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Dictionary, legal meaning of, MACE-BEARER... TO MUSTER

    22.2.12  

M. When persons were convicted of manslaughter in England, they were formerly marked with this letter on the brawn of the thumb.
2. This letter is sometimes put on the face of treasury notes of the United States, and signifies that the treasury note bears interest at the rate of one mill per centum, and not one per centum interest. 13 Peters, 176.
MACE-BEARER, Eng. law. An officer attending the court of session.
MACEDONIAN DECREE, civil law. A decree of the Roman senate, which derived its name from that of a certain usurer who was the cause of its being made, in consequence of his exactions. It was intended to protect sons who lived under the paternal jurisdiction, from the unconscionable contracts which they sometimes made on the expectations after their fathers' deaths; another, and perhaps, the principle object, was to cast odium on the rapacious creditors. It declared such contracts void. Dig. 14, 6, 1; Domat, Lois, Civ. liv. 1, tit. 6, §4; Fonbl. Eq . B. 1, c. 2, §12, note. Vide Catching bargain; Post obit.
MACHINATION. The act by which some plot or conspiracy is set on foot.
MACHINE. A contrivance which serves to apply or regulate moving power; or it is a tool more or less complicated, which is used to render useful natural instruments, Clef. des Lois Rom. h. t.
2. The act of congress gives to inventors the right to obtain a patent right for any new and useful improvement on any art, machine, manufacture, &c. Act of congress, July 4, 1836, s. 6. See Pet. C. C. 394; 3 Wash. C. C. 443; 1 Wash. C. C. 108; 1 Wash. C. C. 168; 1 Mason, 447; Paine, 300; 4 Wash. C. C. 538; 1 How. U. S., 202; S. C. 17 Pet. 228; 2 McLean, 176.
MADE KNOWN. These words are used as a return to a scire facias, when it has been served on the defendant.
MAGISTER. A master, a ruler, one whose learning and position makes him su- perior to others, thus: one who has attained to a high degree, or eminence, in science and literature, is called a master; as, master of arts.
MAGISTER AD FACULTATES, Eng. eccl. law. The title of an officer who grants dispensations; as, to marry, to eat flesh on days prohibited, and the like. Bac. Ab. Eccles. Courts, A 5.
MAGISTER NAVIS. The master of a ship; a sea captain. MAGISTER SOCIETATIS, Civil law. The principal manager of the business of a society or partnership.
MAGISTRACY, mun. law. In its most enlarged signification, this term includes all officers, legislative, executive, and judicial. For example, in most of the state constitutions will be found this provision; "the powers of the government are divided into three distinct departments, and each of these is confided to a separate magistracy, to wit: those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judiciary, to another." In a more confined sense, it signifies the body of officers whose duty it is to put the laws in force; as, judges, justices of the peace, and the like. In a still narrower sense it is employed to designate the body of justices of peace. It is also used for the office of a magistrate.
MAGISTRATE, mun. law. A public civil officer, invested with some part of the legislative, executive, or judicial power given by the constitution. In a narrower sense this term includes only inferior judicial officers, as justices of the peace.
2. The president of the United States is the chief magistrate of this nation; the governors are the chief magistrates of their respective states.
3. It is the duty of all magistrates to exercise the power, vested in them for the good of the people, according to law, and with zeal and fidelity. A neglect on the part of a magistrate to exercise the functions of his office, when required by law, is a misdemeanor. Vide 15 Vin. Ab. 144; Ayl. Pand. tit. 22; Dig. 30, 16, 57; Merl. Rep. h. t.; 13 Pick. R. 523

MAIDEN. The name of an instrument formerly used in Scotland for beheading criminals.
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MAILE, ancient English law. A small piece of money; it also signified a rent, because the rent was paid with maile.
MAIM, pleadings. This is a technical word necessary to be introduced into all indictments for mayhem; the words "feloniously did maim," must of necessity be inserted, because no other word, or any circumlocution, will answer the same purpose. 4 Inst. 118; Hawk. B. 2, c. 23, s. 17, 18, 77; Hawk. B. 2, c. 25, s, 55; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, *244.
TO MAIM, crim. law. To deprive a person of such part of his body as to ren- der him less able in fighting or defending himself than he would have otherwise been. Vide Mayhem.
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MAINOUR, crim. law. The thing stolen found in the hands of the thief who has stolen it; hence when a man is found with property which he has stolen, he is said to be taken with the mainour, that is, it is found in his hands.
2. Formerly there was a distinction made between a larceny, when the thing stolen was found in the hands of the criminal, and when the proof depended upon other circumstances not quite so irrefragable; the former properly was termed pris ove maynovere, or ove mainer, or mainour, as it is generally written. Barr. on the Stat. 315, 316, note:
MAINPERNABLE. Capable of being bailed; one for whom bail may be taken; bailable.
MAINPERNORS, English law. Those persons to whom a man, is delivered out of custody or prison, on their becoming bound for his appearance.
2. Mainpernors differ from bail: a man's bail may imprison or surrender him up before the stipulated day of appearance; mainpernors can do neither, but are merely sureties for his appearance at the day; bail are only sureties that the party be answerable for all the special matter for which they stipulate; mainpernors are bound to produce him to answer all charges whatsoever. 3. Bl. Com. 128; vide Dane's Index, h. t.
MAINPRISE, Engl. law. The taking a man into friendly custody, who might otherwise be committed to prison, upon security given for his appearance at a time and place assigned. Wood's Inst. B. 4, c. 4.
2. Mainprise differs from bail in this, that a man's mainpernors are barely his sureties, and cannot imprison him themselves to secure his appearance, as his bail may, who are looked upon as his gaolers, to whose custody he is committed.. 6 Mod. 231; 7 Mod. 77, 85, 98; Ld. Raym. 606; Bac. Ab. Bail in Civil Cases; 4 Inst. 180. Vide Mainpernors. Writ of Mainprise; and 15 Vin. Ab. 146; 3 Bl. Com. 128.
MAINTENANCE, crimes. A malicious, or at least, officious interference in a suit in which the offender has no interest, to assist one of the parties to it against the other, with money or advice to prosecute or defend the action, without any authority of law. 1 Russ. Cr. 176.
2. But there are many acts in the nature of maintenance, which become justifiable from the circumstances under which they are done. They may be justi-fied, 1. Because the party has an interest in the thing in variance; as when he has a bare contingency in the lands in question, which possibly may never come in esse. Bac. Ab. h. t. 2. Because the party is of kindred or affinity, as father, son, or heir apparent, or husband or wife. 3. Because the relation of landlord and tenant or master and servant subsists between the party to the suit and the person who assists him. 4. Because the money is given out of charity. 1 Bailey, S. C. Rep. 401. 5. Because the person assisting the party to the suit is an attorney or counsellor: the assistance to be rendered must, however, be strictly professional, for a lawyer is not more justified in giving his client money than another man. 1 Russ. Cr. 179. Bac. Ab Mainte-nance: Bro. Maintenance. This offence is punishable by fine and imprisonment. 4 Black Com. 124; 2 Swift's Dig. 328; Bac. Ab. h. t. Vide 3 Hawks, 86; 1 Greenl. 292; 11 Mass. 553 , 6 Mass. 421; 5 Pick. 359; 5 Monr. 413; 6 Cowen, 431; 4 Wend. 806; 14 John. R. 124; 3 Cowen, 647; 3 John. Ch. R. 508 7 D. & R. 846; 5 B. & C. 188.
MAINTENANCE, quasi contracts. The support which one person, who is bound by law to do so, gives to another for his living; for example, a father is bound to find maintenance for his children; and a child is required by law to main-tain his father or mother when they cannot support themselves, and he has ability to maintain them. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 284-6.
MAINTAINED, pleadings. This is a technical word, indispensable in an indict- ment for maintenance, which no other word or circumlocution will supply. 1 Wils. 325.
MAINTAINORS, criminal law. Those who maintain or support a cause depending between others, not being retained as counsel or attorney. For this they may be fined and imprisoned. 2 Swift's Dig. 328; 4 Bl. Com. 124; Bac. Ab. Barrator.
MAISON DE DIEU. House of God. In England the term, borrowed from the French, signified formerly a hospital, an almshouse, a monastery. 39 Eliz. c. 5.
MAJESTY. Properly speaking, this term can be applied only to God, for it signifies that which surpasses all things in grandeur and superiority. But it is used to kings and emperors, as a title of honor. It sometimes means power, as when we say, the majesty of the people. See, Wolff, 998.
MAJOR, persons. One who has attained his full age, and has acquired all his civil rights; one who is no longer a minor; an adult.
MAJOR. Military language. The lowest of the staff officers; a degree higher than captain.
MAJOR GENERAL. A military officer, commanding a division or number of regi- ments; the next in rank below a lieutenant general.
MAJORES. The male ascendant beyond the sixth degree were so called among the Romaus, and the term is still used in making genealogical tables.
MAJORITY, persons. The state or condition of a person who has arrived at full age. He is then said to be a major, in opposition to minor, which is his condition during infancy.
MAJORITY, government. The greater number of the voters; though in another sense, it means the greater number of votes given in which sense it is a mere plurality. (q. v.)
2. In every well regulated society, the majority has always claimed and exercised the right to govern the whole society, in the manner pointed out by the fundamental laws and the minority are bound, whether they have assented or not, for the obvious reason that opposite wills cannot prevail at the same time, in the same society, on the same subject. 1 Tuck. Bl. Com. App. 168, 172; 9 Dane's Ab. 37 to 43; 1 Story, Const. 330.
3. As to the rights of the majority of part owners of vessels, vide 3 Kent, Com. 114 et seq. As to the majority of a church, vide 16 Mass. 488.
4. In the absence of all stipulations, the general rule in partnerships is, that each partner has an equal voice, and a majority acting bonafide, have the right to manage the partnership concerns, and dispose of the partnership property, notwithstanding the dissent of the minority; but in every case when the minority have a right to give an opinion, they ought to be notified. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1954.
5. As to the majorities of companies or corporations, see Angel, Corp. 48, et seq.; 3 M. R. 495. Vide, generally, Rutherf. Inst. 249; 9 Serg. & Rawle, 99; Bro. Corporation, pl. 63; 15 Vin. Abr. 183, 184; and the article Authority; Plurality; Quorum.
TO MAKE. English law. To perform or execute; as to make his law, is to per- form that law which a man had bound himself to do; that is, to clear himself of an action commenced against him, by his oath, and the oaths of his neighbors. Old Nat. Br. 161. To make default, is to fail to appear in proper time. To make oath, is to swear according to the form prescribed by law.
MAKER. This term is applied to one who makes a promissory note and promises to pay it when due. He who makes a bill of exchange is called the drawer, and frequently in common parlance and in books of Reports we find the word drawer inaccurately applied to the maker of a promissory note. See Promissory note.
MAKING HIS LAW. A phrase used to denote the act of a person who wages his law. Bac. Ab. Wager of law, in pr.
MALA FIDES. Bad faith. It is opposed to bona fides, good faith.
MALA PRAXIS, crim. law. A Latin expression, to signify bad or unskilful practice in a physician or other professional person, as a midwife, whereby the health of the patient is injured.
2. This offence is a misdemeanor (whether it be occasioned by curiosity and experiment or neglect) because, it breaks the trust which the patient has put in the physician, and tends directly to his destruction. 1 Lord Raym. 213. See forms of indictment for mala praxis, 3 Chitty Crim. Law, 863; 4 Wentw. 360; Vet. Int. 231; Trem. P. C. 242. Vide also, 2 Russ. on Cr. 288; 1 Chit. Pr. 43; Com. Dig. Physician; Vin. Ab. Physician.
3. There are three kinds of mal practice. 1. Wilful mal practice, which takes place when the physician purposely administers medicines or performs an operation which he knows and expects will result in danger or death to the individual under his care; as, in the case of criminal abortion.
4. - 2. Negligent mal practice, which comprehends those cases where there is no criminal or dishonest object, but gross negligence of that attention which the situation of the patient requires: as if a physician should administer medicines while in a state of intoxication, from which injury would arise to his patient.
