor upon the surrender of his property for the benefit of his, creditors, Poth. Proced. Civ. 5eme part., c. 2, §1. This was something like a discharge under the insolvent laws, which releases the person of the debtor, but not the goods he may acquire afterwards. See Bankrupt; Cessio Bo. Insolvent.

BENEFIT OF CLERGY, English law. An exemption of the punishment of death which the laws impose on the commission of certain crimes, on the culprit demanding it. By modern statute's, benefit of clergy was rather a substitution of a more mild punishment for the punishment of death.

2. It was lately granted, not only to the clergy, as was formerly the case, but to all persons. The benefit of clergy seems never to have been extended to the crime of high treason, nor to have embraced misdemeanors inferior to felony. Vide 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 667 to 668 4 Bl. Com. ch. 28. But this privilege improperly given to the clergy, because they had more learning than others) is now abolished by stat. 7 Geo. IV. c. 28, s. 6.

3. By the Act of Congress of April 30, 1790, it is provided, §30, that the benefit of clergy shall not be used or allowed, upon conviction of any crime, for which, by any statute of the United States, the punishment is, or shall be declared to be, death.

BENEFIT OF DISCUSSION, civil law. The right which a surety has to cause the property of the principal debtor to be applied in satisfaction of the obligation in the first instance. See Civil Code of Lo. art. 3014 to 3020, and Discussion.

BENEFIT OF DIVISION. In the civil law, which, in this respect, has been adopted in Louisiana, although, when there are several sureties, each one is bound for the whole debt, yet when one of them is sued alone, he has a right to have the debt apportioned among all the solvent sureties on the same obligation, so that he shall be compelled to pay his own share only. This is called the benefit of division. Civil Code of Lo. art. 3014 to 3020. See 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1414.

BENEFIT OF INVENTORY, civil law. The benefit of inventory is the privilege which the heir obtains of being liable for the charges and debts of the succession, only to the value of the effects of the succession, in causing an inventory of these effects within the time and manner proscribed by law. Civil Code of Louis. art. 1025. Vide Poth. Traits des Successions, c. 3, s. 3, a. 2.

BENEVOLENCE, duty. The doing a kind action to another, from mere good will, without any legal obligation. It is a moral duty only, and it cannot be enforeed by law. A good wan is benevolent to the poor, but no law can compel him to be so.

BENEVOLENCE, English law. An aid given by the subjects to the king under a pretended gratuity, but in realty it was an extortion and imposition.

TO BEQUEATH. To give personal property by will to another.

BEQUEST. A gift by last will or testament; a legacy. (q. v.) This word is sometimes, though improperly used, as synonymous with devise. There is, however, a distinction between them. A bequest is applied, more properly, to a gift by will of a legacy, that is, of personal property; devise is properly a gift by testament of real property. Vide Devise.

BESAILE or BESAYLE, domestic relations. The grea-grandfather, proavus. 1 Bl. Com. 186. Vide dile.

BEST EVIDENCE. Means the best evideince of which the nature of the case admits, not the highest or strongest evidence which the nature of the thing to be proved admits of: e. g. a copy of a deed is not the best evidence; the deed itself is better. Gilb. Ev. 15; 3 Campb.. 236; 2 Starkey, 473 2 Campb. 605; 1 Esp. 127.

2. The rule requiring the best evidence to be produced, is to be understood of the best legal evidence. 2 Serg. & R. 34; 3 Bl. Com. 368, note 10, by Christian. It is relaxed in some cases, as, e. g. where the words or the act of the opposite party avow the fact to be proved. A tavern keeper's sign avows his occupation; taking of tithes avows the clerical character; so, addressing one as The Reverend T. S." 2 Serg. & R. 440 1 Saund. on Plead. & Evid. 49.

BETROTHMENT. A contract between a man and a woman, by which they agree that at a future, time they will marry together.

2. The requisites of this contract are 1. That it be reciprocal. 2. That the parties be able to contract.

3. The contract must be mutual; the Promise of the one must be the consideration for the promise of the other. It must be obligatory on both parties at the same instant, so that each may have an action upon it, or it will bind neither. 1 Salk. 24, Carth. 467; 5 Mod. 411; 1 Freem. 95; 3 Keb. 148; Co. Lit. 79 a, b.

4. The parties must be able to contract. if either be married at the time of betrothment, the contract is void; but the married party cannot take advantage of his own wrong, and set up a marriage or previous engageinent, as an answer to the action for the breach of the contract, because this disability proceeds from the defendant's own act. Raym. 387 3 Just. 89; I Sid. 112 1 Bl. Com. 438.

5. The performance of this engagement or completion of the marriage, must be performed within a reasonable time. Either party may, therefore, call upon the other to fulfil the engagement, and in case of refusal or neglect to do so, within a reasonable time after request made, may treat the betrothment as at an end, and bring action for the breach of the contract. 2 C. & P. 631.

6. For a breach of the betrothment, without a just cause, an action on the case may be maintained for the recovery of damages. See Affiance; Promise of Marriage.

BETTER EQUITY. In England this term has lately been adopted. In the case of Foster v. Blackston, the master of the rolls said, be could no where find in the authorities what in terms was a better equity, but on a reference to all the cases, he considered it might be thus defined: If a prior incumbrancer did not take a security which effectually protected him against any subsequent dealing to his prejudice, by the party who had the legal estate, a second incumbrancer, taking a security which in its nature afforded him that protection, had what might properly be called a better equity. 1 Ch. Pr. 470, note. Vide 4 Rawle, R. 144 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2462.

BETTERMENTS. Improvement's made to an estate. It signifies such improvements as have been made to the estate which render it better than mere repairs. See 2 Fairf. 482; 9 Shepl. 110; 10 Shepl. 192; 13 Ohio, R. 308; 10 Yerg. Verm. 533; 17 Verm. 109.

BEYOND SEA. This phrase is used in the acts of limitations of several of the states, in imitation of the phraseology of the English statute of limitations. In Pennsylvania, the term has been construed to signify out of the United States. 9 S. & R. 288; 2 Dall. R. 217; 1 Yeates, R. 329. In Georgia, it is equivalent to without the limits of the state; 3 Wheat. R. 541; and the same construction prevails in Maryland; 1 Har. & John. 350; 1 Harr. & M'H. 89; in South Carolina; 2 McCord, Rep. 331; and in Massachusetts. 3 Mass. R. 271; 1 Pick. R. 263. Vide Kirby, R. 299; 3 Bibb. R. 510; 3 Litt. R. 48; 1 John. Cas. 76. Within the four seas, infra quatuor maria, and beyond the four seas, extra quatuor maria, in English law books signify within and without the kingdom of England, or the jurisdiction of the king of England. Co. Lit. 244 a; 1 Bl. Com. 457.

BIAS. A particular influential power which sways the judgment; the inclination or propensity of the mind towards a particular object.

2. Justice requires that the judge should have no bias for or against any individual; and that his mind should be perfectly free to act as the law requires.

3. There is, however, one kind of bias which the courts suffer to influence them in their judgments it is a bias favorable to a class of cases, or persons, as distinguished from an individual case or person. A few examples will explain this. A bias is felt on account of convenience. 1 Ves. sen. 13, 14; 3 Atk. 524. It is also felt in favor of the heir at law, as when there is an heir on one side and a mere volunteer on the other. Willes, R. 570 1 W. Bl. 256; Amb. R. 645; 1 Ball & B. 309 1 Wils. R. 310 3 Atk. 747 Id. 222. On the other hand, the court leans against double portions for children; M'Clell. R. 356; 13 Price, R. 599 against double provisions, and double satisfactions; 3 Atk. R. 421 and against forfeitures. 3 T. R. 172. Vide, generally, 1 Burr. 419 1 Bos. & Pull. 614; 3 Bos. & Pull. 456 Ves. jr. 648 Jacob, Rep. 115; 1 Turn. & R. 350.

BID, contracts. A bid is an offer to pay a specified price for an article about to be sold at auction. The bidder has a right to withdraw his bid at any time before it is accepted, which acceptance is generally manifested by knocking down the hammer. 3 T. R. 148; Hardin's Rep. 181; Sugd. Vend. 29; Babington on Auct. 30, 42; or the bid may be withdrawn by implication. 6 Penn. St. R. 486; 8, Id. 408. Vide 0ffer.

BIDDER, contracts. One who makes an offer to pay a certain price for an article which is for sale.

2. The term is applied more particularly to a person who offers a price for goods or other property, while up for sale at an auction. The bidder is required to act in good faith, and any combination between him and others, to prevent a fair competition, would avoid the sale made to himself.

3. But there is nothing illegal in two or more persons agreeing together to purchase a property at sheriff's sale, fixing a certain price which they are. willing to give, and appointing one of their number to be the bidder. 6 Watts & Serg. 122.

4. Till the bid is accepted, the bidder may retract it. Vide articles, Auction and Bid; 3 John. Cas. 29 6 John. R. 194; 8 John. R. 444 1 Fonbl. Eq. b. 1, c. 4, §4, note (x).

BIENS. A French word, which signifies property. In law, it means property of every description, except estates of freehold and inheritance. Dane's Ab. c. 133, a, 3 Com. Dig. h. t.; Co. Litt. 118, b; Sugd. Vend. 495.

2. In the French law, this term includes all kinds of property, real and personal. Biens are divided into biens meubles, movable or personal property; and biens immeubles, immovable property or real estate. This distinction between movable and immovable property, is, however, recognized by them, and gives rise in the civil, as well as in the common law, to many important distinctions as to rights and remedies. Story, Confl. of Laws, §13, note 1.

BIGAMUS, Canon law, Latin. One guilty of bigamy.

