What is the legal definition of "Obscenity"?

As defined by Miller v. California’s three prong test, to be obscene material must (1) be a work that the average person, applying contemporary community standards would find, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest and (2) the work must depict or describe, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable obscenity law, and (3) the work, taken as a whole, must lack serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value.

Definition of "True Threats"

True threats are defined as “statements where the speaker means to communicate a serious expression of an intent to commit an act of unlawful violence to a particular individual or group of individuals.” 

To be a true threat, “the speaker need not actually intend to carry out the threat.” True threats are distinguishable from political hyperbole, which is protected political expression. Intimidation “is a type of true threat, where the speaker directs a threat to a person or group of persons with the intent of placing the victim in fear of bodily harm or death.”

What is the legal meaning of "Fighting Words"

Fighting words are a narrow category of unprotected speech that are defined as words spoken in a face to face exchange such as personal insults or epithets which by their very utterance are likely to cause the person to whom they are addressed to respond with violence directed at the speaker.

Fighting words must be insults personally directed at the person they are addressed to and not political statements that the hearer finds deeply offensive to his or her beliefs. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish between provocative political speech that is fully protected and unprotected fighting words.

Categories of Unprotected Speech

Categories of Unprotected Speech in US Constitution:

        Defamation (i.e., libel, slander)
        Child pornography

        Fighting words
       Incitement to imminent lawless action
        Solicitations to commit crimes

        True threats



SOURCES OF THE LAW: By this expression is understood the authority from which the laws derive their force.
2. The power of making all laws is in the people or - their representatives, and none can have any force whatever, which is derived from any other source. But it is not required that the legislator shall expressly pass upon all laws, and give the sanction of his seal, before they can have life or existence. The laws are therefore such as have received ala express sanction, and such as de-rive their force and effect from implication. The first, or express, are the constitution of the United States, and the treaties and acts of the legislature which have been made by virtue of the authority vested by the constitution. To these must be added the constitution of the state and the laws made by the state legislature, or by other subordinate legislative bodies, by virtue of the authority conveyed by such constitution. The latter, or tacit, received their effect by the general use of them by the people, when they assume the name of customs by the adoption of rules by the courts from systems of foreign laws.
3. The express laws, are first, the constitution of the United States; secondly, the treaties made with foreign powers; thirdly, the acts of congress; fourthly, the constitutions of the respective states; fifthly, the laws made by the several state legislatures; sixthly, laws made by inferior legislative bodies, such as the councils of municipal corporations, and general rules made by the courts.
4. - 1. The constitution is an act of the people themselves, made by their representatives elected for that purpose. It is the supreme law of the land, and is binding on all future legislative bodies, until it shall be altered by tho authority of the people, in the manner, provided for in the instrument itself, and if an act be passed contrary to the provisions of the constitution, it is, ipso facto, void. 2 Pet. 522; 12 Wheat. 270; 2 Dall. 309; 3 Dall. 386; 4 Dall. 18; 6 Cranch, 128.
5. - 2. Treaties made under the authority of the constitution are declared to be the supreme law of the land, and therefore obligatory on courts. 1 Cranch, 103. See Treaty.
6. - 3. The acts and resolutions of congress enacted constitutionally, are of course binding as laws and require no other explanation.
7. - 4. The constitutions of the respective states, if not opposed to the provisions of the constitution of the United States, are of binding force in the states respectively, and no act of the state legislature has any force which is made in contravention of the state constitution.
8. - 5. The laws of the several states, constitutionally made by the state legislatures, have full and complete authority in the respective states.
9. - 6. Laws are frequently made by inferior legislative bodies which are authorized by the legislature; such are the municipal councils of cities or boroughs. Their laws are generally known by the name of ordinances, and, when lawfully ordained, they are binding on the people. The courts, perhaps by a necessary usurpation, have been in the practice of making general rules and orders, which sometime affect suitors and parties as much as the most regular laws enacted by congress. These apply to all future cases. There are also rules made in particular cases as they arise, but these are rather decrees or judgments than laws.
10. The tacit laws, which derive their authority from the consent of the people, without any legislative enactment, may be subdivided into 1st. The common law, which is derived from two sources, the common law of England, and the practice and decisions of our own courts. It is very difficult, in many cases, to ascertain what is this common law, and it is always embarrassing to the courts. Kirl. Rep. Pref. In some states, it has been enacted that the common law of England shall be the law, except where the same is inconsistent with our constitutions and laws. See Law.
2d. Customs which have been generally adopted by the people, have the force of law.
3d. The principles of the Roman law, being generally founded in superior wisdom, have insinuated themselves into every part of the law. Many of the refined rules which now adorn the common law appear there without any acknowledgment of their paternity, and it is at this source that some judges dipt to get the wisdom which adorns their judgments. The proceedings of the courts of equity and many of the admirable distinctions which manifest their wisdom are derived from this source. To this fountain of wisdom the courts of admiralty owe most of the law which governs in admiralty cases.
4th. The canon law, which was adopted by the ecclesiastical courts, figures in our laws respecting marriage, divorces, wills and testaments, executors and administrators and many other subjects.
5th. The jurisprudence, or decisions of the various courts, have contributed their full share of what makes the law. These decisions are made by following precedents, by borrowing from the sources already mentioned, and, sometimes by the less excusable disposition of the judges to legislate on the bench.
11. The monuments where the common law is to be found, are the records, reports of cases adjudicated by the courts, and the treatises of learned men. The books of reports are the best proof of what is the common law, but owing to the difficulty of finding out any systematic arrangement, recourse is had to treatises upon the various branches of the law. The records, owing to their being kept in one particular place, and therefore not generally accessible, are seldom used.