5. - 3. Ignorant mal practice, which is the administration of medicines, calculated to do injury, which do harm, and which a well educated and scientific medical man would know were not proper in the case. Besides the public remedy for mal practice, in many cases the party injured may bring a civil action. 5 Day's R. 260; 9 Conn. 209. See M. & Rob. 107; 1 Saund. 312, n. 2; l Ld. Raym. 213; 1 Briand, Med. Leg. 50; 8 Watts, 355; 9 Conn. 209.
MALA PROHIBITA. Those things which are prohibited by law, and therefore unlawful.
2. A distinction was formerly made in respect of contracts, between mala prohibita and mala in se; but that distinction has been exploded, and, it is now established that when the provisions of an act of the legislature have for their object the protection of the public, it makes no difference with respect to contracts, whether the thing be prohibited alsolutely or under a penalty. 5 B. & A 5, 340; 10 B. & C. 98; 3 Stark. 61; 13 Pick. 518; 2 Bing. N. C. 636, 646.
MALE. Of the masculine sex; of the sex that begets young; the sex opposed to the female. Vide Gender; Man; Sex; Worthiest of blood.
MALEDICTION, Eccles. law. A curse which was anciently annexed to donations of lands made to churches and religious houses, against those who should violate their rights.
MALEFACTOR. He who bas been guilty of some crime; in another sense, one who has been convicted of having committed a crime.
MALEFICIUM, civil law. Waste, damage, torts, injury. Dig. 5, 18, 1.
MALFEASANCE, contracts, torts. The unjust performance of some act which the party had no right, or which he had contracted not to do. It differs from mis- feasance, (q. v.) and nonfeasance. (q. v.) Vide 1 Chit. Pr. 9; 1 Chit. Pl. 134.
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MALUM IN SE. Evil in itself.
2. An offence malum in se is one which is naturally evil, as murder, theft, and the like; offences at common law are generally mala in sese.
3. An offence malum prohibitum, on the contrary, is not naturally an evil, but becomes so in consequence of its being forbidden; as playing at games, which being innocent before, have become unlawful in consequence of being forbidden. Vide Bac. Ab. Assumpsit, A, note; 2 Rolle's Ab. 355.
MALVEILLES. Ill-will. In some ancient records this word signifies malicious practices, or crimes and misdemeaners.
MALVERSATION, French law. This word is applied to all punishable faults committed in the exercise of an office, such as corruptions, exactions, extortions and larceny. Merl. Repert. b. t.
MAN. A human being. This definition includes not only the adult male sex of the human species, but women and children; examples: "of offences against man, some are more immediately against the king, other's more immediately against the subject." Hawk. P. C. book 1, c. 2, s. 1. Offences against the life of man come under the general name of homicide, which in our law signifies the killing of a man by a man." Id. book 1, c. 8, s. 2.
2. In a more confined sense, man means a person of the male sex; and sometimes it signifies a male of the human species above the age of puberty. Vide Rape. It was considered in the civil or Roman law, that although man and person are synonymous in grammar, they had a different acceptation in law; all persons were men, but all men, for example, slaves, were not persons, but things. Vide Barr. on the Stat. 216, note.
MANAGER. A person, appointed or elected to manage the affairs of another, but the term is more usually applied to those officers of a corporation who are authorized to manage its affairs. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 190.
2. In banking corporations these officers are commonly called directors, and the power to conduct the affairs of the company, is vested in a board of directors. In other private corporations, such as railroad companies, canal, coal companies, and the like, these officers are called managers. Being agents, when their authority is limited, they have no power to bind their principal beyond such authority. 17 Mass. R. 29; 1 Greenl. R. 81.
3. The persons appointed on the part of the house of representatives to prosecute impeachments before the senate, are called managers.
MANBOTE. In a barbarous age, when impunity could be purchased with money, the compensation which was paid for homicide was called manbote.
MANCIPATIO, civil law. The act of transferring things called res mancipi. (q. v.) This is effected in the presence of not less than five witnesses, who must be Roman citizens and of the age of puberty, and also in the presence of another person of the same condition, who holds a pair of brazen scales, and hence is called Libripens. The purchaser (qui mancipio accipit) taking hold of the thing, says I affirm that this slave (homo) is mine, ex jure quiritium, and he is purchased by me with this piece of money (sas) and brazen scales. He then strikes the scales with the piece of money and gives it to the seller as a symbol of the price (quasi pretii loco.) The purchaser or person to whom the mancipatio was made did not acquire the possession of the mancipatio; for the acquisition of possession was a separate act. Gaius. 1, 119; Id. iv. 181.
Both mancipatio and in jure cessio existed before the twelve tables. Frag. Vat. 50. Mancipation no longer existed in the code of Justinian, who took away all distinction between res mancipi and nec mancipi. Smith's Dict. Gr. & Rom. Antiq. Verb. Mancipium; Coop. Jus. 442.
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MANDANT. The principal in the contract of mandate is so called. Story, Ag. 337.
MANDATARIUS. One who is entrusted with and undertakes to perform a mandate. This word is used by the civilians in the same sense that we use mandatary. Poth. du Mandat, n. 1.
MANDATARY, contracts. One who undertakes to perform a mandate. Jones' Bailm. 53; Story on Bailm. 38. Dr. Halifax calls him mandatee. Halif. Anal. Civ. Law, 70, 16, 17.
2. It is the duty of a mere mandatory, it is said, to take ordinary care of the property entrusted to him. Vide Negligence. But it has been held that he is liable only for gross negligence. 14 S. & R. 275; 2 Hawks, R. 145; 2 Murph. R. 373; 3 Dana, R. 205; 3 Mason, R. 132; 11 Wend, R. 25; Wright, R. 598; 1 Bouv. 1st. n. 1073.
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MANDAVI BALLIVO, English law. The return made by a sheriff, when he has committed the execution of a writ to a bailiff of a liberty, who has the right to execute the writ.
MANHOOD. The ceremony of doing homage by the vassal to his lord was de- nominated homagium or manhood, by the feudists. The formula used was devenio vester homo, I become you Com. 54. See Homage.
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MANIFESTO. A solemn declaration, by the constituted authorities of a nation, which contains the reasons for its public acts towards another.
2. On the declaration of war, a manifesto is usually issued in which the nation declaring the war, states the reasons for so doing. Vattel, liv. 3, c. 4, 64; Wolff, 1187. See Anti-Manifesto.
MANKIND. Persons of the male sex; but in a more general sense, it includes persons of both sexes; for example, the statute of 25 Hen. VIII., c. 6, makes it felony to commit, sodomy with mankind or beast. Females as well as males axe included under the term mankind. Fortesc. 91; Bac. Ab. Sodomy. See Gender.
MANNER AND FORM, pleading. After traversing any allegation in pleading, it is usual to say "in manner and form as he has in his declaration in that behalf alleged," which is as much as to include in the traverse, not only the mere fact opposed to it, but that in the manner and form in which it is stated by the other party. These words, however, only put in issue the substantial statement of the manner of tho fact traversed, and do not extend to the time, place, or other circumstances attending it, if they were not originally material and necessary to be proved as laid. 3 Bouv. Inst. p. 297. See Modo et forma.
MANNOPUS. An ancient word which signifies goods taken in the hands of an ap- prehended thief.
MANOR, estates. This word is derived from the French manoir, and signifies, a house, residence, or habitation. At present its meaning is more enlarged, and includes not only a dwelling-house, but also lands. Vide Co. Litt. 58, 108; 2 Roll. Ab. 121 Merl. Repert. mot Manoir. See Serg. Land Laws of Pennsyl. 195.
2. By the English law, a manor is a tract of land originally granted by the king to a person of rank, part of which was given by the grantee to his followers, and the rest lie retained under the name of his demesnes; that which remained uncultivated was called the lord's waste, and served for public roads and common of pasture for the lord and his tenants.
MANSION. This term is synonymous with house. (q. v.) 1 Chit. Pr. 167; 2 T. R. 502; 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 215, n. 35; 9 B. & C. 681; S. C. 17 E. C. L. R. 472, and the cases there cited; Com. Dig. Justices, P 5; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 199. A portion only of a building may come under the description of a mansion-house. 1 Leach, 89, 428; 1 East, P. C. C. 15, s. 19. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1571, note.
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MANSTEALING. This word is sometimes used synonymously with kidnapping. The latter is more technical. 4 Bl. Com. 219.
MANU FORTI. With strong hand. (q. v.) This term is used in pleading in cases of forcible entry, and no other words are of equal import. Dane's Ab. ch. 132, a. 6; ch. 203, a. 12.
MANU OPERA. This has the same meaning with mannopus. (q. v.)
MANUAL. That which is employed or used by the hand, of which a present profit may be made. Things in the manual occupation of the owner cannot be distrained for rent. Vide Tools.
MANUCAPTIO, practice. In the English law it is a writ which lies for a man taken on suspicion of felony and the like, who cannot be admitted to bail by the sheriff, or others having power to let to mainprise. F. N. B. 249.
MANUCAPTORS. The same as mainpernors. (q. v.)
MANUFACTURE. This word is used in the English and American patent laws. This term includes two classes of things; first, all machinery which is to be used and is not the object of sale; and, secondly, substances (such, for example, as medicines) formed by chemical processes, when the vendible substance is the thing produced, and that which operates preserves no permanent form. In the first class, the machine, and, in the second the substance produced, is the subject of the patent. 2 H. Bl. 492. See 8 T. R. 99; 2 B. & A. 349; Day. Pat. Cas. 278; Webst. on Pat. 8; Phil. on Pat. 77; Perp. Manuel des Inv. c. 2, s. 1; Renouard, c. 5, s. 1; Westminster Review, No. 44, April 1835, p. 247; 1 Bell's Com., B. 1, part 2, c. 4, s. 1, p. 110, 6th ed.
MANUMISSION, contracts. The agreement by which the owner or master of a slave sets him free and at liberty; the written instrument which contains this agreement is also called a manumission.
2. In the civil law it was different from emancipation, which, properly speaking, was applied to the liberation of children from paternal power. Inst. liv. 1, t. 5 & 12; Co. Litt. 137, a; Dane's Ab. h. t.
MANURE, Dung. When collected in a heap, it is considered as personal property, but, when spread, it becomes a part of the land and acquires the character of real estate. Alleyn, 31; 2 Ired. R. 326.
MANUS. Anciently signified the person taking an oath as a compurgator. The use of this word probably came from the party laying his hand on the New Testament. Manus signifies, among the civilians, power, and is frequently used as synonymous with potestas. Lec. El. Dr. Rom. 94.
MANUSCRIPT. A writing; a writing which has never been printed.
2. The act of congress securing to authors a copyright passed February 3, 1831, sect. 9, protects authors in their manuscripts, and renders any person who shall unlawfully publish a manuscript liable to an action, and authorizes the courts to enjoin the publisher. See Copyright. The right of the author, to his manuscripts, at common law, cannot be contested. 4 Burr. 2396; 2 Eden, Ch. R. 329; 2 Story, R. 100; 2 Atk. 342; Ambl. 694; 2 B. & A. 290; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. 943; Eden, Inj. 322; 2 B. & A. 298; 2 Bro. P. C. (Toml ed.) 138; 4 Vin. Ab. 278; 2 Atk. 342; 2 Ves. & B. 23. These rights will be considered as abandoned if the author publishes his manuscripts, without securing the copyright under the acts of congress. See Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Copyright.
MARAUDER. One who, while employed in the army as a soldier, commits a larceny or robbery in the neighborhood of the camp, or while wandering away from the army. Merl. Repert. h. t.
MARC-BANCO. The name of a coin. The marc-banco of Hamburg, as money of account, at the custom-house, is deemed and taken to be of the value of thirty-five cents. Act of March 3, 1843.
MARCHES, Eng. law. This word signifies the limits, or confines, or borders. Bac. Law Tracts, tit. Jurisdiction of the. Marches, p. 246. It was applied to the limits between England and Wales or Scotland. In Scotland the term marches is applied to the boundaries between private properties.
MARETUM. Marshy ground overflowed by the sea or great rivers. Co. Litt. 5.