BIGAMY, crim. law, domestic relations. The wilful contracting of a second marriage when the contracting party knows that the first is still subsisting; or it is the state of a man who has two wives, or of a woman who has two hushands living at the same time. When the man has more than two wives, or the woman more than two hushands living at the same time, then the party is said to have committed polygamy, but the name of bigamy is more frequently given to this offence in legal proceedings. 1 Russ. on Cr. 187.

2. In England this crime is punishable by the stat. 1 Jac. 1, c. 11, which makes the offence felony but it exempts from punishment the party whose hushand or wife shall continue to remain absent for seven years before the second marriage, without being heard from, and persons who shall have been legally divorced. The statutory provisions in the U. S. against bigamy or polygamy, are in general similar to, and copied from the statute of 1 Jac. 1, c. 11, excepting as to the punishment. The several exceptions to this statute are also nearly the same in the American statutes, but the punishment of the offence is different in many of the states. 2 Kent, Com. 69; vide Bac. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. Justices, §5; Merlin, Repert. mot Bigamie; Code, lib. 9, tit. 9, 1. 18; and lib. 5, tit. 5, 1. 2.

3. According to the canonists, bigamy is three-fold, viz.: (vera, interpretative, et similitudinaria,) real, interpretative and similitudinary. The first consisted in marrying two wives successively, (virgins they may be,) or in once marrying a widow; the second consisted, not in a repeated marriage, but in marrying (v. g. meretricem vel ab alio corruptam) a harlot; the third arose from two marriages indeed, but the one metaphorical or spiritual, the other carnal. This last was confined to persons initiated in sacred orders, or under the vow Of continence. Deferriere's Tract, Juris Canon. tit. xxi. See also Bac. Abr. h. t.; 6 Decret, 1. 12. Also Marriage.

BILAN. A book in which bankers, merchants and traders write a statement of all they owe and all that is due to them. This term is used in the French law, and in the state of Louisiana. 5 N. S; 158. A balance sheet. See 3 N. S. 446, 504.

BILATERAL CONTRACT, civil law. A contract in which both the contracting parties are bound to fulfil obligations reciprocally towards each other; Lec. Elem. §781; as a contract of sale, where one becomes bound to deliver the, thing sold, and the other to pay the price of it. Vide Contract; Synallagmatic contract.

BILINGUIS, English law. One who uses two tongues or languages. Formerly a jury, part Englishmen and part foreigners, to give a verdict between an Englishman and a foreigner. Vide Medietas Linguae, Plowd. 2. It is abolished in Pennsylvania. Act April 14, 1834, §149.


TO BIND, BINDING, contracts. These words are applied to the contract entered into, between a master and an apprentice the latter is said to be bound.

2. In order to make a good binding, the consent of the apprentice must be had, together with that of his father, next friend, or some one standing in loco parentis. Bac. Ab. Master and Servant, A; 8 John. 328; 2 Pen. 977; 2 Yerg. 546 1 Ashmead, 123; 10 Sergeant & Rawle, 416 1 Massachusetts, 172; 1 Vermont, 69. Whether a father has, by the common law, a right to bind out his child, during his minority without his consent, seems not to be settled. 2 Dall. 199; 7 Mass. 147; 1 Mason, 78; 1 Ashm. 267. Vide Apprentice; Father; Mother; Parent.

3. The words to bind or binding, are also used to signify that a thing is subject to an obligation, engagement or liability; as, the judgment binds such an estate. Vide Lien.

TO BIND, OR TO BIND OVER, crim. law. The act by which a magistrate or a court hold to bail a party, accused of a crime or misdemeanor.

2. A person accused may be bound over to appear at a court having jurisdiction of the offence charged, to answer; or he may be bound over to be of good behaviour, (q. v.) or to keep the peace. See Surety of the Peace.

3. On refusing to enter into the requisite recognizance, the accused may be committed to prison.

BIPARTITE. Of two parts. This term is used in conveyancing as, this indenture bipartite, between A, of the one part, and B, of the other part. But when there are only two parties, it is not necessary to use this word.

BIRRETUM or BIRRETUS. A cap or coif used formerly in England, by judges and sergeants at law. Spelm. h. t.; Cunn. Dict. Vide Coif.

BIRTH. The act of being wholly brought into the world. The whole body must be detached from that of the mother, in order to make the birth complete. 5 C. & P. 329; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 344 6 C. & P. 349; S. C. 25 E. C. L. R. 433.

2. But if a child be killed with design and maliciously after it has wholly come forth from the body of the mother, although still connected with her by means of the umbilical cord, it seems that such killing will be murder. 9 C. & P. 25 S . C. 38 E. C. L. R. 21; 7 C. & P. 814. Vide articles Breath; Dead Born; Gestation; Life; and 1 Beck' s Med. Jur. 478, et seq.; 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 438; 7 C. & P. 814; 1 Carr. & Marsh. 650; S. C. 41 E. C. L. R. 352; 9 C. & P. 25.

3. It seems that unless the cbild be born alive, it is not properly a birth, but a carriage. 1 Chit. Pr. 35, note z. But see Russ. & Ry. C. C. 336.

BISAILE, domestic relations. A corruption of the French word besaieul, the father of the grandfather or grandmother. In Latin he is called proavus. Inst. 3, 6, 3 Dig. 38, 10, 1, 5. Vide Aile.

BISHOP. An ecclesiastical officer, who is the chief of the clergy of his diocese, and is the archbishop's assistant. Happily for this country, these officers are not recognized by law. They derive all their authority from the churches over which they preside. Bishop's COURT, Eng. law. An ecclesiastical court held in the cathedral of each diocese, the judge of which is the bishop's chancellor.

BISHOPRICK, eccl. law. The extent of country over which a bishop has jurisdiction a see; a diocese. For their origin, see Francis Duarenus de sacris Eccles. Ministeriis ac beneficiis, lib. 1, cap. 7; Abbe Fleury, 2d Discourse on Ecclesiastical History, §v.

BISSEXTILE. The day which is added every fourth year to the month of February, in order to make the year agree with the course of the sun. It is called bissextile, because in the Roman calendar it was fixed on the sixth day before the calends of March, (which answers to the 24th day of February,) and this day was counted twice; the first was called bissextus prior, and the other bissextus posterior, but the latter was properly called bissextile or intersalary day. Although the name bissextile is still retained in its obsolete import, we intercalate the 29th of February every fourth Year, which is called leap year; and for still greater accuracy, make only one leap year out of every four centenary years. The years 1700 and 1800 were not leap years, nor will the .year A. D. 1900 be reckoned as one, but the year A. D. 2000 will be a leap year or bissextile. For a learned account of the Julian and Gregorian calendars, see Histoire du Calendrier Romain, by Mons. Blondel; also, Savigny Dr. Rom. §192; and Brunacci's Tract on Navigation, 275, 6. BLACK ACT, English law. An act of parliament made in the 9 Geo. II., which tears this name, to punish certain marauders who committed great outrages, in disguise, and with black faces. See Charlt. R. 166.

BLACK BOOK OF THE ADMIRALTY. An ancient book compiled in the reign of Edw. III. It has always been deemed of the highest authority in matters concerning the admiralty. It contains the laws of Oleron, At large; a view of the crimes and offences cognizable in the admiralty; ordinances and commentaries on matters of prize and maritime torts, injuries and contracts, 2 Gall. R. 404.

BLACK BOOK OP THE EXCHEQUER. The name of a book kept in the English exchequer, containing a collection of treaties) conventions, charters, &c.

BLACK MAIL. When rents were reserved payable in work, grain, and the like, they were called reditus nigri, or black mail, to distinguish them from white rents or blanch farms, or such as were paid in money. Vide Alba firma.

BLANCH FIRMES. The same as white rent. (q. v.)

BLANK. A space left in writing to be filled, up with one or more words, in order to make sense. 1. In what cases the ambiguity occasioned by blanks not filled before execution of the writing may be explained 2. in what cases it cannot be explained.

2. - 1. When a blank is left in a written agreement which need not -have been reduced to writing, and would have been equally binding whether written or unwritten, it is presumed, in an action for the non-performance of the contract, parol evidence might be admitted to explain the blank. And where a written instrument, which was made professedly to record a fact, is produced as evidence of that fact which it purports to record, and a blank appears in a material part, the omission may be supplied by other proof. 1 Phil. Ev. 475 1 Wils. 215; 7 Verm. R. 522; 6 Verm. R. 411. Hence a blank left in an award for a name, was allowed to be supplied by parol proof. 2 Dall. 180. But where a creditor signs a deed of composition leaving the amount of his debt in blank, he binds himself to all existing debts. 1 B. & A. 101; S. C. 2 Stark. R. 195.

3. - 2. If a blank is left in a policy of insurance for the name of the place of destination of a ship, it will avoid the policy. Molloy, b. 2, c. 7, s. 14; Park, Ins. 22; Wesk. Ins. 42. A paper signed and sealed in blank, with verbal authority to. fill it up, which is afterwards done, is void, unless afterwards delivered or acknowledged and adopted. 1 Yerg. 69, 149; 1 Hill, 267 2 N. & M. 125; 2 Brock. 64; 2 Dev. 379 1 Ham. 368; 6 Gill & John. 250; but see contra, 17 S. & R. 438. Lines ought to be drawn wherever there are blanks, to prevent anything from being inserted afterwards. 2 Valin's Comm. 151.

4. When the filling up blanks after the execution of deeds and other writings will vitiate them or not, see 3 Vin. Abr. 268; Moore, 547; Cro. Eliz. 626; 1 Vent. 185; 2 Lev. 35; 2 Ch. R. 187; 1 Anst. 228; 5 Mass. 538; 4 Binn. 1; 9 Crancb, 28; Yelv. 96; 2 Show. 161; 1 Saund. Pl. & Ev. 77; 4 B. & A. 672; Com. Dig. Fait, F 1; 4 Bing. 123; 2 Hill. Ab. c. 25, §80; n. 33, §54-and 72; 1 Ohio, R. 368; 4 Binn. R. 1; 6 Cowen, 118; Wright, 176.