Legal definition of "SOCIETY"

SOCIETY. A society is a number of persons united together by mutual consent, in order to deliberate, determine, and act jointly for some common purpose.
2. Societies are either incorporated and known to the law, or unincorporated, of which the law does not generally take notice.
3. By civil society is usually understood a state, (q. v.) a nation, (q. v.) or a body politic. (q. v.) Rutherf. Inst. c. 1 and 2.
4. In the civil law, by society is meant a partnership. Inst. 3, 26; Dig. 17, 2 Code, 4, 37.


SILENCE. The state of a person who does not speak, or of one who refrains from speaking.
2. Pure and simple silence cannot be considered as a consent to a contract, except in cases when the silent person is bound in good faith to explain himself, in which case, silence gives consent. 6 Toull. liv. 3, t. 3, n. 32, note; 14 Serg. & Rawle, 393; 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 442; 1 Dane's Ab. c. 1, art. 4, §3; 8 T. R. 483; 6 Penn. St. R. 336; 1 Greenl. Ev. 201; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1313. But no assent will be inferred from a man's silence, unless, 1st. He knows his rights and knows what he is doing and, 2d. His silence is voluntary.
3. When any person is accused of a crime, or charged with any fact, and he does not deny it, in general, the presumption is very strong that the charge is correct. 7 C. & P. 832 5 C. & P. 332; Joy on Conf. s. 10, p. 77.
4. The rule does not extend to the silence of a prisoner, when on his exanination before a magistrate he is charged by another prisoner with having joined him in the commission of an offence: 3 Stark. C. 33.
5. When an oath is administered to a witness, instead of expressly promising to keep it, he gives his assent by his silence, and kissing the book.
6. The person to be affected by the silence must be one not disqualified to act as non compos, an infant, or the like, for even the express promise of such a person would not bind him to the performance of any contract.
7. The rule of the civil law is that silence is not an acknowledgment or denial in every case, qui tacet, non utique fatetur: sed tamen verum est, eum non negaro. Dig. 50, 17, 142.

Legal definition and history of (race-based) "SERVANTS"

SERVANTS, (negro or mulatto,) Pennsylvania. By the fourth section of the act for the gradual abolition of slavery, passed the first day of March, 1780, 1 Smith's Laws of Penn. 492, it is "provided that every negro or mulatto child, born within this state after the passing of this act, (who would in case this act had not been made, have been a servant for years, or life, or a slave) shall be by virtue of this act the servant of such person, or his assigns who would in such case have been entitled to the service of such child, until such child attain unto the age of twenty-eight years, in the manner and on the conditions, whereon servants bound by indenture for four years are or may be retained or holden; and shall be liable to like correction and punishment, and entitled to like relief, in case he be evilly treated by his master, and to like freedom dues and privileges, as servants bound by indenture for four years are entitled, unless the person to whom such services belong shall abandon his claim to the same; in which case the overseers of the poor where such child shall be abandoned shall by indenture bind out every such child so abandoned as an apprentice for a time not exceeding the age hereinbefore limited for the service of such children." And by the thirteenth section it is enac-ted, "that no covenant of personal servitude or apprenticeship whatsoever shall be valid or binding on a negro or mulatto for a longer time than seven years, unless such servant or apprentice were at the commencement of such servitude or apprenticeship, under the age of twenty-one years, in which case such negro or mulatto may be holden as a servant or apprentice, respectively, according to the covenant, as the case shall be, until he shall attain the age of twenty-eight years, but no longer." See 6 Binn. 204; 1 Browne's R. 369, n.
2. The act requires that a register of such children as would have been slaves shall be kept by a public officer therein designated. The want of registry entitles such child to freedom.