MARINARIUS. An ancient word which signified a mariner or seaman; in England marinarius capitaneus, was the admiral or warden of the ports.
MARINE. Whatever concerns the navigation of the sea, and forms the naval power of a nation is called its marine.
MARINE CONTRACT. One which relates to business done or transacted upon the sea and in sea ports, and over which the courts of admiralty have jurisdiction concurrent with the courts of common law; such contracts include according to civilians and jurists among other things, charter parties, affreightments, marine hypothecations, contracts for the marine service in the building, re-pairing, supplying and navigating ships; contracts and quasi contracts respec- ting averages, contributions and jettisons, and policies of insurance. 2 Gall. R. 398, where Judge Story gave a very learned opinion on the subject.
MARINE INSURANCE, contracts. A contract by which one party, for a stipulated premium, undertakes to indemnify the other, against all perils or sea risks, to which his ship; freight or cargo, or some of them, may be exposed, during a certain voyage or fixed period of time. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1175, et seq. See Insurance Marine.
MARINE INTEREST, contracts. A compensation paid for the use and risk of money loaned on respondentia and bottomry; provided the money be loaned and put in risk, there is no limit as to the amount which may be lawfully charged by the lender. 2 Marsh. Ins. 749; Hall on Mar. Loans; Pothier, Pret a. la Grosse, n. 19; 1 Stuart's (L. C.) R. 130.
MARINE LEAGUE. A measure equal to the twentieth part of a degree. Bouch. Inst. n. 1845, not. Vide Cannon Shot; Sea.
MARINER. One whose occupation is to navigate vessels on the sea. Vide Seamen Shipping articles.
2. By act of congress, 1 Story, Laws of U. S., ch. 56, s. 4, p. 109, it is provided, that no sum exceeding one dollar shall be recovered from any seaman or mariner (in the merchant service,) by any person, for any debt contracted during the time such seaman or mariner shall actually belong to any ship or vessel, until the voyage for which such seaman or mariner engaged, shall be ended.
MARITAGIUM. Anciently that portion which was given with a daughter in marriage.
2. During the existence of the feudal law, it was the right which the lord of the fee had, under certain tenures, to dispose of the daughters of his vassal in marriage. By this word was also understood marriage. Beames' Glanv. 138, n; Bract. 21 a; Spelm. Gl. ad voc.; 2 Bl. Com. 69; Co. Litt. 21 b, 76 a.
MARITAL. That which belongs to marriage; as marital rights, marital duties.
2. Contracts made by a feme sole with a view to deprive her intended husband of his marital rights, with respect to her property, are a fraud upon him, and may be set aside in equity. By the marriage, the husband assumes the duty of paying her debts, contracted previous to the coverture, and of supporting her during its existence; and he cannot, therefore, be fraudulently deprived, by the intended wife, of those rights which enable him to perform the duties which attach to him. 2 Cha. R. 42; Newl. Contr. 424; 1 Vern. 408; 2 Vern. 17; 2 P. Wms. 357, 674; 2 Bro. C. C. 345; 1 Ves. jr. 22; 2 Cox, R. 28; 2 Beav. 528; 2 Ch. R. 81; White's. L. C. in Eq. *277; 1 Hill, Ch. R. 1, 4; 13 Maine, R. 124; 1 McMull. Eq. R. 237 3 Iredell's Eq. R. 487; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 224.
MARITAL PORTION. In Louisiana, this name is given to that part of a deceased husband's estate, to which the widow is entitled. Civil Code, 334, art. 55; 3 Mart. N. S. 1.
MARITIME. That which belongs to or is connected with the sea.
MARITIME CAUSE. Maritime causes are those arising from maritime contracts, whether made at sea or on land, that is, such as relate to the commerce, business or navigation of the sea; as, charter parties, affreightments, marine loans, hypothecations, contracts for maritime service in building, repairing, supplying and navigating ships, contracts and quasi contracts respecting averages, contributions and jettisons; contracts relating to marine insurance, and those between owners of ships. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2621.
2. There are maritime causes also for torts and injuries committed at sea.
3. In general, the courts of admiralty have a concurrent jurisdiction with courts of law, of all maritime causes: and in some cases they have exclusive jurisdiction.
MARITIME CONTRACT. One which relates to the navigation of the sea.
2. The admiralty has jurisdiction in case of the breach of such contract, whether it has been entered into on land or at sea. 4 Wash. C. C. R. 453; see 2 Gallis. 465; 2 Sumn. 1; Gilp. 529.
MARITIME LAW. That system of law which relates to the affairs of the sea, such as seamen, ships, shipping, navigation, and the like.
MARITIME LOAN. A contract or agreement by which one, who is the lender, lends to another, who is the borrower, a certain sum of money, upon condition that if the thing upon which the loan has been made, should be lost by any peril of the sea, or vis major, the lender shall not be repaid, unless what remains shall be equal to the sum borrowed; and if the thing arrive in safety, or in case it shall not have been injured, but by its own defects or the fault of the master or mariners, the borrower shall be bound to return the sum borrowed, together with a certain sum agreed upon as the price of the hazard incurred. Emer. Mar. Loans, c. 1, s. 2; Poth. h. t. Vide Bottomry; Gross Adventure; Interest, maritime; Respondentia.
MARITIME PROFIT, mar. law. The French writers use the term maritime profit to signify any profit derived from a maritime lean. Vide Interest maritime.
MARK. This term has several acceptations. 1. It is a sign traced on paper or parchment, which stands in the place of a signature, usually made by persons who cannot write. 2 Cart. R. 324; M. & M. 516; 12 Pet. 150; 7 Bing. 457; 2 Ves. 455; 1 V. & B. 362; 1 Ves., jr. 11. A mark is now held to be a good signature, though the party was able to write. 8 Ad. & El. 94; 3 Nev. & Per. 228; 3 Curt. 752; 5 John. 144. Vide Subscription.
2. - 2. It is the sign, writing or ticket put upon manufactured goods to distinguish them from others. Poph. R. 144; 3 B & C. 541; 2 Atk. R. 485; 2 V. & B. 218; 3 M. & C. 1; Ed. Inj. 814. Vide Trade Marks.
3. - 3. Mark or marc, denotes a weight used in several parts of Europe, and for several commodities, especially gold and silver. When gold and silver are sold by the mark, it is divided into twenty-four carats.
4. - 4. Mark is also in England a money of accounts, and in some other countries a coin. The English marc is two-thirds of a pound sterling, or 13s. 4d., and the Scotch mark is of equal value in Scotch money of account. Encyc. Amer. h. t.
MARKET. A public place appointed by public authority, where all sorts of things necessary for the subsistence, or for the conveniences of life, are sold.
2. Markets are generally regulated by local laws.
3. By the term market is also understood the demand there is for any particular article; as, the cotton market in Europe is dull. Vide 15 Vin. Ab. 42; Com. Dig. h. t.
MARKET OVERT, Engl. law. Market overt is an open or public market; that is, a place appointed by law or custom for the sale of goods and chattels at stated times in public.
2. In London, every day except Sunday, is market day. In the country, particular days are fixed for market days. 2 Bl. Com. 449.
3. It is a general rule that sales of vendible articles made in market overt, are good not only between the parties, but are also binding on all those who have any property or right therein. Id. 2 Chitt. Com. Law, 148 to 154; Com. Dig. Market, E; Bac. Abr. Fairs and Market, E; 5 B. & A. 624; Dane's Abr. chap. 45, a 2.
4. There is no law recognizing the effect of a sale in market overt in Pennsylvania. 3 Yeates R. 347; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 130; in New York; 1 Johns, 480; in Massachusetts; 8 Mass. R. 521; 14 Mass. R. 500; in Ohio; 5 Ohio, R. 203; nor in Vermont. 1 Tyl. R. 341; nor indeed in any of the United States. 10 Pet. 161.
MARLEBRIDGE, STATUTE OF. The name of a statute passed the 52 Hen. III, A. D. 1267, so called because it was enacted at Marlebridge. Barr. on Stat. 58.
MARQUE AND REPRISAL. The name given to a commission granted by the supreme power of a state to a private person for the purpose of seizing the property of a foreign state or its subjects. Wheat. Law of Nations, 340. Vide Letters of Marque.

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MARSHALLING SECURITIES, equity. When a party has two funds by which his debt is secured, and another creditor has a claim only on one of these funds, a court of equity will compel the creditor having a double security to resort to that fund which will leave the other creditor his security, this is called marshalling assets. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3788; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 633 Amb. 91; 8 Ves. 389; 9 Ves. 209.
2. Marshalling of assets respects two different funds, and two different sets of parties, where one set can resort to either fund, the other only to one. It is grounded on obvious equity. It does no prejudice to anybody, and it effectuates the testator's intent. It takes place in favor of simple contract creditors, and of legatees, devisees and heirs, and in a few other cases, but not in favor of the next of kin. 4 Bro. C. C. 411; 1 P. Wms. 680.
3. The cases in which a court of equity marshals real and personal assets for the payment of simple contract debts and legacies, may be classed as follows: 1. Where there are specialty and simple contract debts and legacies and lands left to descend. In this case if the specialty creditors take a satisfaction for their debts out of the personal estate, the simple contract creditors first, and then the legatees, shall stand in the place of the specialty creditors, for obtaining satisfaction out of the lands, to the amount of so much as was received by the specialty creditors out of the personal estate.
4. - 2. Where there are specialty and simple contract debts, and lands are specifically devised. In this case if the creditors take a satisfaction for their debts out of the personal estate, the simple contract creditors shall stand in the place of the specialty creditors for obtaining a satisfaction out of the lands to the amount of so much as was received by the specialty creditors out of the personal estate, but then there can be no relief for the legatees, because there is as much equity to support the, specific devise of the lands, as to support the bequest of the legatees.
5. - 3. Where the debts are charged upon the lands. Here the legatees shall have the personal estate towards their satisfaction, and if the creditors take it in payment or towards the discharge of their debts, the legatees shall stand in their place pro tanto to have a discharge out of the lands.
6. - 4. When simple contract debts and legacies are both charged on the land. In this case the land shall be sold and all paid equally. 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 617.
MARSHALSEA, English law. The name of a prison belonging to the court of the king's bench.
MARTIAL LAW. Vide Law Martial.

MASCULINE. That which belongs to the male sex.
2. The masculine sometimes includes the feminine, vide an example under the article Man, and see also the articles Gender, Worthiest of blood; Poth. Intr. au titre 16, des Testamens et Donations Testamentaires, n. 170; Ayl, Pand. 57; 4 C. & P. 216; S. C. 19 E. C. L. R. 551 3 Fred. Code, pr. 1, b. 1, t. 4, s. 3; 3 Brev. R. 9.
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MATE. The second officer on board of a merchant ship or vessel.
2. He has the right to sue in the admiralty as a common mariner for wages. 1. Pet. Adm. Dee. 246.
3. When, on the death of the master, the mate assumes the command, he succeeds to the rights and duties of the principal officer. 1 Sumn. 157; 3 Mason, 161; 4 Mason, 196; See 7 Conn. 239; 4 Mason, 641 4 Wash. C. C. 838.
MATER FAMILIAS, civil law. The mother of a family, and, by extension, the mistress of a family.
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MATERNA MATERNIS. This expression is used in the French law to signify that in a succession the property coming from the mother of a deceased person, descends to his maternal relations.
MATERNAL. That which belongs to, or comes from the mother: as, maternal authority, maternal relation, maternal estate, maternal line. Vide Line.
MATERNAL PROPERTY. That which comes from the mother of the party, and other ascendants of the maternal stock. Domat, Liv. Prel. tit. 3, s. 2, n. 12. MATERNITY.The state or condition of a mother.
2. It is either legitimate or natural. The former is the condition of the mother who has given birth to legitimate children, while the latter is the condition of her who has given birth to illegitimate children. Maternity is always certain, while the paternity (q. v.) is only presumed.
MATERTERA. Maternal aunt; the sister of one's mother. Inst. 3, 4, 3; Dig. 38, 10, 10, 14.