BLANK BAR, pleading. The same with that called a common bar, whicb, in an action of trespass, is put in to oblige the plaintiff to assign the certain' place where the trespass was committed. Cro. Jac. 594, pl. 16.

BLANK INDORSEMENT, contrad. An indorsement which does not mention the name of the person in whose favor it is made; it is usually made by writing the name of the indorser on the back of the bill. Chit. Bills, 170.

2. When a bill or note has been indorsed in blank, its negotiability cannot afterwards be restrained. 1 Esp. N. P. Cas. 180; 1 Bl. Rep. 295. As many persons as agree may join in suing on a bill when indorsed in blank; for although it was given to one alone, yet by allowing the others to join in the suit, he has 'Made them sharers in his rights. 8 Camp. N. P. Cas. 239. Vide Indorsement; Negotiable paper; Restrictive indorsement.

BLASPHEMY, crim. law. To attribute to God that which is contrary to his nature, and does not belong to him, and to deny what does or it is a false reflection uttered with a malicious, design of reviling God. Elym's Pref. to vol. 8, St. Tr.

2. This offence has been enlarged in Pennsylvania, and perhaps most of the states, by statutory provision. Vide Christianity; 11 Serg. & Rawle, 394. In England all blasphemies against God, the Christian religion, the Holy Scriptures, and malicious revilings of the established church, are punishable by indictment. 1 East, P. C. 3; 1 Russ. on Cr. 217.

3. In France, before the 25th of September, 1791, it was a blasphemy also to speak against the holy virgin and the saints, to deny one's faith, to speak with impiety of holy things, and to swear by things sacred. Merl. Rep. h. t. The law relating to blasphemy in that country was totally repealed by the code of 25th of September, 1791, and its present penal code, art. 262, enacts, that any person who, by words or gestures, shall commit any outrage upon objects of public worship, in the places designed or actually employed for the performance of its rites, or shall assault or insult the ministers of such worship in the exercise of their functions, shall be fined from sixteen to five hundred francs, and be imprisoned for a period not less than fifteen days nor more than six months.

4. The civil law forbad the crime of blasphemy; such, for example, as to swear by the hair or the head of God; and it punished its violation with death. Si enim contra homines factae blasphemiae impunitae non relinquuntur; multo magis qui ipsum Deum Blasphemant, digni sunt supplicia sustinere. Nov. 77, ch. 1, §1.

5. In Spain it is blasphemy not only to speak against God and his government, but to utter injuries against the Virgin Mary and the saints. Senen Villanova Y Manes, Materia Criminal, forense, Observ. 11, cap. 3, n

BLIND. One who is deprived of the faculty of seeing.

2. Persons who are blind may enter into contracts and make wills like others. Carth. 53; Barn. 19, 23; 3 Leigh, R. 32. When an attesting witness becomes blind, his handwriting may be proved as if he were dead. 1 Stark. Ev. 341. But before proving his handwriting the witness must be produced, if within the jurisdiction of the court, and examined. Ld. Raym. 734; 1 M. & Rob. 258; 2 M. & Rob. 262.

BLOCKADE, international law. The actual investment of a port or place by a hostile force fully competent to cut off all communication therewith, so arranged or disposed as to be able to apply its force to every point of practicable access or approach to the port or place so invested.

2. It is proper here to consider, 1. by what authority a blockade can be established; 2. what force is sufficient to constitute a blockade; 3. the consequences of a violation of the blockade.

>3. - 1. Natural sovereignty confers the right of declaring war, ana the right which nations at war have of destroying or capturing each other's citizens, subjects or goods, imposes on neutral nations the obligation not to interfere with the exercise of this right within the rules prescribed by the law of nations. A declaration of a siege or blockade is an act of sovereignty, 1 Rob. Rep. 146; but a direct declaration by the sovereign authority of the besieging belligerent is not always requisite; particularly when the blockade is on a distant station; for its officers may have power, either expressly or by implication, to institute such siege or blockade. 6 Rob. R. 367.

4. - 2. To be sufficient, the blockade must be effective, and made known. By the convention of the Baltic powers of 1780, and again in 1801, and by the ordinance of congress of 1781, it is required there should be a number of vessels stationed near enough to the port to make the entry apparently dangerous. The government of the United States has, uniformly insisted, that the blockade should be effective by the presence of a competent force, stationed and present, at or near the entrance of the port. 1 Kent, Com. 145, and the authorities by him cited; and see 1 Rob. R. 80; 4 Rob. R. 66; 1 Acton's R. 64, 5; and Lord Erskine's speech, 8th March, 1808, on the orders in council, 10 Cobber's Parl. Debates, 949, 950. But "it is not an accidental absence of the blockading force, nor the circumstance of being blown off by wind, (if the suspension and the-reason of the suspension are known,) that will be sufficient in law to remove a blockade." But negligence or remissness on the part of the cruizers stationed to maintain the blockade, may excuse persons, under circumstances, for violating the blockade. 3 Rob. R. 156 .) 1 Acton's R. 59. To involve a neutral in the consequences of violating a blockade, it is indispensable that he should have due notice of it: this information may be communicated to him in two ways; either actually, by a formal notice from the blockading power, or constructively by notice to his government, or by the notoriety of the fact. 6 Rob. R. 367; 2 Rob. R. 110; Id. 111, note; Id. 128; 1 Acton's R. 6 1.

4. - 3. In considering the consequences of the violation of a blockade, it is proper to take a view of what will amount to such a violation, and, then, of its effects. As all criminal acts require an intention to commit them, the party must intend to violate the blockade, or his acts will be perfectly innocent; but this intention will be judged of by the circumstances. This violation may be, either, by going into the place blockaded, or by coming out of it with a cargo laden after the commencement of the blockade. Also placing himself so near a blockaded port as to be in a condition to slip in without observation, is a violation of the blockade, and raises the presumption of a criminal intent. 6 Rob. R. 30, 101, 182; 7 John. R. 47; 1 Edw. R. 202; 4 Cranch, 185. The sailing for a blockaded port, knowing it to be blockaded, is, it seems, such an act as may charge the party with a breach of the blockade. 5 Cranch, 335 9 Cranch, 440, 446; 1 Kent, Com. 150. When the ship has contracted guilt by a breach of the blockade, she may be taken at any time before the end of her voyage, but the penalty travels no further than the end of her return voyage. 2 Rob. R. 128; 3 Rob. R. 147. When taken, the ship is confiscated; and the cargo is always, prima facie, implicated in the guilt of the owner or master of the ship and the burden of rebutting the presumption that the vessel was going in for the benefit of the cargo, and with the direction of the owners, rests with them. 1 Rob. R. 67, 130 3 Rob. R. 173 4 Rob. R. 93; 1 Edw. It 39. Vide, generally, 2 Bro. Civ. & Adm. Law, 314 Chit. Com. Law, Index, h. t.; Chit. Law of Nations, 128 to 147; 1 Kent's Com. 143 to 151; Marsh. Ins. Index, h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Mann. Com. B. 3, c. 9.

BLOOD, kindred. This word, in the law sense, is used to signify relationship, stock, or family; as, of the blood of the ancestor. 1 Roper on Leg. 103; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 365. In a more extended sense, it means kindred generally. Bac. Max. Reg. 18.

2. Brothers and sisters are said to be of the whole blood, (q. v.) if they have the same father and mother of the half blood, (q. v.) if they have only one parent in common. 5 Whart. Rep. 477.

BLOTTER, mer. law. A book among merchants, in which entries of sales, &c.;are first made.

2. This book, containing the original entries, is received in evidence, when supported by the oaths or affirmations of those who keep it. See Original entry.

BOARD. This word is used to designate all the magistrates of a city or borough, or all the managers or directors of any institution; as, the board of aldermen; the board of directors of the Bank of North America. The majority of the board have in general the power to perform the acts of the whole board, but sometimes they are restrained by their charters, and it requires a greater number to perform certain acts.

BOARD OF CIVIL AUTHORITY. A used in Vermont. This board is composed of the selectmen and justices of the peace of their respective towns. They are authorized to abate taxes, and the like.

BOCKLAND, Eng. law. The name of an ancient allodial tenure, which was exempt from feudal services. Bac. Ab. Gavelkind, A Spelman's English Works, vol. 2, 233.

BODY. A person.

2. In practice, when the sheriff returns cepi corpus to a capias, the plaintiff may obtain a rule, before special bail has been entered, to bring in the body and this must be done either by committing the defendant or entering special bail. See Dead Body.

BODY POLITIC, government, corporations. When applied to the government this phrase signifies the state.

2. As to the persons who compose the body politic, they take collectively the name, of people, or nation; and individually they are citizens, when considered in relation to their political rights, and subjects as being submitted to the laws of the state.

3. When it refers to corporations, the term body politic means that the members of such corporations shall be considered as an artificial person.

BOILARY. A term used to denote the water which arises from a salt well, belonging to one who has no right to the soil. Ejectment may be maintained for it. 2 Hill, Ab. c. 14, §5; Co. Litt. 4 b.

BONA, goods and chattels. In the Roman law, it signifies every kind of property, real, personal, and mixed, but chiefly it was applied to real estates; chattels being chiefly distinguished by the words, effects, movables, &c. Bona were, however, divided into bona mobilia, and bona immobilia. It is taken in the civil law in nearly the sense of biens (q. v.) in the French law.

BONA FIDE. In or with good faith.