SELF-DEFENCE, crim. law. The right to protect one's person and property from injury.
2. It will be proper to consider, 1. The extent of the right of self-defence. 2. By whom it may be exercised. 3. Against whom. 4. For what causes.
3. - 1. As to the extent of the right, it may be laid down, first, that when threatened violence exists, it is the duty of the person threatened to use all, prudent and precautionary measures to prevent the attack; for example, if by closing a door which was usually left open, one could prevent an attack, it would be prudent, and perhaps the law might require, that it should be closed, in order to preserve the peace, and the aggressor might in such case be held to bail for his good behaviour; secondly, if, after having taken such proper precautions, a party should be assailed, he may undoubtedly repel force by force, but in most instances cannot, under the pretext that he has been attacked, use force enough to kill the assailant or hurt him after he has secured himself from danger; as, if a person unarmed enters a house to commit a larceny, while there he does not threaten any one, nor does any act which manifests an intention to hurt any one, and there are a number of persons present, who may easily secure him, no one will be justifiable to do him any injury, much less to kill him; he ought to be secured and delivered to the public authorities. But when an attack is made by a thief under such circumstances, and it is impossible to ascertain to what extent he may push it, the law does not requite the party assailed to weigh with great nicety the probable extent of the attack, and he may use the most violent means against his assailant, even to the taking of his life. For homicide may be excused, se defendendo, where a man has no other probable means of preserving his life from one who attacks him, while in the commission of a felony, or even on a sudden quarrel, he beats him, so that he is reduced to this inevitable necessity. Hawk. bk. 2, c. 11, s. 13. And the reason is that when so reduced, he cannot call to his aid the power of society or of the commonwealth, and, being unprotected by law, he reassumes his natural rights, which the law sanctions, of killing his adversary to protect himself. Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. ]iv. 1, tit. 1, n. 210. See Pamph. Rep. of Selfridge's Trial in 1806 2 Swift's Ev. 283.
4. - 2. The party attacked may undoubtedly defend himself, and the law further sanctions the mutual and reciprocal defence of such as stand in the near relations of hushand and wife, patent and child, and master and servant. In these cases, if the party himself, or any of these his relations, be forcibly attacked in their person or property, it is lawful for him to repel force by force, for the law in these cases respects the passions of the human mind, and makes, it lawful in him, when external violence is offered to himself, or to those to whom he bears so near a connexion, to do that immediate justice to which he is prompted by nature, and which no prudential motives are strong enough to restrain. 2 Roll. Ab. 546; 1 Chit. Pr. 592.
5. - 3. The party making the attack may be resisted, and if several persons join in such attack they may all be resisted, and one may be killed although he may not himself have given the immediate cause for such killing, if by his presence and his acts, he has aided the assailant. See Conspiracy.
6. - 4. The cases for which a man may defend himself are of two kinds; first, when a felony is attempted, and, secondly, when, no felony is attempted or apprehended.
7. - 1st. A man may defend himself, and even commit a homicide for the prevention of any forcible and atrocious crime, which if completed would amount to a felony; and of course under the like circumstances, mayhem, wounding and battery would be excusable at common law. 1 East, P. C. 271; 4 Bl. Com. 180. A man may repel force by force in defence of his person, property or habitation, against any one who manifests, intends, attempts, or endeavors, by violence or surprise, to commit a forcible felony, such as murder, rape, robbery, arson, burglary and the like. In these cases he is not required to retreat, but he may resist, and even pursue his adversary, until he has secured himself from all danger.
8. - 2d. A man may defend himself when no felony has been threatened or attempted; 1. When the assailant attempts to beat another and there is no mutual combat; as, where one meets another and attempts to commit or does commit an assault and battery on him, the person attacked may defend himself; and an offer or, attempt to strike another, when sufficiently near, so that that there is danger, the person assailed may strike first, and is not required to wait until he has been struk. Bull. N. P. 18; 2 Roll. Ab. 547. 2. When there is a mutual combat upon a sudden quarrel. In these cases both parties are the aggressors; and if in the fight one is killed it will be manslaughter at least, unless the survivor can prove two things: 1st. That before the mortal stroke was given be had refused any further combat, and had retreated as far as he could with safety; and 2d. That he killed his adversary from necessity, to avoid his own destruction.
9. A man may defend himself against animals, and he may during the attack kill them, but not afterwards. 1 Car. & P. 106; 13 John. 312; 10 John. 365.
10. As a general rule no man is allowed to defend himself with force if he can apply to the law for redress, and the law gives him a complete remedy, See Assault; Battery; Necessity; Trespass.