MATHEMATICAL EVIDENCE. That evidence which is established by a demonstration. It is used in contradistinction to moral evidence. (q. v.)
MATRICULA, civil law. A register in which are inscribed the names of persons who become members of an association or society. Dig. 50, 3, 1. In the ancient church there was matricula clericorum, which was a catalogue of the officiating clergy; and matricula pauperum, a list of the poor to be relieved; hence to be entered in the university is to be matriculated.
MATRIMONIAL CAUSES. In the English ecclesiastical courts there are five kinds of causes which are classed under this head. 1. Causes for a malicious jactitation. 2. Suits for nullity of marriage, on account of fraud, incest, or other bar to the marriage. 2 Hagg. Cons. Rep. 423. 3. Suits for restitution of conjugal rights. 4. Suits for divorces on account of cruelty or adultery, or causes which have arisen since the marriage. 5. Suits for alimony.
MATRIMONIUM. By this word is understood the inheritance descending to a man, ex parti matris. It is but little used.
2. Among the Romans this word was employed to signify marriage; and it was so called because this conjunction was made with the design that the wife should become a mother. Inst. 1, 9, 1.
MATRIMONY. See Marriage.
MATRINA. A godmother.
MATRON. A married woman, generally an elderly married woman.
2. By the laws of England, when a widow feigns herself with child, in order to exclude the next heir, and a supposititious birth is expected, then, upon the writ de ventre inspiciendo, a jury of women is to be, impanneled to try the question, whether with child or not. Cro, Eliz. 566. So when a woman was sentenced to death, and she declared herself to be quick with child, a jury of matrons is impanneled to try whether she be or be not with child. 4 Bl. Com. 395. See Pregnancy; Quick with child.
MATTER. Some substantial or essential thing, opposed to form; facts.
MATTER IN PAYS. Literally, matter in the country; matter of fact, as distinguished from matter of law, or matter of record. Steph. Pl. 197. Vide Country.
MATTER IN DEED. Matter in deed is such matter as may be proved or established by a deed or specialty. In another sense it signifies matter of fact, in contradistinction to matter of law. Co. Litt. 320; Steph. Pl. 197.
MATTER OF FACT, pleading. Matter which goes in denial of a declaration, and Dot in avoidance of it. Bac. Ab. Pleas, &c. G 3; Hob. 127.
MATTER OF LAW, pleading. That which goes in avoidance of a declaration or other pleading, on the ground that the law does not authorize them. It does not deny the matter or fact contained in such pleading, but admitting them avoids them. Bac. Ab. Pleas, &c. G 3. Matter of law, is that which is referred to the decision of the court; matter of fact that which is submitted to the jury.
MATTER OF RECORD. Those facts which may be proved by the production of a record. It differs from matter in deed, which consists of facts which may be proved by specialty. Vide Estoppel.
MATTER, IMPERTINENT, Equity pleading. That which is altogether irrelevant to the case, that does not appertain or belong to it; id est, qui ad rem non pertinet. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4163 . See Impertinent.
MATTER, SCANDALOUS, equity pleading. A false and malicious statement of facts, not relevant to the cause. But nothing which is positively relevant, however harsh or gross the charge may be, can be considered scandalous. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4163.
2. A bill cannot by the general practice, be referred for impertinence after the defendant has answered, or submitted to answer, but it may be referred for scandal at any time, and even upon the application of a stranger to the suit, for he has the right to prevent the records of the court from being made the vehicle of spreading slanders against himself. Id. n. 41f 64.
MATURITY. The time when a bill or note becomes due. In order to bind the endorsers such note or bill must be protested, when not paid, on the last day of grace. See Days of grace.

MAYHEM, crimes. The act of unlawfully and violently depriving another of the use of such of his members as may render him less able in fighting either to defend himself or annoy his adversary; and therefore the cutting or disabling, or weakening a man's hand or finger, or striking out his eye or foretooth, or depriving him of those parts the loss of which abates his courage, are held to be mayhems. But cutting off the ear or nose or the like, are not held to be mayhems at common law. 4 Bl. Com. 205.
2. These and other severe personal injuries are punished by the Coventry act, (q. v.) which has been re-enacted in several of the states; Ryan's Med. Jurispr. 191, Philad. ed. 1832; and by congress. Vide act of April 30, 1790, s. 13, 1 Story's Laws U. S. 85; act of March 3, 1825, s. 22, 3 Story's L. U. S. 2006.
MAYHEMAVIT. Maimed. This is a term of art which cannot be supplied in pleadings by any other word; as, mutilavit, truncavit, &c. 3 Tho. Co. Litt. 548.
MAYOR, officer. The chief or executive magistrate of a city who bears this title.
2. It is generally his duty to cause the laws of the city to be enforeed, and to superintend inferior officers, such as constables, watchmen and the like. But the power and authority which mayors possess being given to them by local regulations, vary in different places.
MAYOR'S COURT. The name of a court usually established in cities, composed of a mayor, recorder and aldermen, generally having jurisdiction of offences committed within the city, and of other matters specially given them by the statute.
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MEAN. This word is sometimes used for mesne. (q. v.)
MEASON-DUE. A corruption of Maison de Dieu. (q. v.)
MEDIATE, POWERS. Those incident to primary powers, given by a principal to Iiis agent. For example, the general authority given to collect, receive and pay debts due by or to the principal is a primary power. In order to accomplish this it is frequently required to settle accounts, adjust disputed claims, resist those which are unjust, and answer and defend suits; these subordinate powers are sometimes called mediate powers. Story, Ag. 58. See Primary powers, and 1 Camp. R. 43, note 4 Camp. R. 163; 6 S. & R. 149.
MEDIATION. The act of some mutual friend of two contending parties, who brings them to agree, compromise or settle their disputes. Vattel, Droit des Gens, liv. 2, eh. 18, 328.
MEDIATOR. One who interposes between two contending parties, with their consent, for the purpose of assisting them in settling their differences. Sometimes this term is applied to an officer who is appointed by a sovereign nation to promote the settlement of disputes between two other nations. Vide Minister; Mediator.

MEDICINE CHEST. A box containing an assortment of medicines.
2. The act of congress for the government and regulation of seamen in the merchant service, sect. 8, 1 Story's L. U. S. 106, directs that every ship or vessel, belonging to a citizen or citizens of the United States, of the burthen of one hundred and fifty tons or upwards, navigated by ten or more persons in the whole, and bound on a voyage without the limits of the United States, shall be provided with a chest of medicines, put up by some apothecary of known reputation, and accompanied by directions for administering the same; and the said medicines shall be examined by the same or some other apothecary, once, at least, in every year, and supplied with fresh medicines in the place of such as shall have been used or spoiled; and in default of having such medicine chest so provided, and kept fit for use, the master or commander of such ship or vessel shall provide and pay for all such advice, medicine, or attendance of physicians, as any of the crew shall stand in need of in case of sickness, at every port or place where the ship or vessel may touch or trade at during the voyage, without any deduction from the wages of such sick seaman or mariner.
3. And by the act to amend the above mentioned act, approved March 2, 1805, 2 Story's Laws U. S. 971, it is provided that all the provisions, regulations, and penalties, which are contained in the eighth section of the act, entitled "An act for the, government and regulation of seamen in the merchants' service," so far as relates to a chest of medicines to be provided for vessels of one hundred and fifty tons burthen and upwards, shall be extended to all merchant vessels of the burthen of seventy-five tons or upwards, navigated with six persons, or more, in the whole, and bound from the United States to any port or ports in the West Indies.
MEDIETAS LINGUAE. Half tongue. This expression was used to signify that a jury for the trial of a foreigner or alien for a crime, was to be composed one half of natives and the other of foreigners. The jury de medietate linguae is used in but a few if any of the United States. Dane's Ab. vol. 6, c. 182, a, 4, n. 1. Vide 2 Johns. R. 381; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 525; Bac. Ab. Juries, E 8.
MELANCHOLIA, med. jur. A name given by the ancients to a species of par- tial intellectual mania, now more generally known by the name of monomania. (q. v.) It bore this name because it was supposed to be always attended by dejection of mind and gloomy ideas. Vide Mania.,
MELIORATIONS, Scotch law. Improvements of an estate, other than mere repairs; betterments. (q. v.) 1 Bell's Com. 73.
MELIUS INQUIRENDUM VEL INQUIRENDO. English practice. A writ which in certain cases issues after an imperfect inquisition returned on a capias utlugatum in outlawry. This melius inquirendum commands the sheriff to summon another inquest in order that the value, &c., of lands, &c., may be better or more cor- rectly ascertained. Its use is rare.
MEMBER. This word has various significations: 1. The limits of the body use- ful in self-defence. Membrum est pars corporis habens destinatum operationem in corpore. Co. Litt. 126 a. See Limbs.
2. - 2. An individual who belongs to a firm, partnership, company or corporation. Vide Corporation; Partnership.
3. - 3. One who belongs to a legislative body, or other branch of the government; as, a member of the house of representatives; a member of the court.
MEMBER OF CONGRESS. A member of the senate or house of representatives of the United States.
2. During the session of congress they are privileged from arrest, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace; they receive a compensation of eight dollars per day while in session, besides mileage. (q. v.)
3. They are authorized to frank letters and receive them free of postage for sixty days before, during, and for sixty days after the session.
4. They are prohibited from entering into any contracts with the United States, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part for themselves and others, under the penalty of three thousand dollars. Act of April 21, 1808, 2 Story's L. U. S. 1091. Vide Congress; Frank.
MEMBERS, English law. Places where a custom-house has been kept of old time, with officers or deputies in attendance; and they are lawful places of exportation or importation. 1 Chit. Com. L. 726.
MEMORANDUM. Literally, to be remembered. It is an informal instrument recording some fact or agreement, so called from its beginning, when it was made in Latin. It is sometimes commenced with this word, though written in English; as "Memorandum, that it is agreed," or it is headed with the words, "Be it remembered that," &c. The term memorandum is also applied to the clause of an instrument.
MEMORANDUM, insurance. A clause in a policy limiting the liability of the insurer. Its usual form is as follows, namely, "N. B. Corn, fish, salt, fruit, flour and seed, are warranted free from average, unless general, or the ship be stranded: sugar, tobacco, hemp, flax, hides and skins, are warranted free from average, under five percent; and all other goods, also the ship and freight, are warranted free from average, under three percent unless general, or the ship be stranded." Marsh. Ins.223; 5 N. S. 293; Id. 540; 4 N. S. 640; 2 L. R. 433; Id. 435.
MEMORANDUM OR NOTE. These words are use in the 4th section of the statute 29 Charles II., c. 3, commonly called the statute of frauds and perjuries, which enact, that "no action shall be brought whereby to charge any person upon any agreement made upon consideration of marriage, or upon any contract or sale of lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or any interest in or concerning them, unless the agreement upon which such action shall he brought, or some memorandum or note thereof, Shall be in writing," &c.
2. Many cases have arisen out of the words of this part of the statute; the general rule seems to be that the contract must be stated with reasonable certainty in the memorandum or note so that it can be understood from the writing itself, without having recourse to parol proof. 3 John., R. 399; 2 Kent, Com. 402; Cruise, Dig. t. 32, c. 3, s. 18. See 1 N. R. 252; 3 Taunt. 169; 15 East, 103; 2 M. & R. 222; 8 M. & W. 834 6 M. & W. 109.
MEMORANDUM CHECK. It is not unusual among merchants, when one makes a tem- porary loan from another, to give the lender a check on a bank, with the express or implied agreement that it shall be redeemed by the maker himself, and that it shall not be presented at the bank for payment. If passed to a third person, it will be valid in his hands, like any other check. 11 Paige, R. 612.
MEMORIAL. A petition or representation made by one or more individuals to a legislative or other body. When such instrument is addressed to a court, it is called a petition.
MEMORY. Understanding; a capacity to make contracts, a will, or to commit a crime, so far as intention is necessary.
2. Memory is sometimes employed to express the capacity of the understanding, and sometimes its power; when we speak of a retentive memory, we use it in the former sense; when of a ready memory, in the latter. Shelf. on Lun. Intr. 29, 30.