2. The law requires all persons in their transactions to act with good faith and a contract where the parties have not acted bonafide is void at the pleasure of the innocent party. 8 John. R. 446; 12 John. R. 320; 2 John. Ch. R. 35. If a contract be made with good faith, subsequent fraudulent acts will not vitiate it; although such acts may raise a presumption of antecedent fraud, and thus become a means of proving the want of good faith in making the contract. 2 Miles' Rep. 229; and see also, Rob. Fraud. Conv. 33, 34; Inst. 2, 6 Dig. 41, 3, 10 and 44; Id. 41, 1, 48; Code, 7, 31; 9 Co. 11; Wingate's Maxims, max. 37; Lane, 47; Plowd. 473; 9 Pick. R. 265; 12 Pick. R. 545; 8 Conn. R. 336; 10 Conn. R. 30; 3 Watts, R. 25; 5 Wend. R. 20, 566. In the civil law these actions are called (actiones) bonae fidei, in which the judge has a. more unrestrained power (liberior potestas) of estamating how much one person ought to give to or do, for another; whereas, those actions are said to be stricti juris, in which the power of the judge is confined to the agreement of the parties. Examples of the foraier are the actions empti-venditi, locati-conducti, negitiorum gestorum, &c.; of the latter, the actions ex mutus, ex chirographo, ex stipilatu, ex indebito, actions proescriptis verbis, &c.

BONA GESTURA. Good behaviour.

BONA MOBILIA. Movable goods, personal property.

BONA NOTABILIA Engl. ecclesiastical law. Notable goods. When a person dies having at the time of his death, goods in any other diocese, beside's the goods in the diocese where he dies, amounting to the value of five pounds in the whole, he is said to have bona notabilia; in which case proof of his will, or granting letters of administration, belongs to the archbishop of the province. 1 Roll. Ab. 908; Toll. Ex. 51 Williams on Ex. Index, h. t.

BONA PERITURA. Perishable goods.

2. An executor, administrator, or trustee, is bound to use due diligence in disposing of perishable goods, such as fattened cattle, grain, fruit, or any other article which may be worse for keeping. Bac. Ab. Executors, &c.;D; 11 Vin. Ab. 102; 1 Roll. Ab. 910; 5 Cro. Eliz.518; Godb.104; 3 Munf. R. 288; 1 Beat. R. 5,14; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.

3. In Pennsylvania, when goods are attached, they may be sold by order of court, when they are of a perishable nature. Vide Wesk. on Ins. 390; Serg. on Attachm. Index.

BONA VACANTIA. Goods to which no one claims a property, as, shipwrecks, treasure trove, &c.; vacant goods.

BONA WAVIATA. Goods waived or thrown away by a thief, in his flight, for fear of being apprehended.

BOND, contract. An obligation or bond is a deed whereby the obligor, obliges himself, his heirs, executors and administrators, to pay a certain sum of money to another at a day appointed. But see 2 Shepl. 185. If this be all, the bond is called a single one, simplex obligatio; but there is generally a condition added, that if the obligor pays a smaller sum, or does, or omits to do some particular act, the obligation shall be void. 2 Bl. Com. 840. The word bond ex vi termini imports a sealed instrument. 2 S. & R. 502; 1 Bald. R. 129; 2 Porter, R. 19; 1 Blackf. R. 241; Harp. R. 434; 6 Verm. R. 40. See Condition; Interest of money; Penalty. It is proposed to consider: 1. The form of a bond, namely, the words by which it may be made, and the ceremonies required. 2. The condition. 3. The performance or discharge.

2.-I. 1. There must be parties to a bond, an obligor and obligee : for where a bond was made with condition that the obligor should pay twenty pounds to such person or persons; as E. H. should, by her last will and testament in writing, name and appoint the same to be paid, and E. H. did not appoint any person to, whom the same should be paid, it was held that the money was not payable to the executors of E. H. Hob. 9. No particular form of words are essential to create an obligation, but any words which declare the intention of the parties, and denote that one is bound to the other, will be sufficient, provided the ceremonies mentioned below have been observed. Shep. Touch. 367-8; Bac. Abr. Obligations, B; Com. Dig. Obligations, B 1.

3. - 2. It must be in writing, on paper or parchment, and if it be made on other materials it is void. Bac. Abr. Obligations, A.

4. - 3. It must be sealed, though it is not necessary that it should be mentioned in the writing that it is sealed. As to what is a sufficient sealing, see the above case, and the word Seal.

5. - 4. It must be delivered by the party whose bond it is, to the other. Bac. Abr. Obligations, C. But the delivery and acceptance may be by attorney. The date is not considered of the substance of a deed, and therefore a bond which either has no date or an impossible one is still good, provided the real day of its being dated or given, that is, delivered, can be proved. 2 Bl. Com. 304; Com. Dig. Fait, B 3; 3 Call, 309. See Date.

6. - II. The condition is either for the payment of money, or for the performance of something else. In the latter case, if the condition be against some rule of law merely, positively impossible at the time of making it, uncertain or insensible, the condition alone is void, and the bond shall stand single and unconditional; for it is the folly of the obligor to enter into such an obligation, from which he can never be released. If it be to do a thing malum in se, the obligation itself is void, the whole contract being unlawful. 2 Bl. Com. 340; Bac. Abr. Conditions, K, L; Com. Dig. Conditions, D 1, D 2, D 3, D 7, D 8.

7. - III. 1. When, by the condition of an obligation, the act to be done to the obligee is of its own nature transitory, as payment of money, delivery of charters, or the like, and no time is limited, it ought to be performed in convenient time. 6 Co. 31 Co. Lit. 208; Roll. Abr. 436.

8. - 2. A payment before the day is good; Co. Lit. 212, a; or before action brought. 10 Mass. 419; 11 Mass. 217.

9.-3. If the condition be to do a thing within a certain time, it may be performed the last da of the time appointed. Bac. Abr. Conditions, P 3.

10. - 4. If the condition be to do an act, without limiting any time, he who has the benefit may do it at what time he pleases. Com. Dig. Conditions, G 3.

11. - 5. When the place where the act to be performed is agreed upon, the party who is to perform it, is not obliged to seek the opposite party elsewhere; nor is he to whom it is to be performed bound to accept of the performance in another place. Roll. 445, 446 Com. Dig. Conditions, G 9 Bac. Abr. Conditions, P 4. See Performance.

12. - 6. For what amounts to a breach of a condition in a bond see Bac. Abr. Conditions, 0; Com. Dig. Conditions, M; and this Dict. tit. Breach.

BOND TENANT, Eng. law. Copyholders and customary tenants are sometimes so called. Calth. on Copyh. 51, 54.

BONDAGE. Slavery.

BONIS NON AMOVENDIS. The name of a writ addressed to the sheriff, when a writ of error has been brought, commanding that the person against whom judgment has been obtained, be not suffered to remove his goods till the error be tried and determined. Reg. Orig. 131.

BONO ET MALO. The name of a special writ of jail delivery, which formerly issued of course for each particular prisoner. 4 Bl. Com. 270.

BONUS, contrads. A premium paid to a grantor or vendor; as, e. g. the bank paid a bonus to the state for its charter. A consideration given for what is received.

BOOK. A general name given to every literary composition which is printed; but appropriately to a printed composition bound in a volume.

2. The copyright, (q. v.) or exclusive right to print and publish a book, may be secured to the author and his assigns for the term of twenty-eight years; and, if the author be living, and a citizen of the United States, or resident therein, the same right shall be continued to him for the further term of fourteen years, by complying with the conditions of the act of Congress; one of which is, that he shall, within three months after publication, deliver, or cause to be delivered, a copy of the same to the clerk of the said district. Act of February 3, 1831. 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2223.

BOOK-LAND, English law. Land, also called charter-land, which was held by deed under certain rents and fee services, and differed in nothing from free socage land. 2 Bl. Com. 90. See 2 Spelman's English Works, 233, tit. Of Ancient Deeds and Charters.

BOOKS, commerce, accounts. Merchants, traders, and other persons, who are desirous of understanding their affairs, and of explaining them when necessary, keep, 1. a day book; 2. a journal; 3. a ledger; 4. a letter book; 5. an invoice book; 6. a cash book; 7. a bill book; 8. a bank book; and 9. a cheek book. The reader is referred to these several articles. Commercial books are kept by single or by double entry.

BOOTY, war. The capture of personal property by a public enemy on land, in contradistinction to prize, which is a capture of such property by such an enemy, on the sea.

2. After booty has been in complete possession of the enemy for twenty-four hours, it becomes absolutely his, without any right of postliminy in favor of the original owner, particularly when it has passed, bona fide, into the hands of a neutral. 1 Kent, Com. 110.

3. The right to the booty, Pothier says, belongs to the sovereign but sometimes the right of the sovereign, or the public, is transferred to the soldiers, to encourage them. Tr. du Droit de Propriete, part 1, c. 2, art. 1, §2; Burl. Nat. and Pol. Law, vol. ii. part 4, o. 7, n. 12.

BOROUGH. An incorporated town; so called in the charter. It is less than a city. 1 Mann. & Gran. 1; 39 E. C. L. R. 323.

BOROUGH ENGLISH, English law. This, as the name imports, relates exclusively to the English law.

2. It is a custom, in many ancient boroughs, by which the youngest son succeeds to the burgage tenement on the death of the father. 2 Bl. Com. 83.

3. In some parts of France, there was a custom by which the youngest son was entitled to an advantage over the other children in the estate of their father. iller. Rep. mot Mainete.

BORROWER, contracts. He to whom a thing is lent at his request.

2. The contract of loan confers rights, and imposes duties on the borrower' 1. In general, he has the right to use the thing borrowed, during the time and for the purpose intended between the parties; the right of using the thing bailed, is strictly confined to the use, expressed or implied, in the particular transaction, and by any excess, the borrower will make himself responsible. Jones' Bailment, 58 6 Mass. R. 104; Cro. Jac. 244; 2 Ld. Raym. 909; Ayl. Pand. B. 4, t. 16, p. 517; Domat, B. 1, t. 5, §2, n. 10, 11, 12; Dio. 13, 6, 18 Poth. Pret a Usage, c. 2, §1, n. 22; 2 Bulst. 306; Ersk. Pr. Laws of ScotI. B. 3, t. 1, §9; 1 Const. Rep. So. Car. 121 Bracton, Lib. 3, c. 2, §l, p. 99. The loan is considered strietly personal, unless, from other circumstances, a different intention may be presumed. 1 Mod. Rep. 210; S. C. 3 Salk. 271.