Legal meaning and history of "SEDUCTION"

SEDUCTION. The offence of a man who abuses the simplicity and confidence of a woman to obtain by false promises what she ought not to grant.
2. The woman being particeps criminis, has no remedy for the mere seduction, nor is there, to the discredit of the law, a direct remedy in her parents. The seducer may be sued, though not. directly or ostensibly for the seduction; but for the consequent inability to perform those services for which she was accountable to her master, or to her parent, who, for this purpose, is obliged to assume that less endearing relation; and if it cannot be proved that she filled that office, the action cannot be sustained. 7 Mann. & Gr. 1033. It follows, therefore, that when the daughter is of full age, and the father is not entitled to her services, and actually, she is not in his service, the father can maintain no action for the seduction. 5 Harr. & J. 27; 1 Wend. 447; 3 Pennsyl. 49; 10 John. 115. Vide 2 Watts 474; 9 John. 387; 2 Wend. 459; 5 Cowen 106; 2 Penn. 583; 6 Munf. 587; 2 A. K. Marsh. 128; 2 Overt. 93; 9 John. R. 387; 2 New Reports, 476; 6 East, 887; Peake's Rep. 253; 11 East, 24; 5 East, 45; 2 T. R. 4; 2 Selw. N. P. 1001; 2 Phil. Ev. 156; 3 Chitt. Bl. Com. 140, n.; 7 Com. Dig. 318; 6 M. & W. 55.

SECTA pleading

SECTA pleading. In ancient times the plaintiff was required to establish the truth of his declaration in the first instance, and before it was called in question, upon the pleading, by the simultaneous production of his secta, that is, a number of persons prepared to confirm his allegations. Bract. 214, a.
2. The practice of thus producing a secta, gave rise to the very. ancient formula almost invariably used at the conclusion of a declaration, as entered on the record, et inde producit sectam; and, though the actual production has, for many centuries, fallen into disuse, the formula still remains. Accordingly, except the count on a writ of right, and in dower, all declarations constantly conclude thus, "And therefore he brings his suit, &c. The count on a writ of right did not, in ancient times, conclude with the ordinary production of suit, but with the following formula peculiar to itself, "Et quod tale sit jus suum offert disrationare per corpus, talis liberi hominis, &c., and it concludes, at the present day, with an abbreviated. translation of the same phrase: "And, that such is his right, he offers," &c. The count in dower is an exception to the rule in question, and concludes without any production of suit, a peculiarity which appears always to have belonged to that action. Steph. Pl. 427, 8; 3 Bl. Com. 395; Gilb. C. P. 48; 1 Chit. Pl. 399.


SECRETARY OF STATE OF THE UNITED STATES, government. The principal officer in the Department of State. (q. v.) He shall perform such duties as shall be enjoined on or entrusted to him by the president, agreeably to the constitution, refative to the correspondences, commissions or instructions to or with public ministers or consuls from the United States, or to negotiations with foreign states or princes, or to memorials or other applications from foreign public ministers or foreigners, or to such other matters respecting foreign affairs as the president of the United States shall assign to such department. The secretary shall conduct the business of his department in such manner as the president shall, from time to time, order or instruct. Act of 27th July, 1789 act of 15th Sept: 1789, s. 1. Besides these general laws, there are various, others which impose upon him inferior and less important duties.
2. His salary is six thousand dollars per annum. Act of 20th Feb. 1819.