3. Memory, in another sense, is the reputation, good or bad, which a man leaves at his death. This memory, when good, is highly prized by the relations of the deceased, and it is therefore libelous to throw a shade over the memory of the dead, when the writing has a tendency to create a breach of the peace, by inciting the friends and relations of the deceased to avenge the insult offered to the family. 4 T. R. 126; 5 Co. R. 125; Hawk. b. 1, c. 73, s. 1.
MEMORY, TIME OF. According to the English common law, which has been altered by 2 & 3 Wm. IV., c. 71, the time of memory commenced from the reign of Richard the First, A. D. 1189. 2 Bl. Com. 31.
2. But proof of a regular usage for twenty years, not explained or contradicted, is evidence upon which many public and private rights are held, and sufficient for a jury in finding the existence of an immemorial custom or prescription. 2 Saund. 175, a, d; Peake's Ev. 336; 2 Price's R. 450; 4 Price's R. 198.
MENACE. A threat; a declaration of an intention to cause evil to happen to another.
2. When menaces to do an injury to another have been made, the party making them may, in general, be held to bail to keep the peace; and, when followed by any inconvenience or loss, the injured party has a civil action against the wrong doer. Com. Dig. Battery, D; Vin. Ab. h. t.; Bac. Ab. Assault; Co. Litt. 161 a, 162 b, 253 b; 2 Lutw. 1428. Vide Threat.
MENIAL. This term is applied to servants who live under their master's roof Vide stat. 2 H. IV., c. 21.
MENSA. This comprehends all goods and necessaries for livelihood. Obsolete.
MENSA ET THORO. The phrase a mensa et thoro is applied to a divorce which separates the husband and wife but does not dissolve the marriage. Vide Divorce.
MERCHANDISE. By this term is understood all those things which merchants sell either wholesale or retail, as dry goods, hardware, groceries, drugs, &c. It is usually applied to personal chattels only, and to those which are not required for food or immediate support, but such as remain after having been used or which are used only by a slow consumption. Vide Pardess. n. 8; Dig. 13, 3, 1; Id. 19, 4, 1; Id. 50, 16, 66. 8 Pet. 277; 2 Story, R. 16, 53, 54; 6 Wend. 335.
MERCHANT. One whose business it is to buy and sell merchandise; this applies to all persons who habitually trade in merchandise. 1 Watts & S. 469; 2 Salk. 445.
2. In another sense, it signifies a person who owns ships, and trades, by means of them, with foreign nations, or with the different States of the United States; these are known by the name of shipping merchants. Com. Dig. Merchant, A; Dyer, R. 279 b; Bac. Ab. h. t.
3. According to an old authority, there are four species of merchants, namely, merchant adventurers, merchant dormant, merchant travellers, and merchant residents. 2 Brownl. 99. Vide, generally, 9 Salk. R. 445; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. h. t.; 1 Bl. Com. 75, 260; 1 Pard. Dr. Com. n. 78
MERCHANTMAN. A ship or vessel employed in a merchant's service. This term is used in opposition to a ship of war.
MERCHANTS' ACCOUNTS. In the statute of limitations, 21 Jac. 1. c. 16, there is an exception which has been copied in the acts of the legislatures of a number of the States, that its provisions shall not apply to such accounts as concern trade and merchandise between merchant and merchant, their factors or servants.
2. This exception, it has been holden, applies to actions of assumpsit as well as to actions of account. 5 Cranch, 15. But to bring a case within the exception, there must be an account, and that account open and current, and it must concern trade. 12 Pet. 300. See 6 Pet. 151; 5 Mason, R. 505; Bac. Ab. Limitation of Actions, E 3; and article Limitation.
MERCY, Practice. To be in mercy, signifies to be liable to punishment at the discretion of the judge.
MERCY, crim. law. The total or partial remission of a punishment to which a convict is subject. When the whole punishment is remitted, it is called a pardon; (q. v.) when only a part of the punishment is remitted, it is frequently a conditional pardon; or before sentence, it is called clemency or mercy. Vide Rutherf. Inst. 224; 1 Kent, Com. 265; 3 Story, Const. 1488.
MERE. This is the French word for mother. It is frequently used as, in ventre sa mere, which signifies; a child unborn, or in the womb.
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MERITS. This word is used principally in matters of defence.
2. A defence upon the merits, is one that rests upon the justice of the cause, and not upon technical grounds only; there is, therefore, a difference between a good defence, which may be technical or not, and a defence on the merits. 5 B. & Ald. 703 1 Ashm. R. 4; 5 John. R. 536; Id. 360; 3 John. R. 245 Id. 449; 6 John. R. 131; 4 John. R. 486; 2 Cowen, R. 281; 7 Cowen, R. 514; 6 Wend. R. 511; 6 Cowen, R. 895.
MERTON, STATUTTE OF. A statute so called, because the parliament or rather council, which enacted it, sat at Merton, in Surrey. It was made the 20 Hen. III. A. D. 1236. See Barr. an the Stat. 41.
MESCROYANT. Used in our ancient books. An unbeliever. Vide Infidel.
MESE. An ancient word used to signify house, probably from the French maison; it is said that by this word the buildings, curtilage, orchards and gardens will pass. Co. Litt. 56.
MESNE. The middle between two extremes, that part between the commencement and the end, as it relates to time.
2. Hence the profits wbich a man receives between disseisin and recovery of lands are called mesne profits. (q. v.) Process which is issued in a suit between the original and final process, is called mesne process. (q . v.)
3. In England, the word mesne also applies to a dignity: those persons who hold lordships or manors of some superior wbo is called lord paramount, and grant the same to inferior persons, are called mesne lords.
MESNE PROCESS. Any process issued between original and final process; that is, between the original writ and the execution. See Process, mesne.
MESNE PROFITS, torts, remedies. The value of the premises, recovered in ejectment, during the time that the lessor of the plaintiff has been illegally kept out of the possession of his estate by the defendant; such are properly recovered by an action of trespass, quare clausum fregit, after a recovery in ejectment. 11 Serg. & Rawle, 55; Bac. Ab. Ejectment, H; 3 Bl. Com. 205.
2. As a general rule, the plaintiff is entitled to recover for such time as be can prove the defendant to have been in possession, provided he does not go back beyond six years, for in that case, the defendant may plead the statute of limitations. 3 Yeates' R, 13; B. N. P. 88.
3. The value of improvements made by the defendant, may be set off against a claim for mesne profits, but profits before the demise laid, should be first deducted from the value of the improvement's. 2 W. C. C. R. 165. Vide, generally, Bac. Ab. Ejectment, H; Woodf. L. & T. ch. 14, s. 3; 2 Sell. Pr. 140; Fonbl. Eq. Index, h. t.; Com. L & T. Index, h. t.; 2 Phil. Ev. 208; Adams on Ej. ch. 13; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Pow. Mortg. Index, h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
MESNE, WRIT of. The name of an ancient writ, which lies when: the lord para- mount distrains on the tenant paravail; the latter shall have a writ of mesne against the lord who is mesne. F. N. B. 316.
MESSENGER. A person appointed to perform certain duties, generally of a ministerial character.
2. In England, a messenger appointed under the bankrupt laws, is an officer who is authorized to execute the lawful commands of commissioners of bankrupts.
MESSUAGE, property. This word is synonymous with dwelling-house; and a grant of a messuage with the appurtenances, will not only pass a house, but all the buildings attached or belonging to it, as also its curtilage, garden and orchard, together with the close on which the house is built. 1 Inst. 5, b.; 2 Saund. 400; Ham. N. P. 189; 4 Cruise, 321; 2 T. R. 502; 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 215, note 35; 4 Blackf. 331. But see the cases cited in 9 B. & Cress. 681; S. C. 17 Engl. Com. L. R. 472. This term, it is said, includes a church. 11 Co. 26; 2 Esp. N. P. 528; 1 Salk. 256; 8 B. & Cress. 25; S. C. 15 Engl. Com. L. Rep. 151. Et vide 3 Wils. 141; 2 Bl. Rep. 726; 4 M. & W. 567; 2 Bing. N. C. 617; 1 Saund. 6. METHOD. The mode of operating or the means of attaining an object. 2. It has been questioned whether the method of making a thing can be patented. But it has been considered that a method or mode may be the subject of a patent, because, when the object of two patents or effects to be produced is essentially the same, they may both be valid, if the modes of attaining the desired effect are essentially different. Dav. Pat. Cas. 290; 2 B. & Ald. 350; 2 H. Bl. 492; 8 T. R. 106; 4 Burr. 2397; Gods. on Pat. 85; Perpigna, Manuel des Inventeurs, &c., c. 1, sect. 5, 1, p. 22.
METRE or METER. This word is derived from the Greek, and signifies a measure.
2. This is the standard of French measure.
3. The fundamental base of the metre is the quarter of the terrestrial meridian, or the distance from the pole to equator, which has been divided into ten millions of equal parts, one of which is of the length of the metre. The metre is equal to 3.28 feet, or 39.371 inches. Vide Measure.
MEUBLES MEUBLANS. A French term used in Louisiana, which signifies simply household furniture. 4 N. S. 664; 3 Harr. Cond. R. 431.
MICEL GEMOT, Eng. law. In Saxon times, the great council of the nation bore this name, sometimes also called the witena gemot, or assembly of wise men; in aftertimes, this assembly assumed the name of parliament. Vide 1 Bl. Comm. 147.
MICHAELMAS TERM. Eng. law. One of the four terms of the courts; it begins on the 2d day of November, and ends on the 25th of November. It was formerly a movable term. St. 11 G. IV. and 1 W. IV. 70.
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MIDDLEMAN contracts. A person who is employed both by the seller and purchaser of goods, or by the purcbaser alone, to receive them into his possession, for the purpose of doing something in or about them; as, if goods be delivered from a ship by the seller, to a wharfinger, to be by him forwarded to the purchaser, who has been appointed by the latter to receive them; or if goods be sent to a packer, for and by orders of the vendee, the packer is to be considerpd as a middleman.
2. The goods in both, these cases will be considered in transitu, provided the purchaser has not used the wharfinger's or the packer's warehouse as his own, an have an ulterior place of delivery in view. 3 B. & P. l27, 469; 4 Esp. R. 82; 2 B. & P. 457; 1 Campb. 282; 1 Atk. 245; 1 H. Bl. 364; 3 East, R. 93; Whit. on Trans. 195.
3. By middleman is also understood one who has been employed as an agent by a principal, and who has employed a subagent under him by authority of the principal, either express or implied. He is not in general Iiable for the wrongful acts of the sub-agent, the principal being alone responsible. 3 Campb. N. P. Cas. 4; 6 T. R. 411; 14 East, 65.
MIDWIFE, med. jur. A woman who practices midwifery; a woman who pursues the business of an account.
2. A midwife is required to perform the business she undertakes with proper skill, and if she be guilty of any mala praxis, (q. v.) she is liable to an action or an indictment for the misdemeanor. Vide Vin. Ab. Physician; Com. Dig. Physician; 8 East, R. 348; 2 Wils. R. 359; 4 C. & P. 398; S. C. 19 E. C. L. R. 440; 4 C. & P. 407, n. a; 1 Chit. Pr. 43; 2 Russ. Cr. 288.
MILE, measure. A length of a thousand paces, or seventeen hundred and sixty yards, or five thousand two hundred and eighty feet. It contains eight furlongs, every furlong being forty poles, and each pole sixteen feet six inches. 2 Stark. R. 89.
MILEAGE. A compensation allowed by law to officers, for their trouble and expenses in travelling on public business.
2. The mileage allowed to members of congress, is eight dollars for every twenty miles of estimated distance, by the most usual roads, from his place of residence to the seat of congress, at tbe commencement and end of every session. Act of Jan. 22, 1818; 3 Story, Laws U. S. 1657.
3. In computing mileage the distance by the road usually travelled is that which must be allowed, whether in fact the officer travels a more or less distant way to suit his own convenience. 5 Shepl. R. 431.
MILITARY. That which belongs or relates to the army.