3. - 2. The borrower is bound to take extraordinary care of the thing borrowed; to use it according to the intention of the lender, to restore it in proper time; to restore it in a proper condition. Of these, in their order.

4. - 1. The loan being gratuitous, the borrower is bound to extraordinary diligence, and is responsible for slight neglect in relation to the thing loaned. 2 Ld. Raym. 909, 916 Jones on Bailm. 65; 1 Dane's Abr. c. 17, art. 12; Dig. 44, 73 1, 4; Poth. Pret. a Usage, c. 2, §2, art. 21, n. 48.

5. - 2. The use is to be according to the condition of the loan; if there is an excess in the nature, time, manner, or quantity of the use, beyond what may be inferred to be within the intention of the parties, the borrower will be responsible, not only for any damages occasioned by the excess, but even for losses by accidents, which could not be foreseen or guarded against. 2 Ld. Raym. 909; Jones on Bailm. 68, 69.

6. - 3. The borrower is bound to make a return of the thing loaned, at the time, in the place, and in the manner contemplated by the contract.. Domat, Liv. 1, t. 5, §1, n. 11; Dig. 13, 6, 5, 17. If tho borrower does not return the thing at the proper time, he is deemed to be in default, and is geneally responsible for all injuries, even for accidents. Jones on Bailm. 70; Pothier, Pret a Usage , ch. 2, §3, art. 2, n. 60; Civil Code Of Louis. art. 2870; Code Civil, art. 1881; Ersk. Inst. B. 3, t. 1, §22 Ersk. Pr. Laws of Scotl. B. 3, t. 1, §9.

7. - 4. As to the condition in which the thing is to be restored. The borrower not being liable for any loss or deterioration of the thing, unless caused by his own neglect of duty, it follows, that it is sufficient if he returns it in the proper manner, and at the proper time, however much it may be deteriorated from accidental or other causes, not connected with any such neglect. Story on Bailm. eh. 4, §268. See, generally, Story on Bailm. oh. 4; Poth. Pret A Usage; 2 Kent, Com. 446-449; Vin. Abr. Bailment, B 6; Bac. Abr. Bailment; Civil Code of Louis. art. 2869-2876; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1078-1090. Vide Lender.

BOSCAGE, Eng. law. That food which wood and trees yield to cattle.

BOTE, contracts A recompense, satisfaction, amends, profit or advantage : hence came the word man-bote, denoting a compensation for a man slain; house-bote, cart-bote, plough-bote, signify that a tenant is privileged to cut wood for these uses. 2 Bl. Com. 35; Woodf. L. & T. 232.

BOTELESS, or bootless. Without recompense, reward or satisfaction made unprofitable or without success.

BOTTOMRY, maritime law. A contract, in nature of a mortgage of a ship, on which the owner borrows money to enable him to fit out the ship, or to purchase a cargo, for a voyage proposed: and he pledges the keel or bottom of the ship, pars pro toto, as a security for the repayment; and it is stipulated that if the ship should be lost in the course of the voyage, by any of the perils enumerated in the contract, the lender also shall lose his money but if the ship should arrive in safety, then he shall receive back his principal, and also the interest agreed upon, which is generally called marine interest, however this may exceed the legal rate of interest. Not only the ship and tackle, if they arrive safe, but also the person of the borrower, is liable for the money lent and the marine interest. See 2 Bl. Com. 458; Marsh. Ins. B. 21 c. 1; Ord. Louis XIV. B. 3, tit. 5; Laws of Wishuy, art. 45 Code de Com. B. 2, tit. 9.

2. The contract of bottomry should specify the principal lent, and the rate of marine interest agreed upon; the subject on which the loan is effected the names of the vessel and of the master those of the lender and borrower whether the loan be for an entire voyage; for what voyage and for what space of time; and the period of re-payment. Code de Com. art. 311 Marsh. Ins. B. 2.

3. Bottomry differs materially from a simple loan. In a loan, the money is at the risk of the borrower, and must be paid at all events. But in bottomry, the money is at the risk of the lender during the voyage. Upon a loan, only legal interest can be received; but upon bottomry, any interest may be legally reserved which the parties agree upon. See, generally, Metc. & Perk. Dig. h. t.; Marsh. lnst. B. 2; Bac. Abr. Merchant, K; Com. Dig. Merchant. E 4; 3 Mass. 443; 8 Mass. 340; 4 Binn. 244; 4 Cranch, 328; 3 John. R. 352 2 Johns. Cas. 250; 1 Binn. 405; 8 Cranch, 41 8; 1 Wheat. 96; 2 Dall. 194. See also this Dict. tit. Respondentia; Vin. Abr. Bottomry Bonds 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1246-57.

BOUGHT NOTE, contracts. An instrument in writing, given by a broker to the seller of merchandise, in which it is stated that the goods therein mentioned have been sold for him. There appears, however, some confusion in the books, on the subject of these notes sometimes they are called sold notes. 2 B. & Ald. 144 Blackb. on Sales, 89.

2. This note is signed in the broker's name, as agent of the buyer and seller; and, if he has not exceeded his authority, the parties are thereby respectively bound. 1 Bell's Com. (5th ed.) 435; Holt's C. 170; Story on Agency, §28; 9 B. & Cr. 78; 17 E. C. L. R. 335; 5 B. & Ad. 521; 1 N. R. 252; 1 Moo. & R. 368; Moo. & M. 43; 22 E. C. L. R. 243; 2 M. & W. 440; Moo. & M. 43; 6 A. & E. 486; 33 E. C. L. R. 122; 16 East, 62 Gow, R. 74; 1 Camp. R. 385; 4 Taunt. 209; 7 Ves. 265. Vide Sold Note.

BOUND BAILIFFS. Sheriff's officers, who serve writs and make arrests; they are so called because they are bound to the sheriff for the due execution of their office. 1 Bl. Com. 345.

BOUNDARY, estates. By this term is understood in general, every separation, natural or artificial, which marks the confines or line of division of two contiguous estates. 3 Toull. n. 171.

2. Boundary also signifies stones or other materials inserted in the earth on the confines of two estates.

3. Boundaries are either natural or artificial. A river or other stream is a natural boundary, and in that case the centre of the stream is the line. 20 John. R. 91; 12 John. R. 252; 1 Rand. R. 417; 1 Halst. R. 1; 2 N. H. Rep. 369; 6 Cowen, R. 579; 4 Pick. 268; 3 Randolph's R. 33 4 Mason's R. 349-397.

4. An artificial boundary is one made by man.

5. The description of land, in a deed, by specific boundaries, is conclusive as to the quantity; and if the quantity be expressed as a part of the description, it will be inoperative, and it is immaterial whether the quantity contained within the specific boundaries, be greater or less than that expressed; 5 Mass. 357; 1 Caines' R. 493; 2 John. R. 27; 15 John. 471; 17 John. R. 146; Id. 29; 6 Cranch, 237; 4 Hen. & Munf. 125; 2 Bay, R. 515; and the same rule is applicable, although neither the courses and distances, nor the estimated contents, correspond with such specific boundaries; 6 Mass. 131; 11 Mass. 193; 2 Mass. 380; 5 Mass. 497; but these rules do not apply in cases where adherence to them would be plainly absurd. 17 Mass. 207. Vide 17 S. & R. 104; 2 Mer. R. 507; 1 Swanst. 9; 4 Ves. 180; 1 Stark. Ev. 169; 1 Phil. Ev. Index, h. t.; Chit. Pr. Index, h. t.; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 276; 2 Hill. Ab. c. 24, §209, and Index, h. t.

6. When a boundary, fixed and by mutual consent, has been permitted to stand for twenty-one years, it cannot afterwards be disturbed. In accordance with this rule, it has been decided, that where town lots have been occupied up to a line fence between them, for more than twenty-one years, each party gained an incontrovertible right to the line thus established, and this whether either party knew of the adverse claim or not; and whether either party has more or less ground than was originally in the lot he owns. 9 Watts, R. 565. See Hov. Fr. c. 8, p. 239 to 243; 3 Sum. R 170 Poth. Contr. de Societe, prem. app. n. 231.

7. Boundaries are frequently marked by partition fences, ditches, hedges, trees, &c. When such a fence is built by one of the owners of the land, on his own premises, it belongs to him exclusively; when built by both at joint expense, each is the owner of that part on his own land. 5 Taunt. 20. When the boundary is a hedge and a single ditch, it is presumed to belong to him on whose side the hedge is, because he who dug the ditch is presumed to have thrown the earth upon his own land, which was alone lawful to do, and that the hedge was planted, as is usual, on the top of the bank thus raised. 3 Taunt. 138. But if there is a ditch on each side of the hedge, or no ditch at all, the hedge is presumed to be the common property of both proprietors. Arch. N. P. 328; 2 Greenl. Ev. §617. A tree growing in the boundary line is the joint property of both owners of the land. 12 N. H. Rep. 454.

8. Disputes arising from a confusion of boundaries may be generally settled by an action at law. But courts of equity will entertain a bill for the settlement of boundaries, when the rights of one of the parties may be established upon equitable grounds. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3923.

BOUNTY. A sum of money or other thing, given, generally by' the government, to certain persons, for some service they have done or are about to do to the public. As bounty upon the culture of silk; the bounty given to an enlisted soldier; and the like. It cliffers from a reward, which is generally applied to particular cases; and from a payment, as there is no contract on the part of the receiver of the bounty.