SEALING OF A VERDICT:  practice. The putting a verdict in writing, and placing it in an envelop, which is sealed. To relieve jurors after they have agreed, it is not unusual for the counsel to agree that the jury shall seal their verdict, and then separate. When the court is again in session, the jury come in and give their verdict, in all respects as if it had not been sealed, and a juror may dissent from it, if since the sealing, he has honestly changed his mind. 8 Ham. 405; Gilm. 333; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3257.
SEALS, matters of succession. On the death of a person, according to the laws of Louisiana, if the heir wishes to obtain the benefit of inventory, and the delays for deliberating, he is bound as soon as he knows of the death of the deceased to whose succession he is called, and before committing any act of heirship, to cause the seals to be affixed on the effects of the succession, by any judge or justice of the peace. Civ. Code, of Lo. art. 1027.
2. In ten days after this affixing of the seals, the, heir is bound to present a petition to the judge of the place in which the succession, is opened, praying for the removal of the seals, and that a true and faithful inventory of the effects of the succession be made. Id. art. 1028.
3. In case of vacant estates, and estates of which the heirs are absent and not represented, the seals, after the decease, must be affixed by a judge or justice of the peace within the limits of his jurisdiction, and may be fixed by him, either ex officio, or at the request of the parties. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1070. The seals are affixed at the request of the parties, when a widow, a testamentary executor, or any other person who pretends to have an interest in a succession or community of property, requires it. Id. art. 1071.; They are affixed ex officio, when the presumptive heirs of the deceased do not all reside in the place where be died, or if any of them happen to be absent. Id. art 1072.
4. The object of placing the seals on the effects of a succession, is for the purpose of preserving them, and for the interest of third persons. Id. art. 1068.
5. The seals must be placed on the bureaus, coffers, armoires, and other things, which contain the effects and papers of the deceased, and on the doors of the apartments which contain these things, so that they cannot be opened without tearing off, breaking, or altering the seals. Id. art. 1069.
6. The judge or justice of the peace, who affixes the seals, is bound to appoint guardian, at the expense of the succession, to take care of the seals and of the effects, of which an account is taken at the end of the proces-verbal of the affixing of the seals; the guardian must be domiciliated in the plaze where the inventory is taken. Id. art. 1079. And the judge; when he retires, must take with him the keys of all things and apartments upon which the seals have been affixed. lb.
7. The raising of the seals is done by the judge of the place, or justice of the peace appointed by him to that effect, in the presence of the witnesses of the vicinage, in the same manner as for the affixing of the seals. Id. art. 1084. See, generally; Benefit of Inventory, Succession; Code de Pro. Civ. 2e part. lib. 1, t. 1, 2, 3; Dict. de Jurisp. Scelle.


SCANDAL: A scandalous verbal report or rumor respecting some person.
2. The remedy is an action on the case.
3. In chancery practice, when a bill or other pleading contains scandal, it will be referred to a master to be expunged, and till this has been done, the opposite party need not answer. 3 Bl. Com. 342. Nothing is considered scandalous which is positively relevant to the cause, however harsh and gross the charge may be. The degree of relevancy is not deemed material. Coop. Eq. Pl. 19; 2 Ves. 24; 6 Ves. 514, 11 Ves. 626; 15 Ves. 477; Story Eq. Plo. §269 Vide Impertinent.

Legal definition of "SATISFACTION"