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MILLED MONEY. This term means merely coined money, and it is not necessary that it should be marked or rolled on the edges. Running's case, Leach, 708.
MIL-REIS. The name of a coin. The mil-reis of Portugal is taken as money of account, at the custom-house, to be of the value of one hundred and twelve cents. Act of March 13, 1843.
2. The mil-reis of Azores, is deemed of the value of eighty-three and one-third cents. Act of Match 3, 1843.
3. The mil-reis of Maderia, is deemed of the value of one hundred cents. Id.
MIND AND MEMORY. It is usual in considering the state of a testator at the time of making his will, to ascertain whether he was of sound mind and memory; that is, whether he had capacity to make a will. These words then import capacity, ability.
MINE. An excavation made for obtaining minerals from the bowels of the earth, and the minerals themselves are known by the name of mine.
2. Mines are therefore considered as open and not open. An open mine is one at which work has been done, and a part of the materials taken out. When land is let on which there is an open mine, the tenant may, unless restricted by his lease, work the mine; 1 Cru. Dig. 132; 5 Co. R. 12; 1 Chit. Pr. 184, 5; and he may open new pit's or shafts for working the old vein, for otherwise the working of the same mine might be impracticable. 2 P. Wms. 388; 3 Tho. Co. Litt. 237; 10 Pick. R. 460. A mine not opened, cannot be opened by a tenant for years unless authorized, nor even by a tenant for life, without being guilty of waste. 5 Co. 12.
3. Unless expressly excepted, mines would be included in the conveyance of land, without being expressly named, and so vice versa, by a grant of a mine, the land itself, the surface above the mine, if livery be made, will pass. Co. Litt. 6; 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 218; Shep. To. 26. Vide, generally, 15 Vin. Ab. 401; 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 257, and the cases there cited, and 448; Com. Dig. Grant, G 7; Id. Waifs, H. 1; Crabb, R. P. 98-101; 10 East, 273; 1 M. & S. 84; 2 B. & A. 554; 4 Watts, 223-246.
4. In New York the following provisions have been made in relation to the mines in that state, by the revised statutos, part 1, chapter 9, title 11. It is enacted as follows, by
1. The following mines are, and shall be, the property of this state, in its right of sovereignty. 1. All mines of gold and silver discovered, or hereafter to be discovered, within this state. 2. All mines of other metals discovered, or hereafter to be discovered, upon any lands owned by persons not being citizens of any of the United States. 3. All mines of other metals discovered, or hereafter to be discovered, upon lands oned by a citizen of any of the United States, the ore of which, upon an average, shall contain less than two equal third parts in value, of copper, tin, iron or lead, or any of those metals.
6. - 2. All mines, and all minerals and fossils discovered, or hereafter to be discovered, upon any lands belonging to the people of this state, are, and shall be the property of the people, subject to the provisions hereinafter made to encourage the discovery thereof.
6. - 3. All mines of whatever description, other than mines of gold and silver, discovered or hereafter to be discovered, upon any lauds owned by a citizen of the United states, the ore of which, upon an average, shall contain two equal third parts or more, in value, of copper, tin, iron and lead, or any of those metals, shall belong to the owner of such land.
7. - 4. Every person who shall make a discovery of any mine of gold or silver, within this state, and the executors, administrators or assigns of such person, shall be exempted from paying to the people of this state, any part of the ore, profit or produce of such mine, for the term of twenty-one years, to be computed from the time of giving notice of such discovery, in the manner hereinafter directed.
8. - 5. No person discovering a mine of gold or silver within this state, shall work the same, until he give notice thereof, by information in writing, to the secretary of this state, describing particularly therin the nature and situation of the mine. Such notice shall be registered in a book, to be kept the secretary for that purpose.
9. - 6. After the expiration of the term above specified, the discoverer of the mine, or his representatives, shall be preferred in any contract for the working of such mine, made with the legislature or under its authority.
10. - 7. Nothing in this title contained shall affect any grants heretofore made by the legislature, to persons having discovered mines; nor be construed to give to any person a right to enter on, or to break up the lands of any other person, or of the people of this state, or to work any mines in such lands, unless the consent, in writing, of the owner thereof, or of the commissioners of the land office, when the lands belong to the people of this state, shall be previously obtained.
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MINOR, persons. One under the age of twenty-one years, while in a state of infancy; one who has not attained the age of a major. The terms major and minor, are more particularly used in the civil law. The common law terms are adult and infant. See Infant.
MINORITY. The state or condition of a minor; infancy. In another sense, it signifies the lesser number of votes of a deliberative assembly; opposed to majority. (q.v.)
MINT. The place designated by law, where money is coined by authority of the government of the United States.
2. The mint was established by the Act of April 2, 1792, 1 Story's L. U. S. 227, and located at Philadelphia, where, by virtue of sundry acts of congress, it still remains. Act of April 24, 1800, 1 Story, 770; Act of March 3, 1801, 1 Story, 816; Act of May 19, 1828, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2120.
3. Below will be found a reference to the acts of congress now in force in relation to the mint. Act of January 18, 1837, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story, L. U. S. 2120; Act of May 19, 1828, 4 Id. 2120; Act of May 3, 1835; Act of February 13, 1837; Act of March 3, 1849; Act of March 3, 1851, s. 11. Vide Coin; Foreign Coin; Money.
MINUTE, measures. In divisions of the circle or angular measures, a minute is equal to sixty seconds, or one sixtieth part of a degree.
2. In the computation of time, a minute is equal to sixty seconds, or the sixtieth part of an hour. Vide Measure.
MINUTE, practice. A memorandum of what takes place in court; made by authority of the court. From these minutes the record is afterwards made up. 2. Toullier says, they are so called because the writing in which they were originally, was small, that the word is derived, from the Latin minuta, (scriptura) in opposition to copies which were delivered to the parties, and which were always written in a larger hand. 8 Toull. n. 413.
3. Minutes are not considered as any part of the record. 1 Ohio R. 268. See 23 Pick. R. 184.
MINUTE BOOK. A book kept by the clerk or prothonotary of a court, in which minutes of its proceedings are entered. It has been decided that minutes are no part of the record. 1 Ohio R. 268.
MIRROR DES JUSTICES. The Mirror of Justices, a treatise written during the reign of Edward II. Andrew Horne is its reputed author. It was first published in 1642, and in 1768 it was translated into English by William Hughes. Some diversity of opinion seems to exist as to its merits. Pref. to 9 & 10 Co. Rep. As to the history of this celebrated book see St. Armand's Hist. Essays on the Legislative power of England, 68, 59.
MIS. A syllable which prefixed to some word signifies some fault or defect; as, misadventure, misprision, mistrial, and the like.
MISADVENTURE, crim. law, torts. An accident by which an injury occurs to another.
2. When applied to homicide, misadventure is the act of a man who, in the performance of a lawful act, without any intention to do harm, and after using proper precaution to prevent danger, unfortunately kills another person. The act upon which the death ensues, must be neither malum in se, nor malum prohibitum. The usual examples uuder this head are, 1. When the death ensues from innocent recreations. 2. From moderate and lawful correction (q. v.) in foro domestico. 3. From acts lawful and indifferent in themselves, done with proper and ordinary caution. 4 Bl. Com. 182; 1 East, P C. 221.
MISBEHAVIOUR. Improper or unlawful conduct. See 2 Mart. N. S. 683.
2. A party guilty of misbehaviour; as, for example, to threaten to do injury to another, may be bound to his good behaviour and thus restrained. See Good Behaviour.
3. Verdicts are not unfrequently set aside on the ground of misbehaviour of jurors; as, when the jury take out with them papers which were not given in evidence, to the prejudice of one of the parties. Ld. Raym. 148. When they separate before they have agreed upon their verdict. 3 Day, 237, 310., When they cast lots for a verdict; 2 Lev. 205; or, give their verdict because they have agreed to give it for the amount ascertained by each juror putting down a sum, adding the whole together, and then dividing by twelve the number of jurors, and giving their verdict for the quotient. 15 John. 87. See Bac. Ab. Verdict, H.
4. A verdict will be set aside if the successful party has been guilty of any misbehaviour towards the jury; as, if he say to a juror, "I hope you will find a verdict for me;" or " the matter is clearly of my side." 1 Vent. 125; 2 Roll. Ab. 716, pl. 17. See Code, 166, 401; Bac. Ab. Verdict, I.
MISCARRIAGE, med. jurisp. By this word is technically understood the expul- sion of the ovum or embryo from the uterus within the first six weeks after conception; between that time and before the expiration of the sixth month, when the child may possibly live, it is termed abortion. When the delivery takes place soon after the sixth month, it is denominated premature labor. But the criminal act of destroying the foetus at any time before birth, is termed in law, procuring miscarriage. Chit. Med. Jur. 410; 2 Dunglison's Human Physiology, 364. Vide Abortion; Foetus.
MISCARRTAGE, contracts, torts. By the English statute of frauds, 29, C. II., c. 3, s. 4, it is enacted that "no action shall be brought to charge the defendant upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another person, unless the agreement," &c. "shall be in writing," &c. The word miscarriage, in this statute comprehends that species of wrongful act, for the consequences of which the law would make the party civilly responsible. The wrongful riding the horse of another, without his leave or license, and thereby causing his death, is clearly an act for which the party is reasonsible in damages, and therefore, falls within the meaning of the word miscarriage. 2 Barn. & Ald. 516; Burge on Sur. 21.
MISCASTING. By this term is not understood any pretended miscasting or mis- valuing, but simply an error in auditing and numbering. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4128.
MISCOGNlSANT. This word, which is but little used, signifies ignorant or not knowing. Stat. 32 H. VIII. c. 9.
MISCONDUCT. Unlawful behaviour by a person entrusted in any degree: with the administration of justice, by which the rights of the parties and the justice of the, case may have been affected.
2. A verdict will be set aside when any of the jury have been guilty of such misconduct, and a court will set aside an award, if it has been obtained by the misconduct of an arbitrator. 2 Atk. 501, 504; 2 Chit. R. 44; 1 Salk. 71; 3 P. Wms. 362; 1 Dick. 66.
MISCONTINUANCE, practice. By this term is understood a continuance of a suit by undue process. Its effect is the same as a discontinuance. (q. v.) 2 Hawk. 299; Kitch. 231; Jenk. Cent. 57.
MISDEMEANOR, crim. law. This term is used to express every offence infe- rior to felony, punishable by indictment, or by particular prescribed proceedings; in its usual acceptation, it is applied to all those crimes and offences for which the law has not provided a particular name; this word is generally used in contradistinction to felony; misdemeanors comprehending all indictable offences, which do not amount to felony, as perjury, battery, libels, conspiracies and public nuisances.
2. Misdemeanors have sometimes been called misprisions. (q. v.) Burn's Just. tit. Misdemeanor; 4 Bl. Com. 5, n. 2; 2 Bar. & Adolph. 75: 1 Russell, 43; 1 Chitty, Pr. 14; 3 Verm. 347; 2 Hill, S. C. 674; Addis. 21; 3 Pick. 26; 1 Greenl. 226; 2 P. A. Browne, 249; 9 Pick. 1; 1 S. & R. 342; 6 Call. 245; 4 Wend. 229; 2 Stew. & Port. 379. And see 4 Wend. 229, 265; 12 Pick. 496; 3 Mass. 254; 5 Mass. 106. See Offence.
MISDIRECTION, practice. An error made by a judge in charging the jury in a special case.
2. Such misdirection is either in relation to matters of law or matters of fact.
3. - 1. When the judge at the trial misdirects the jury, on matters of law, material to the issue, whatever may be the nature of the case, the verdict will be set aside, and a new trial granted; 6 Mod. 242; 2 Salk. 649; 2 Wils. 269; or if such misdirection appear in the bill of exceptions or otherwise upon the record, a judgment founded on a verdict thus obtained, will be reversed. When the issue consists of a mixed question of law and fact and there is a conceded state of facts, the rest is a question for the court; 2 Wend. R. 596; and a misdirection in this respect will avoid the verdict.