BOVATA TERRAE. As much land as one ox can plough.

BRANCH. This is a metaphorical expression, which designates, in the genealogy of a numerous family, a portion of that family which has sprang from the same root or stock; these latter expressions, like the first, are also metaphorical.

2. The whole of a genealogy is often called the genealogical tree; and sometimes it is made to take the form of a tree, which is in the first place divided into as many branches as there are children, afterwards into as many branches as there are grand-children, then of great grandchildren, &c. If, for example, it be desired to have a genealogical tree of Peter's family, Peter will be made the trunk of the tree; if he has had two children, John and James, their names will be written on the first two branches; which will themelves shoot out as many smaller branches as John and James have children; from these other's proceed, till the whole family is represented on the tree; thus the origin, the application, and the use of the word branch in genealogy will be at once perceived.

BRANCHES. Those solid parts of trees which grow above the trunk.

2. In general the owner of a tree is the owner of the branches; but when they grow beyond his line, and extend over the adjoining estate, the proprietor of the latter may cut them off as far as they grow over his land. Rolle's R. 394.; 3 Bulst. 198. But as this nuisance is one of omission, and, as in the case of such nuisances, it is requisite to give notice before abating them, it would be more prudent, and perhaps necessary, to give notice to the owner of the tree to remove such nuisance. 1 Chit. Pr. 649, 650, 652. See Root; Tree.

TO BRAND. An ancient mode of punishment, which was to inflict a mark on an offender with a hot iron. This barbarous punishment has been generally disused.

BRANDY. A spirituous liquor made of wine by distillation. See stat. 22 Car. H. c. 4.

BREACH, contract, torts. The violation of an obligation, engagement or duty; as a breach of covenant is the non-performance or violation of a covenant; the breach of a promise is non-performance of a promise; the breach of a duty, is the refusal or neglect to execute an office or public trust, according to law.

2. Breaches of a contract are single or continuing breaches. The former are those which are committed at one single time. Skin. 367; Carth. 289. A continuing breach is one committed at different times, as, if a covenant to repair be broken at one time, and the same covenant be again broken, it is a continuing breach. Moore, 242; 1 Leon. 62; 1 Salk. 141; Holt, 178; Lord Raym. 1125. When a covenant running with the land is assigned after a single breach, the right of action for such breach does not pass to the assignee but if it be assigned after the commencement of a continuing breach, the right of action then vests in such assignee. Cro. Eliz. 863; 8 Taunt. 227;, 2 Moore, 164; 1 Leon. 62.

3. In general the remedy for breaches of contracts, or quasi contracts, is by a civil action.

BREACH OF THE PEACE. A violation of public order; the offence of disturbing the public peace. One guilty of this offence may be held to bail for his good behaviour. An act of public indecorum is also a breach of the peace. The remedy for this offence is by indictment. Vide Pace,

BREACH OF PRISON. An unlawful escape out of prison. This is of itself a misdemeanor. 1 Russ. Cr. 378; 4 Bl. Com. 129 2 Hawk. P. C. c. 18, s. 1 7 Conn. 752. The remedy for this offence is by indictment. See Escape.

BREACH OF TRUST. The wilful misappropriation, by a trustee, of a thing which had been lawfully delivered to him in confidence.

2. The distinction between larceny and a breach of trust is to be found chiefly in the terms or way in which the thing was taken originally into the party's possession; and the rule seems to be, that whenever the article is obtained upon a fair contract, not for a mere temporary purpose, or by one who is in the. employment of the deliverer, then the subsequent misappropriation is to be considered as an act of breach of trust. This rule is, however, subject to many nice distinctions. 15 S. & R. 93, 97. It has been adjudged that when the owner of goods parts with the possession for a particular purpose, and the person who receives them avowedly for that purpose, has at the time a fraudulent intention to make use of the possession as the weans of converting the goods to his own use, and does so convert them, it is larceny; but if the owner partwith the property, although fraudulent means have been used to obtain it, the, act of conversion is not larceny. Id. Alis. Princ. c. 12, p. 354.

3. In the Year Book, 21 H. VII. 14, the distinction is thus stated: Pigot. If I deliver a jewel or money to my servant to keep, and he flees or goes from me with the jewel, is it felony ? Cutler said, Yes : for so long as he is with me or in my house, that which I have delivered to him is adjudged to be in my possession; as my butler, who has my plate in keeping, if he flees with it, it is felony. Same law; if he who keeps my horse goes away with, him: The reason is, they are always in my possession. But if I deliver a horse to my servant to ride to market or the fair and he flee with him, it is no felony; for e comes lawfully to the possession of the horse by delivery. And so it is, if I give him a jewel to carry to London, or to pay one, or to buy a thing, and he flee with it, it is not felony : for it is out of my possession, and he comes lawfully to it. Pigot. It can well be: for the master in these cases has an action against him, viz., Detinue, or Account. See this point fully discussed in Stamf. P. C. lib. 1; Larceny, c. 15, p. 25. Also, 13 Ed. IV. fo. 9; 52 H. III. 7; 21 H. VII. 15.

BREACH. pleading. That part of the declaration in which the violation of the defendant's contract is stated.

2. It is usual in assumpsit to introduce the statement of the particular breach, with the allegation that the defendant, contriving and fraudulently intending craftily and subtilely to deceive and defraud the plaintiff, neglected and refused to perform, or performed the particular act contrary to the previous stipulation. ?

3. In debt, the breach or cause of action. complained of must proceed only for the non-payment of money previously alleged to be payable; and such breach is nearly similar, whether the action be in debt on simple contract, specially, record or statute, and is usually of the following form: " Yet the said defendant, although often requested so to, do, hath not as yet paid the said sum of ____ dollars, above demanded, nor any part thereof, to the said plaintiff, but bath hitherto wholly neglected and refused so to do, to the damage of the said plaintiff _________ dollars, and therefore he brings suit," &c.

4. The breach must obviously be governed by the nature of the stipulation; it ought to be assigned in the words of the contract, either negatively or affirmatively, or in words which are co-extensive with its import and effect. Com. Dig. Pleader, C 45 to 49; 2 Saund. 181, b, c; 6 Cranch, 127; and see 5 John. R. 168; 8 John. R. 111; 7 John. R. 376; 4 Dall. 436; 2 Hen. & Munf. 446.

5. When the contract is in the disjunctive, as, on a promise to deliver a horse by a particular day, or pay a sum of money, the breach ought to be assigned that the defendant did not do the one act nor the other. 1 Sid. 440; Hardr. 320; Com. Dig. Pleader, C.

BREAKING. Parting or dividing by force and violence a solid substance, or piercing, penetrating, or bursting through the same.

2. In cases of burglary and house-breaking, the removal, of any part of the house, or of the fastenings provided to secure it, with violence and a felonious intent, is called a breaking.

3. The breaking is actual, as in the above case; or constructive, as when the burglar or house-breaker gains an entry by fraud, conspiracy or threats. 2 Russ. on Cr. 2; 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 1092; 1 Hale, P. C. 553; Alis. Prin. 282, 291. In England it has been decided that if the sash of a window be partly open, but not sufficiently so to admit a person, the raising of it so as to admit a person is not a breaking of the house. 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 178. No reasons are assigned. It is difficult to conceive, if this case be law, what further opening will amount to a breaking. But see 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 327, 377; and Burglary.

BREAKING DOORS. The act of forcibly removing the fastenings of a house, so that a person may enter.

2. It is a maxim that every man's house is his castle, and it is protected from every unlawful invasion. An officer having a lawful process, of a criminal nature, authorizing him to do so, may break an outer door, if upon making a demand of admittance it is refused. The house may also be broken open for the purpose of executing a writ of habere facias possessionem. 5 Co. 93; Bac. Ab. Sheriff, N 3.

3. The house protects the owner from the service of all civil process in the first instance, but not, if once lawfully arrested, he takes refuge in his own house; in that case the officer may pursue him, and break open any door for the Purpose. Foster, 320; 1 Rolle's R. 138 Cro. Jac. 555. Vide Door; House.

BREATH, med. juris. The air expelled from the chest at each expiration.

2. Breathing, though a usual sign of life, is not conclusive that a child was wholly born alive, as breathing may take place before the whole delivery of the mother is complete. 5 Carr. & Payn, 329; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 344. Vide Birth; Life; Infanticide.

BREPHOTROPHI, civil law. Persons appointed to take care of houses destined to receive foundlings. Clef des Lois Rom. mot Administrateurs.

BREVE, practice. A writ in which the cause of action is briefly stated, hence its name. Fleta, lib. 2, c. 13, §25; Co. Lit. 73 b.

2. Writs are distributed into several classes. Some are called brevia formata, others brevia de cursu, brevia judicialia, or brevia magistralia. There is a further distinction with respect to real actions into brevia nominata and innominata. The former, says Bacon, contain the time, place and demand very particularly; and therefore by such writ several lands by several titles cannot be demanded by the same writ. The latter contain only a general complaint, without expressing time, damages, &c., as in trespass quare clausum fregit, &o., and therefore several lands coming to the demandant by several titles may be demanded in such writ. F. N. B. 209; 8 Co. 87; Kielw. 105; Dy. 145; 2 Brownl. 274; Bac. Ab. Actions in General, C. See Innominate contracts.

BREVE DE RECTO. A writ of right. (q. v.)

BREVE TESTATUM, feudal law. A declaration by a superior lord to his vassal, made in the presence of the pares curias, by which he gave his consent to the grant of land, was so called. Ersk. Inst. B. 2, tit. 3, s. 17. This was made in writing, and had the operation of a deed. Dalr. Feud. Pr. 239.

BREVET. In France, a brevet is a warrant granted by the government to authorize an individual to do something for his own benefit, as a brevet d'invention, is a patent to secure a man a right as inventor.