SATISFACTION:  construction by courts of equity. Satisfaction is defined to be the donation of a thing, with the intention, express or implied, that such donation is to be an extinguishment of some existing right or claim in the donee.
2. Where a person indebted bequeaths to his creditor a legacy, equal to, or exceeding the amount of the debt, which is not noticed in the will, courts of equity, in the absence of any intimation of a contrary intention, have adopted the rule that the testator shall be presumed to have meant the legacy as a satisfaction. of the debt.
3. When a testator, being indebted, bequeaths to his creditor a legacy, simpliciter, and of the same nature as the debt, and not coming within the exceptions stated in the next paragraph, it has been held a satisfaction of the debt, when the legacy is equal to, or exceeds the amount of the debt. Pre. Ch. 240; 3 P. Wms. 353.
4. The following are exceptions to the rule: 1. Where the legacy is of, less amount than the debt, it shall not be deemed a part payment or satisfaction. 1 Ves. pen. 263.
5. - 2. Where, though the debt and legacy are of equal amount, there is a difference in the times of payment, so that the legacy may not be equally beneficial to the legatee as the debt. Prec. Ch. 236; 2 Atk. 300; 2 Ves. sen. 63 5; 3 Atk. 96; 1 Bro. C. C. 129; 1 Bro. C. C. 195; 1 M'Clel. & Y. Rep. Exch. 41; 1 Swans. R. 219.
6. - 3. When the legacy and the debt are of a different nature, either with reference, to the subjects themselves, or with respect to the interests given. 2 P. Wms. 614; 1 Ves. jr. 298; 2 Ves. jr. 463.
7. - 4. When the provision by the will is expressed to be given for a particular purpose, such purpose will prevent the testamentary gift being construed a satisfaction of the debt, because it is given diverse intuitu. 2 Ves. sen. 635.
8. - 5. When the debt of the testator is contracted subsequently to the, making of the will; for, in that case, the legacy will not be deemed a satisfaction. 2 Salk. 508.
9. - 6. When the legacy is uncertain or contingent. 2 Atk. 300; 2 P. Wms. 343.
10. - 7. Where the debt itself is contingent, as where it arises from a running account between the testator and legatee; 1 P. Wms. 296; or it is a negotiable bill of exchange. 3 Ves. jr. 561.
11. - 8. Where there is an express direction in the will for the payment of debts end legacies, the court will infer from the circumstance, that the testator intended that both the debt owing from him to the legatee and the legacy, should, be paid. 1 P. Wms. 408; 2 Roper, Leg. 54.
See, generally, Tr. of Eq. 333; Yelv. 11, n.; 1 Swans. R. 221; 18 Eng. Com. Law Rep. 201; 4 Ves. jr. 301; 7 Ves. jr. 507; 1 Suppl. to Ves. jr. 204, 308, 311, 342, 348, 329; 8 Com. Dig. Appen. tit. Satisfaction, p. 917; Rob. on Frauds, 46, n. 15; 2 Suppl. to Ves. jr. 22, 46, 205; 1 Vern. 346; Roper, Leg. c. 17; 1 Roper on Hush. and Wife, 501 to 511; 2 Id. 53 to 63; Math. on Pres. c. 6, p. 107; 1 Desaus. R. 814; 2 Munf. Rep. 413; Stallm. on El. and Sat.

What is the legal definition of "SANCTION"

SANCTION: That part of a law which inflicts a penalty for its violation, or bestows a reward for its observance. Sanctions are of two kinds, those which redress civil injuries, called civil sanctions; and those which punish crimes, called penal sanctions. 1 Hoffm. Leg. Outl. 279; Just. Ins. lib. 2, t. 1, §10; Ruthf. Inst. b. 2, c. 6, s. 6; Toull. tit. prel. 86; Ferguss. Inst. of Mor. Phil. p. 4, c. 3, s. 13, and p. 6, c. 1, et seq; 1 Bl. Com. 56.

What is the legl definition of "SALARY"

SALARY: A reward or recompense for services performed.
2. It is usually applied to the reward paid to a public officer for the performance of his official duties.
3. The salary of the president of the United States is twenty-five thousand dollars per annum; Act of l8th Feb. 1793; and the constitution, art. 2, s. 1, provides that the compensation of the president shall not be increased or diminished, during the time for which he shall have been elected.
4. Salary is also applied to the reward paid for the performance of other services; but if it be not fixed for each year, it is called honorarium. Poth. Pand. h. t. According to M. Duvergier, the distinction between honorarium and salary is this. By the former is understood the reward given to the most ele-vated professions for services performed; and by the latter the price of hir-ing of domestic servants and workmen. 19 Toull. n. 268, p. 292, note.
5. There is this difference between salary and price; the former is the re-ward paid for services, or for the hire of things; the latter is the consideration paid for a thing sold. Lec. Elem. §907, 908.

what is "KIDNAPPING"

KIDNAPPING: The forcible and unlawful abduction and conveying away of a man, woman, or child, from his or her home, without his or her will or consent, and sending such person away, with an intent to deprive him or her of some right. This is an offense at common law.

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