4. - 2. Misdirection as to matters of fact will in some cases be sufficient to vitiate the proceedings. If, for example, the judge should undertake to dictate to the jury. When the, judge delivers, his opinion to the jury on a matter of fact, it should be delivered as mere opinion, and not as direc- tion. 12 John. R. 513. But the judge is in general allowed to very liberal discretion in charging a jury on matters of fact. 1 McCl. & Y. 286.
5. As to its effects, misdirection must be calculated to do injustice; for if justice has been done, and a new trial would produce the same result, a new trial will not be granted on that account, 2 Salk. 644, 646; 2 T. R. 4; 1 B. & P. 338; 5 Mass. R. 1; 7 Greenl. R. 442; 2 Pick. R. 310; 4 Day's R. 42; 5 Day's R. 329; 3 John. R. 528; 2 Penna. R. 325.
MISE, English law. In a writ of right which is intended to be tried by the grand assize, the general issue is called the mise. Lawes, Civ. Pl. 111; 7 Cowen, 51. This word also signifies expenses, and it is so commonly used in the entries of judgments in personal actions; as when the plaintiff recovers, the judgment is quod recuperet damna sua for such value, and pro mises et custagiis for costs and charges for so much, &c.
MISERABILE DEPOSITUM, civ. law. The name of an involuntary deposit, made under pressing necessity; as, for instance, shipwreck, fire, or other inevitable calamity. Poth. Proced. Civ. 5eme part., ch. 1, 1 Louis. Code, 2935.
MISERICORDIA, mercy. An arbitrary or discretionary amercement.
2. To be in mercy, is to be liable to such punishment as the judge may in his discretion inflict. According to Spelman, misericordia is so called, because the party is in mercy, and to distinguish this fine from redemptions, or heavy fines. Spelm. GI. ad voc.; see Co. Litt. 126 b, and Madox's Excheq. c. 14. See Judgment of Misericordia.
MISFEASANCE, torts, contracts. The performance of an act which might lawfully be done, in an improper manner, by which another person receives an injury. It differs from malfeasance, (q. v.) or, nonfeasance (q. v.) Vide, generally, 2 Vin. Ab. 35; 2 Kent, Com. 443; Doct. Pl. 62; Story, Bail. 9.
2. It seems to be settled that there is a distinction between misfeasance and nonfeasance in the case of mandates. In cases of nonfeasance, the mandatary is not generally liable, because his undertaking being gratuitous, there is no consideration to support it; but in cases of misfeasance, the common law gives a remedy for the injury done, and to the extent of that injury. 5 T. R. 143; 4 John. Rep. 84; Story, Bailment, 165; 2 Ld. Raym. 909, 919, 920; 2 Johns. Cas. 92; Doct. & Stu. 210; 1 Esp. R. 74; 1 Russ. Cr. 140; Bouv. Inst. Index h. t.
MISJOINDER, pleading. Misjoinder of causes of action, or counts, consists in joining, in different counts in one declaration, several demands, which the law does not permit to be joined, to enforce several distinct, substantive rights of recovery; as, where a declaration joins a count in trespass with another in case, for distinct wrongs or a count in tort, with another in contract. Gould. 6n PI. c. 4, 98; Archb. Civ. PI. 61, 78 176; Serg. and Rawle, 358; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
2. Misjoinder of parties, consists in joining as plaintiffs or defendants, persons, who have not a joint interest. When the misjoinder relates to the plaintiffs, the defendants may, at common law, plead the matter in abatement, whether the action be real; 12 H. IV., 15; personal; Johns. Ch. R. 350, 438; 12 John. R. 1; 2 Mass. R. 293; or mixed; or it will be good cause of nonsuit at the trial. 3 Bos. & Pull. 235. Where the objection appears upon the face of the declaration, the defendant may demur generally; 2 Saund. 145; or move in arrest of judgment; or bring a writ of error.
3. When in actions ex contractu against several, there is a misjoinder of the defendants, as if there be too many persons made defendants, and the objection appears on the pleadings, either of the defendants may demur, move in arrest of judgment, or support a writ of error; and, if the objection do not appear on the pleadings, the plaintiff may be nonsuited upon the trial, if he fail in proving a joint contract. 5 Johns. R. 280; 2 Johns. R. 213; 11 Johns. R. 101; 5 Mass. R. 270.
4. In actions ex delicto, the misjoinder cannot in general be objected to, because in actions for torts, one defendant may be found guilty and the others acquitted. Archb. Civ. Pl. 79. As to the cases in which a misjoinder may be aided by a nolle prosequi, see 2 Archb. Pr. 218-220.
MISNOMER. The act of using a wrong name.
2. Misnomers, may be considered with regard to contracts, to devises and bequests, and to suits or actions.
3. - 1. In general, when the party can be ascertained, a mistake in the name will not avoid the contract. 11 Co. 20, 21; Lord Raym. 304; Hob. 125. Nihil facit error nominis, cum de corpori constat, is the rule of the civil law.
4. - 2. Misnomers of legatees will not in general avoid the legacy, when tho person intended can be ascertained from the context. Example: Thomas Stockdale bequeathed "to his nephew Thomas Stockdale, second son of his brother John Stockdale," 1000รบ, John had no son named Thomas, his second son was named William, and he claimed the legacy. It was determined, in his favor, because the mistake of the name was obviated by the correct description given of the person, namely, the second son of John Stockdale. 19 Ves. 381; S. C. Coop. 229; and see Ambl. 175; 3 Leon. 18; Co; Litt. 3 a; Finch's R. 403; Domat l. 4, t. 2, s. 1, n. 22; 1 Rop. Leg. 131.
5. - 3. Misnomers in suits or actions, when the mistake is in the name of one of the parties, must be pleaded in abatement; 1 Chit. Pl. 440; 1 Mass. 76; 5 Mass. 97; 15 Mass. 469; 16 Mass: 146; 10 S. & R. 257; 4 Cowen, R. 148; Coxe, 138; 6 Munf. 219; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 200; 2 Penna. R. 984; 5 Halst. R. 295; 1 Pen. R. 75, 137; 6 Munf. 580; 3 Caines, 170; 1 Tayl. R. 148; 8 Yerg. 101; Harp. R. 49; for the misnomer of one of the parties sued is not material on the general issue, when the identity is proved. 16 East, R. 110.
6. The names of third persons must, be correctly laid, for the error will not be helped by pleading the general issue; but, if a sufficient description be given, it has been held, in a civil case, that the misnomer was immaterial. Example: in an action for medicines alleged to have been furnished to defendant's wife, Mary, and his wife was named Elizabeth, the misnomer was held to be immaterial, the word wife being the material word. 2 Marsh. R. 159. In indictments, the names of third persons must be correctly given. Rose. Cr. Ev. R. 78. Vide, generally, 18 E. C. L. R. 149; 10 East, R. 83, n; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Dane's Ab. h. t.; 1 Vin. Ab. 7; 15 Vin. Ab. 466; 2 Phil, Ev. 2, note b; Bac. Ab. Abatement, D; Archb. Civ. Pl. 305; 1 Metc. & Perk. Dig. Abatement, V; and this Dictionary, Abatement; Contracts; Parties to Contracts; Parties to Actions.
MISPLEADING. Pleading incorrectly, or omitting anything in pleading which is essential to the support or defence of an action, is so called.
2. Pleading not guilty to an action of debt, is an example of the first; and when the plaintiff sets out a title not simply in a defective manner, but sets out a defective title, is an example of the second. See 3 Salk. 365.
MISPRISION, crim. law. 1. In its larger sense, this word is used to signify every considerable misdemeanor, which has not a certain name given to it in the law; and it is said that a misprision is contained in every treason or felony whatever. 2. In its narrower sense it is the concealment of a crime.
2. Misprision of treason, is the concealment of treason, by being merely passive; Act of Congress of April 30, 1790, 1 Story's L. U. S. 83; 1 East, P. C. 139; for if any assistance be given, to the traitor, it makes the party a principal, as there is no accessories in treason.
3. Misprison of felony, is the like concealment of felony, without giving any degree of maintenance to the felon; Act of Congress of April 30, 1790, s. 6, 1 Story's L. U. S. 84; for if any aid be given him, the party becomes an accessory after the fact.
4. It is the duty of every good citizen, knowing of a treason or felony having been committed; to inform a magistrate. Silently to observe the commission of a felony, without using any endeavors to apprehend the offender, is a misprision. 1 Russ. on Cr. 43; Hawk. P. C. c. 59, s. 6; Id. Book 1, c. s. 1; 4 Bl. Com. 119.
5. Misprisions which are merely positive, are denominated contempts or high misdemeanors; as, for example, dissuading a witness from giving evidence. 4 Bl. Com. 126.
MISREADING, contracts. When a deed is read falsely to an illiterate or blind man, who is a party to it, such false reading amounts to a fraud, because the contract never had the assent of both parties. 5 Co. 19; 6 East, R. 309; Dane's Ab. c. 86, a, 3, 7; 2 John. R. 404; 12 John. R. 469; 3 Cowen, R. 537.
MISRECITAL, contracts, pleading. The incorrect recital of a matter of fact, either in an agreement or a plea; under the latter term is here understood the declaration and all the subsequent pleadings. Vide Recital, and the cases there cited; and Bac. Ab. Pleas, &c. B. 5, n. 3.
MISREPRESENTATION, contracts. The statement made by a party to a contract, that a thing relating to it is in fact in a particular way, when he knows it is not so.
2. The misrepresentation must be both false and fraudulent, in order to make the party making it, responsible to the other for damages. 3 Com. R. 413; 10 Mass. R. 197; 1 Rep. Const. Court, 328, 475, Yelv. 21 a, note l; Peake's Cas. 115; 3 Campb. 154; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 10, s. 1. And see Representation. It is not every misrepresentation which will make a party liable; when a mere misstatement of a fact has been erroneously made, without fraud, in a casual, improvident communication, respecting a matter which the person to whom the communication was made, and who had an interest in it, should not have taken upon trust, but is bound to inquire himself, and had the means of ascertaining the truth, there would be no responsibility; 5 Maule & Selw. 380; 1 Chit. Pr. 836; 1 Sim. R. 13, 63; and when the informant was under no legal pledge or obligation as to the precise accuracy and correctness of his statement, the other party can maintain no action for the consequences of that statement, upon which it was his indiscretion to place reliance. 12 East, 638; see also, 2 Cox, R. 134; 13 Ves. 133; 3 Bos. & Pull. 370; 2 East, 103; 3 T. R, 56, 61; 3 Bulstr. 93; 6 Ves. 183; 3 Ves. & Bea. 110; 4 Dall. R. 250. Vide Concealment; Representation; Suggestio falsi; Suppressio veri.
MISSING SHIP, mar. law. When a ship or other vessel has been at sea for a much longer time than she ought to have been, she is presumed to have perished there with all on board, and such a vessel is called a missing ship.
2. There is no precise time fixed as to when the presumption is to arise, and this must depend upon the circumstances of each case. 2 Str. R. 1199; Park. Ins. 63; Marsh. Ins. 488; 2 Johns. R. 150; 1 Caines' R. 525; Holt's N. P. Rep. 242.
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MISTAKE, contracts. An error committed in relation to some matter of fact affecting the rights of one of the parties to a contract.
2. Mistakes in making a contract are distinguished ordinarily into, first, mistakes as to the motive; secondly, mistakes as to the person, with whom the contract is made; thirdly, as to the subject matter of the contract; and, lastly, mistakes of fact and of law. See Story, Eq. Jur. 110; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Ignorance; Motive.
3. In general, courts of equity will correct and rectify all mistakes in deeds and contracts founded on good consideration. 1 Ves. 317; 2 Atk. 203; Mitf. Pl. 116; 4 Vin. Ab. 277; 13 Vin. Ab. 41; 18 E. Com. Law Reps. 14; 8 Com. Digest, 75; Madd. Ch. Prac. Index, h. t.; 1 Story on Eq. ch. 5, p. 121; Jeremy's Eq. Jurisd. B. 3, part 2, p. 358. See article Surprise.