2. In our army, it signifies a commission conferring on an officer a degree of rank immediately above the one which he holds in his particular regiment, without, however conveying a right to receive a corresponding pay.

BREVIA, writs. They were called brevia, because of the brevity in which the cause of action was stated in them.

BREVIA ANTICIPANTIA. This name is given to a number of writs, which are also called writs of prevention. See Quia Ti. met.

BREVIA FORMATA, Eng law. The collection of writs found in the Registrum Brevium was so called. The author of Fleta says, these writs were formed upon their cases. They were different from the writs de cursu, which were approved by the council of the whole realm, and could not be changed without the will of the same. Fleta, lib. 2, c. 13, §2. See 17 S. & R. 194-5, and authorities there cited.

BREVIA JUDICIALIA. Subsidiary process issued pending a suit, or process issued in execution of the judgment. They varied, says the author of Fleta, according to the variety of the pleadings of the parties and of their responses. Lib. 2. c. 13, §3; Co. Lit. 73 b, 54 b. Many of them, however, long since became fixed in their forms, beyond the power of the courts to alter them, unless authorized to do so by the legislature. See 1 Rawle, Rep. 52; Act of Pennsylvania, June. 16, 1836, §§3, 4, 5.

BREVIA MAGISTRALIA. These were writs formed by the masters in chancery, pursuant to the stat. West. 2, c. 24. They vary according to the diversity of cases and complaints, of which, says the author of Fleta, some are personal, some real, some mixed, according as actions are diverse or various, because so many will be the forms of writs as there are kinds of actions. Fleta, lib. 2, c. 13, §4; Co. Lit. 73 b, 54 b.

BREVIARIUM. The name of a code of laws of Alaric II., king of the Visigoths.

BREVIBUS ET ROTULIS LIBERANDIS, Eng. law. A writ or mandate directed to a sheriff, commanding him to deliver to his successor the county and the appurtenances, with all the briefs, rolls, remembrances, and all other things belonging to his office.

BRIBE, crim. law. The gift or promise, which is accepted, of some advantage, as the inducement for some illegal act or omission; or of some illegal emolument, as a consideration, for preferring one person to another, in the performance of a legal act.

BRIBERY, crim. law. The receiving or offering any undue reward by or to any person whomsoever, whose ordinary profession or business relates to the administration of public justice, in order to influence his behaviour in office, and to incline him to act contrary to his duty and the known rules of honesty and integrity. 3 Inst. 149; 1 Hawk. P. C. 67, s. 2 4 Bl. Com. 139; 1 Russ. Cr. 156.

2. The term bribery extends now further, and includes the offence of giving a bribe to many other officers. The offence of the giver and of the receiver of the bribe has the same name. For the sake of distinction, that of the former, viz : the briber, might be properly denominated active. bribery; while that of the latter, viz : the person bribed, might be called passive bribery.

3. Bribery at elections for members of parliament, has always been a crime at common law, and punishable by indictment or information. It still remains so in England notwithstanding the stat. 24 Geo. H. c. 14 3 Burr. 1340, 1589. To constitute the offence, it is not necessary that the person bribed should, in fact, vote as solicited to do 3 Burr. 1236; or even that he should have a right to vote at all both are entirely immaterial. 3 Bur. 1590-1.

4. An attempt to bribe, though unsuccessful, has been holden to be criminal, and the offender may be indicted. 2 Dall. 384; 4 Burr. 2500 3 Inst. 147; 2 Campb. R. 229; 2 Wash. 88; 1 Virg. Cas. 138; 2 Virg. Cas. 460.

BRIBOUR. One that pilfers other men's goods; a thief. See 28 E. II., c. 1.

BRIDGE. A building constructed over a river, creek, or other stream, or ditch or other place, in order to facilitate the passage over the same. 3 Harr. 108.

2. Bridges are of several kinds, public and private. Public bridges may be divided into, 1st. Those which belong to the public; as state, county, or township bridges, over which all the people have a right to pass, with or without paying toll these are built by public authority at the public expense, either of the state itself, or a district or part of the state.

3. - 2d. Those which have been built by companies, or at the expense of private individuals, and over Which all the people have a right to pass, on the payment of a toll fixed by law. 3d. Those which have been built by private individuals and which have been dedicated to public uscs. 2 East, R. 356; 5 Burr. R. 2594; 2 Bl. R. 685 1 Camp. R. 262, n.; 2 M. & S. 262.

4. A private bridge is one erected for the use of one or more private persons; such a bridge will not be considered a public bridge, although it may be occasionally used by the public. 12 East, R. 203-4. Vide 7 Pick. R. 844; 11 Pet. R. 539; 7 N. H. Rcp. 59; 1 Pick. R. 432; 4 John. Ch. R. 150.

BRIEF, eccl. law. The name of a kind of papal rescript. Briefs are writings sealed with wax, and differ in this respect from bulls, (q. v.) which are scaled with lead. They are so called, because they usually are short compendious writings. Ayl. Parerg. 132. See Breve.

BRIEF, practice. An abridged statement of a party's case.

2. It should contain : 1st. A statement of the names of the parties, and of their residence and occupation, the character in which they sue and are sued, and wherefore they prosecute or resist the action. 2d. An abridgment of all the pleadings. 3d. A regular, chronological, and methodical statement of the facts in plain common language. 4th. A summary of the points or questions in issue, and of the proof which is to support such issues, mentioning specially the names of the witnesses by which the facts are to be proved, or if there be written evidence, an abstract of such evidence. 5th. The personal character of the witnesses should be mentioned; whether the moral character is good or bad, whether they are naturally timid or over-zealous, whether firm or wavering. 6th. If known, the evidence of the opposite party, and such facts as are adapted to oppose, confute, or repel it. Perspicuity and conciseness are the most desirable qualities of a brief, but when the facts are material they cannot be too numerous when the argument is pertinent and weighty, it cannot be too extended.

3. Brief is also used in the sense of breve. (q. v.)

BRIEF OP TITLE, practice, conveyancing. An abridgment of all the patents, deeds, indentures, agreements, records, and papers relating to certain real estate.

2. In making a brief of title, the practitioner should be careful to place every deed and other paper in chronological order. The date of each deed; the names of the parties; the consideration; the description of the property; should be particularly, noticed, and all covenants should also be particularly inserted.

3. A vendor of an interest in realty ought to have his title investigated, abstracted, and evidence in proof of it ready to be produced and established before he sells; for if he sell with a confused title, or without being ready to produce deeds and vouchers, he must be at the expense of clearing it. 1 Chit. Pr. 304, 463.

BRINGING MONEY INTO COURT. The act of depositing money in the hands of the proper officer of the court, for the purpose of satisfying a debt or duty, or of an interpleader.

2. Whenever a tender of money is pleaded, and the debt is not discharged by the tender and refusal, money may be brought into court, without asking leave of the court; indeed, in such cases the money must be brought into court inorder to have the benefit of the tender. In other cases, leave must be had, before the money can be brought into court.

3. In general, if the money brought into court is sufficient to satisfy the plaintiff 's claim, he shall not recover costs. See Bac. Ab. Tender, &c.

BROCAGE, contracts. The wages or commissions of a broker his occupation is also sometimes called brocage. This word is also spelled brokerage.

BROKERAGE, contracts. The trade or occupation of a broker; the commissions paid to a broker for his services.

BROKERS, commerce. Those who are engaged for others, in the negotiation of contracts, relative to property, with the custody of which they have no concern. Paley on Agency, 13; see Com. Dig. Merchant, C.

2. A broker is, for some purposes, treated as the agent of both parties; but in the first place, he is deemed the agent only of the person by whom he is originally employed; and does not become the agent of the other until the bargain or contract has been definitely settled, as to the terms, between the principals. Paley on Ag. by Lloyd, 171, note p; 1 Y. &, J. 387.

3. There are several kinds of brokers, as, Exchange Brokers, such as negotiate in all matters of exchange with foreign countries.

4. Ship Brokers. Those who transact business between the owners of vessels, and the merchants who send cargoes.

5. Insurance Brokers. Those who manage the concerns both of the insurer and the insured.

6. Pawn Brokers. Those who lend money, upon goods, to necessitous people, at interest.

7. Stock Brokers. Those employed to buy and sell shares of stocks in corporations and companies. Vide Story on Ag. §28 to 32; T. L. h. t.; Maly. Lex Mer. 143; 2 H. Bl. 555; 4 Burr, R. 2103; 4 Kent, Com. 622, note d, 3d ed.; Liv. on Ag. Index, h. t.; Chit. Com. L. Index, h. t.; and articles Agency; dgent; Bought note; Factor; Sold note.

BROTHELS, crim. law. Bawdy-houses, the common habitations of prostitutes; such places have always been deemed common nuisances in the United States, and the keepers of them may be fined and imprisoned.

2. Till the time of Henry VIII, they were licensed in England, when that lascivious prince suppressed them. Vide 2 Inst. 205, 6; for the history of these pernicious places, see Merl. Rep. mot Bordel Parent Duchatellet, De la Prostitution dans la ville de Paris, c. 5, §1; Histoire de la Legislation sur les femmes publiques, & c., par M. Sabatier.

BROTHER, domest. relat. He who is born from the same father and mother with another, or from one of them only.

2. Brothers are of the whole blood, when they are born of the same father and mother, and of the half blood, when they are the issue of one of them only.

3. In the civil law, when they are the children of the same father and mother, they are called brothers germain; when they descend from the same father, but not the same mother, they are consanguine brothers; when they are the issue of the same mother, but not the same father, they are uterine brothers. A half brother, is one who is born of the same father or mother, but not of both. One born of the same parents before they were married, a left-sided brother; and a bastard born of the same father or mother, is called a natural brother. Vide Blood; Half-blood; Line; and Merl. Repert. mot Frere; Dict. de Jurisp. mot Frere; Code, 3, 28, 27 Nov. 84, praef; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.

BROTHER-IN-LAW, domestic relat. The brother of a wife, or the hushand of a sister. There is no relationship, in the former case, between the hushand and the brother-in-law, nor in the latter, between the brother and the hushand of the sister; there is only affinity between them. See Vaughan's Rep. 302, 329.

BRUISE, med. jurisp. An injury done with violence to the person, without breaking the skin; it is nearly synonymous with contusion. (q . v.) 1. Ch. Pr. 38; vide 4 Car. & P. 381, 487, 558, 565; Eng. C. L. Rep. 430, 526, 529. Vide Wound.

BUBBLE ACT, Eng. law. The name given to the statute 6 Geo. I., c. 18, which was passed in 1719, and was intended " for restraining several extravagant and unwarrantable practices therein mentioned." See 2 P. Wms. 219.

BUGGERY, crim. law. The detestable crime of having commerce contrary to the order of nature, by mankind with mankind, or with brute beasts, or by womankind with brute beasts. 3 Inst. 58; 12 Co. 36; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Merl. Repert. mot Bestialie. This is a highly penal offence.

BUILDING, estates. An edifice erected by art, and fixed upon or over the soil, composed of stone, brick, marble, wood, or other proper substance, 'Connected together, and designed for use in the position in which it is so fixed. Every building is an accessory to the soil, and is, therefore, real estate: it belongs to the owner of the soil. Cruise, tit. 1, S. 46. Vide 1 Chit. Pr. 148, 171; Salk. 459; Hob. 131; 1 Mete. 258; Broom's Max. 172.

BULK, contracts. Said to be merchandise which is neither counted) weighed, nor measured.

2. A sale by bulk, is a sale of a quantity of goods,, such as they are, without measuring, counting, or weighing. Civ. Code of Louis. a. 3522, n. 6.

BULL, eccles. law. A letter from the pope of Rome, written on parchment, to which is attached a leaden seal, impressed with the images of Saint Peter and Saint Paul.

2. There are three kinds of apostolical rescripts, the brief, the signature, and the bull, which last is most commonly used in legal matters. Bulls may be compared to the edicts and letters-patent of secular princes: when the bull grants a favor, the seal is attached by means of silken strings; and when to direct execution to be performed, with flax cords. Bulls are written in Latin, in a round and Gothic hand. Ayl. Par. 132; Ayl. Pand. 21; Mer. Rep. h. t.

BULLETIN. An official account of public transactions on matters of importance. In France, it is the registry of the laws.

BULLION. In its usual acceptation, is uncoined gold or silver, in bars, plates, or other masses. 1 East, P. C. 188.

2. In the acts of Congress, the term is also applied to copper properly manufactured for the purpose of being coined into money. For the acts of Congress, authorizing the coinage of bullion for private individuals, see Act of April 2, 1792, s. 14, 1 Story, 230; Act of May 19, 1828, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's Laws U. S. 2120; Act of June 28, 1834, Id. 2376; Act of January 18, 1837, Id. 2522 to 2529. See, for the English law on the subject of crimes against bullion, 1 Hawk. P. C. 32 to 41.

BUOY. A piece of wood, or an empty barrel, floating on the water, to show the place where it is shallow, to indicate the danger there is to navigation. The act of Congress, approved the 28th September, 1850, enacts, " that all buoys along the coast, in bays, harbors, sounds, or channels, shall be colored and numbered, so that passing up the coast or sound, or entering the bay, harbor or channel, red buoys with even numbers, shall be passed on the starboard hand, black buoys, with uneven numbers, on the port hand, and buoys with red and black stripes on either hand. Buoys in channel ways to be colored with alternate white and black perpendicular stripes."

BURDEN OF PROOF. This phrase is employed to signify the duty of proving the facts in dispute on an issue raised between the parties in a cause.

2. The burden of proof always lies on the party who takes the affirmative in pleading. 1 Mass. 71, 335; 4 Mass. 593; 9 Pick. 39.

3. In criminal cases, as every man is presumed to be innocent until the contrary is proved, the burden of proof rests on the prosecutor, unless a different provision is expressly made by statute. 12 Wheat. See Onus probandi.

BUREAU. A French word, which literally means a large writing table. It is used figuratively for the place where business is transacted: it has been borrowed by us, and used in nearly the same sense; as, the bureau of the secretary of state. Vide Merl. Repert. h. t.

BUREAUCRACY. The abuse of official influence in the affairs of government; corruption. This word has lately been adopted to signify that those persons who are employed in bureaus abuse their authority by intrigue to promote their own benefit, or that of friends, rather than the public good. The word is derived from the French.

BURGAGE, English law. A species of tenure in socage; it is where the king or other person is lord of an ancient borough, in which the tenements are held by a rent certain. 2 B1. Com. 82.

BURGESS. A magistrate of a borough; generally, the chief officer of the corporation, who performs, within the borough, the same kind of duties which a mayor does in a city. In England, the word is sometimes applied to all the inhabitants of a borough, who are called burgesses sometimes it signifies the representatives of a borough in parliament.

BURGH. A borough; (q. v.) a castle or town.

BURGLA. One who commits a burglary. (q. v.)

BURGLARIOUSL, pleadings. This is a technical word, which must be introduced into an indictment for burglary; no other word will answer the same purpose, nor will any circumlocution be sufficient. 4 Co. 39; 5 Co. 121; Cro. Eliz. 920; Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 1; Com. Dig. Indictment, G 6; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 242.

BURGLARY, crim. law. The breaking and entering the house of another in the night time, with. intent to commit a felony therein, whether the felony be actually committed or not. 3 Inst. 63; 1 Hale, 549; 1 Hawk. c. 38, s. 1; 4 Bl. Com. 224; 2 East, P. C. C. 15, s. 1, p. 484; 2 Russell on Cr. 2; Roscoe, Cr. Ev. 252; Coxe, R. 441; 7 Mass. Rep. 247.

2. The circumstances to be considered are, 1. in what place the offence can be committed; 2. at what time 3. by what means; 4. with what intention.

3.- 1. In what place a burglary can be committed. It must, in general, be committed in a mansion house, actually occupied as a dwelling; but if it be left by the owner animo revertendi, though no person resides in it in his absence, it is still his mansion. Fost. 77; 3 Rawle, 207. The principal question, at the present day, is what is to be deemed a dwelling-house. 1 Leach, 185; 2 Leach, 771; Id. 876; 3 Inst. 64; 1 Leach, 305; 1 Hale, 558; Hawk. c. 38, s. 18; 1 Russ. on Cr. 16; 3 Berg. & Rawle, 199 4 John. R. 424 1 Nott & M'Cord, 583; 1 Hayw. 102, 242; Com. Dig. Justices, P 5; 2 East, P. C. 504.

4. - 2. At what time it must be committed. The offence must be committed in the night, for in the day time there can be no burglary. 4 Bl. Com. 224. For this purpose, it is deemed night when by the light of the sun a person cannot clearly discern the face or countenance of another 1 Hale, 550; 3 nst. 63. This rule, it is evident, does not apply to moonlight. 4 Bl. Com. 224; 2 Russ. on Cr. 32. The breaking and entering need not be done the same night 1 Russ. & Ry. 417; but it is necessary the breaking and entering should be in the night time, for if the breaking be in daylight and the entry in the night, or vice versa, it will not be burglary. 1 Hale, 551; 2 Russ. on Cr. 32. Vide Com. Dig. Justices, P 2; 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 1092.

5.-3. The means used. There must be both a breaking and an entry. First, of the breaking, which may be actual or constructive. An actual breaking tal-,es place when the burglar breaks or removes ally part of, the house, or the fastenings provided for it, with violence. Breaking a window, taking a pane of glass out, by breaking or bending the nails, or other fastenings, raising a latch where the door is not otherwise fastened; picking open a lock with a false key; putting back the lock of a door or the fastening of a window, with an instrument; turning the key when the door is locked in the inside, or unloosening any other fastening which the owner has provided, are several instances of actual breaking. According to the Scotch law, entering a house by means of the true key, while in the door, or when it had been stolen, is a breaking. Alis. Pr. Cr. Law, 284. Constructive breakings occur when the burglar gams an entry by fraud, conspiracy or threats. 2 Russ. on Cr. 22 Chit. Cr. Law, 1093. The breaking of an inner door of the house will be sufficient to constitute a burglary. 1 Hale, 553. Any, the least, entry, with the whole or any part of the body , hand, or foot, or with any instrument or weapon, introduced for the purpose of committing a felony, will be sufficient to constitute the offence. 3 Inst. 64; 4 Bl. Com. 227; Bac. Ab. Burglary, B Com. Dig. Justices, P 4. But the introduction of an instrument, in the act of breaking the house, will not be a sufficient entry, unless it be introduced for the purpose of committing a felony.

6. - 4. The intention. The intent of the breaking and entry must be felonious; if a felony however be committed, the act will be prima facie evidence of an intent to commit it. If the breaking and entry be with an intention to commit a bare trespass, and nothing further is done, the offence will not be a burglary. 1 Hale, 560; East, P., C. 509, 514, 515; 2 Russ. on Cr. 33.

BURGOMASTER. In Germany this is, the title by which an officer who performs the duties of a mayor is, called.

BURIAL. The act of interring the dead.

2. No burial is lawful unless made in conformity with the local regulations; an when a dead body has been found, it cannot be lawfully buried until the coroner has holden an inquest over it. In England. it is the practice for coroners to issue warrants to bury, after a view. 2 Umf. Lex. Coron. 497, 498.

BURNING. Vide Accident; Arson; Fire, accidental.

BURYING-GROUND. A place appropriated for depositing the dead; a cemetery. In Massachusetts, burying-grounds cannot, be appropriated to roads without the consent of the owners. Massachusetts Revised St. 239.

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