4. As to mistakes in the names of legatees, see 1 Rop. Leg. 131; Domat, l. 4, t. 2, s. 1, n. 22. As to mistakes made in practice, and as to the propriety or impropriety of taking advantage of them, see Chitt. Pr. Index, h. t. As to mistakes of law in relation to contracts, see 23 Am. Jur. 146 to 166.
MISTRIAL. An erroneous trial on account of some defect in the persons trying, as if the jury come from the wrong county or because there was no issue formed, as if no plea be entered; or some other defect of jurisdiction. 3 Cro. 284; Hob. 5; 2 M. & S. 270.
MISUSE OF PROPERTY. The unlawful use of property.
2. The misuse of personal property delivered lawfully to the defendant, is a conversion which will enable the owner immediately to maintain trover. 6 Shepl. 382; 8 Leigh, 565; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3525.
MISUSER. An unlawful use of a right.
2. In cases of public officers and corporations, a misuser is sufficient to cause the right to be forfeited. 2 Bl. Com. 153; 5 Pick. R. 163.
MITIGATION. To make less rigorous or penal.
2. Crimes are frequently committed under circumstances which are not justifiable nor excusable, yet they show that the offender has been greatly tempted; as, for example, when a starving man steals bread to satisfy his hunger, this circumstance is taken into consideration in mitigation of his sentence.
3. In actions for damages, or for torts, matters are frequently proved in mitigation of damages. In an action for criminal conversation with the plaintiff's wife, for example, evidence may be given of the wife's general bad character for want of chastity; or of particular acts of adultery committed by her, before she became acquainted with the defendant; 12 Mod. R. 232; Bull. N. P. 27, 296; Selw. N. P. 25; 1 Johns. Cas, 16: or that the plaintiff has carried on a criminal conversation with other women; Bull. N. P. 27; or that the plaintiff's wife has made the first advances to the defendant, 2 Esp. N. P. C. 562; Selw. N. P. 25. See 3 Am. Jur. 287, 313; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
4. In actions for libel, although the defendant cannot under the general issue prove the crime, which is imputed to the plaintiff, yet he is in many cases allowed to give evidence of the plaintiff's general character in mitigation of damages. 2 Campb. R. 251; 1 M. & S. 284.
MITIOR SENSUS, construction. The more lenient sense. It was formerly held in actions for libel and slander, that when two or more constructions could be put upon the words, one of which would not be actionable the words were to be so construed, for verba accipienda sunt in mitiore sensu. 4 Co. 13, 20. It is now, however, well established, that they are not to be taken in the more lenient, or more severe sense, but in the sense which fairly belongs to them, and which they were intended to convey. 2 Campb. 403; 2 T. R. 206.
MITTER, law-French. To put, to send, or to pass; as mitter' l'estate, to pass the estate; mitter le droit, to pass a right. 2 Bl. Com. 324; Bac. Ab. Release, C; Co. Lit. 193, 273, b. Mitter a large, to put or, set at large. Law French Dict. h. t.
MITTIMUS, English practice. A writ enclosing a record sent to be tried in a county palatine; it derives its name from the Latin word mittimus, "we send." It is the jury process of these counties, and commands the proper officer of the county palatine to command the sheriff to summon the jury for the trial of the cause, and to return the record, &c. 1 M. R. 278; 2 M. R. 88.
MITTIMUS, crim. law, practice. A precept in writing, under the hand and seal of a justice of the peace, or other competent officer, directed to the gaoler or keeper of a prison, commanding him to receive and safely keep, a person charged with an offence therein named until he shall be delivered by due course of law. Co. Litt. 590.
MIXED. To join; to mingle. A compound made of several simples is said to be something mixed.
MIXED ACTIONS, practice. An action partaking of a real and personal action by which real property is demanded, and damages for a wrong sustained: an ejectment is of this nature. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3650.
MIXED OR COMPOUND LARCENY, crim. law. A larceny which has all the properties of simple larceny, and is accompanied with one or both the aggravations of violence to the person or taking from the house.
MIXED GOVERNMENT. A government composed of some of the powers of a monarchical, aristocratical, and democratical government. See Government.
MIXED PROPERTY. That kind of property which is not altogether real nor personal, but a compound of both. Heir-looms, tomb-stones, monuments in a church, and title deeds to an estate, are of this nature. 1 Ch. Pr. 95; 2 Bl. Com. 428; 3 Barn. Adolph. 174; 4 Bingh. R. 106; S. C. 13 Engl. Com. Law Rep. 362.
MIXT CONTRACT, civil law. One in which one of the parties confers a benefit on the other, and requires of the latter something of less value than what he has given; as a legacy charged with something of less value than the legacy itself. Poth. Oblig. n. 12. See Contract.
MIXTION. The putting of different goods or chattels together in such a manner that they can no longer be separated; as putting the wines of two different persons into the same barrel, the grain of several persons into the same bag, and the like. 2. The intermixture may be occasioned by the wilful act of the party, or owner of one of the articles; by the wilful act of a stranger; by the neglilence of the owner or a stranger; of by accident. See, as to the rights of the parties under each of these circumstances, the article Confusion of goods. Vide Aso & Man. Inst. B. 2, t.
MOBBING AND RIOTING, Scotch law. The general term mobbing and rioting includes all those convocations of the lieges for violent and unlawful purposes, which are attended with injury to the persons or property of the lieges, or terror and alarm to the neighborhood in which it takes place. The two phrases are usually placed together, but, nevertheless, they have distinct meanings, and are sometimes used separately in legal language; the word mobbing being peculiarly applicable to the unlawful assemblage and violence of a number of persons, and that of rioting to the outrageous behaviour of a single individual. Alison, Prin. C. Law of Scotl. c. 23, p. 509.
MODEL. A machine made on a small scale to show the manner in which it is to be worked or employed.
2. The Act of Congress of July 4, 1836, section 6, requires an inventor who is desirous to take out a patent for his invention, to furnish a model of his invention, in all cases which admit of represent ation by model, of a convenient size to exhibit advantageously its several parts.
MODERATE CASTIGAVIT, pleading. The name of a plea in trespass by which the defendant justifies an assault and battery, because he moderately corrected the plaintiff, whom he had a right to correct. 2 Chit. Pl. 676; 2 Bos. & Pull. 224. Vide Correction, and 15 Mass. R. 347; 2 Phil. Ev. 147; Bac. Ab. Assault, &c. C.
2. This plea ought to disclose, in general terms, the cause which rendered the correction expedient. 3 Salk. 47.
MODERATOR. A person appointed to preside at a popular meeting; sometimes he is called a chairman.
MODIFICATION. A change; as the modification of a contract. This may take place at the time of making the contract by a condition, which shall have that effect; for example, if I sell you one thousand bushels of corn, upon condition that any crop shall produce that much, aud it produces only eight hundred bushels, the contract is modified, it is for eight hundred bushels, and no more.
12. It may be modified by the consent of both parties, after it has been made. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 733.
MODO ET FORMA, pleading. In manner and form. These words are used in tendering an issue in a civil case.
2. Their legal effect is to put in issue all material circumstances and no other, they may therefore be always used with safety.
3. These words are sometimes of the substance of the issue and sometimes merely words of form. When they are of the substance of the issue, they put in issue the circumstances alleged as concomitants of the principal matter denied by the pleader, such as time, place, manner, &c. When not of the substance of the issue they do not put in issue such circumstances. Bac. Ab. Plea, G 1; Lawes' Pl. 120; Hardr. 39. To determine when they are of the substance of the issue and when not so, the established criterion is, that when the circumstances of manner, time, place, &c. alleged in connexion with the principal fact traversed, are originally and, in themselves material, and therefore necessary to be proved as stated, the words modo et forma are of the substance of the issue, and do, consequently, put those concomitants in issue; but that when such concomitants or circumstances are not in themselves material, and therefore not necessary to be proved as stated, the words modo et forma, are not of the substance of the issue, and consequently do not put them in issue. Lawes on Pl. 120; and see Gould, Pl. c. 6, 22; Steph. Pl. 213; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Kitch. 232. See Bac. Ab. Verdict, P; Vin. Ab. Modo et Forma.
MODUS, civil law. Manlier; means; way.
MODUS, eccl. law. Where there is by custom a particular manner of tithing allowed, different from the general law of taking tithes in kind, as a pecuniary compensation, or the performance of labor, or when any means are adopted by which the general law of tithing is altered, and a new method of taking them is introduced, it is called a modus decimandi, or special manner of taking tithes. 2 Bl. Com. 29.
MOHATRA, French law. The name of a fraudulent contract, made to cover a usurious loan of money.
2. It takes place when an individual buys merchandise from another oil a credit at a high price, to sell it immediately to the first seller, or to a third person, who acts as his agent, at a much less price for cash. 16 Toull. n. 44; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1118.
MOIETY. The half of anything; as, if a testator bequeath one moiety of his estate to A, and the other to B, each shall take an equal part. Joint tenants are said to hold by moieties. Lit. 125; 3 M. G. & S. 274, 283
MOLESTATION, Scotch law, The name of an action competent to the proprietor of a landed estate, against those who disturb his possession, It is chiefly used in questions of commonty, or, of controverted marches. Ersk. Prin. B. 4, t. 1, n. 48.
MOLITER MANUS IMPOSUIT, pleading. In an action of trespass to the person, the defendant frequently justifies by pleading that he used no more force than was necessary to remove the plaintiff who, was unlawfully in the house of the defendant, and for this purpose he gently laid his hands upon him, molitur manus imposuit.
2. This plea may be used whenever the defendant laid hold of the plaintiff to prevent his committing a breach of the peace.
3. When supported by evidence, it is a complete defence. Ham. N. P. 149; 2 Chit. Pl. 574, 576; 12 Vin. Ab. 182; Bac. Abr. Assault and Battery, C 8.
MOLITURA. Toll paid for grinding at a mill; multure. Not used.
MONARCHY, government. That form of government in which the sovereign power is entrusted to the hands of a single magistrate. Toull. tit. prel. n. 30. The country governed by a monarch is also called a monarchy.
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MONITION, practice. In those courts which use the civil law process, (as the court of admiralty, whose proceedings are, under the provisions of the acts of congress, to be according to the course of the civil law,) it is a process in the nature of a summons; it is either, general, special, or mixed.
2. - 1. The general monition is a citation or summons to all persons interested, or, as is commonly said, to the whole world, to appear and show cause why the libel filed in the case should not be sustained, and the prayer of relief granted. This is adopted in prize cases, admiralty suits for forfeitures, and other suits in rem, when no particular individuals are summoned to answer. In such cases the taking possession of the property libeled, and this general citation or nomination, served according to law, are considered constructive notice to the world of the pendency of the suit; and the judgment rendered thereupon is conclusive upon the title of the property which may be affected. In form, the monition is a warrant of the court, in an admiralty cause, directed to the marshal or his deputy, commanding him in the name of the president of the United States, to give public notice, by advertisements in such newspapers as the court may select, and by notification to be posted in public places, that a libel has been filed in a certain admiralty cause pending, and of the time and place appointed for the trial. A brief statement of the allegations in the libel is usually contained in the monition. The monition is served in the manner directed in the warrant.
3. - 2. A special monition is a similar warrant, directed to the marshal or his deputy, requiring him to give special notice to certain persons, named in the warrant, of the pendency of the suit, the grounds of it, and the time and place of trial. It is served by delivery of a copy of the warrant, attested by the officer, to each one of the adverse parties, or by leaving the same at his usual place of residence; but the service should be personal if possible. Clerke's Prax. tit. 21; Dunlap's Adm. Pr. 135.
4. - 3. A mixed monition is one which contains directions for a general monition to all persons interested, aud a special summons to particular persons named in the warrant. This is served by newspaper advertisements, by notifications posted in public places, and by delivery of a copy attested by the officer to each person specially named, or by leaving it at his usual place of residence. See Dunlap's Adm. Pr. Index, h. t.; Bett's Adm. Pr. Index, h. t.
MONITORY LETTER, eccl. law. The process of an official, a bishop or other prelate having jurisdiction, issued to compel, by ecclesiastical censures, those who know of a crime or other matter which requires to be explained, to come and reveal it. Merl. Repert. h. t.
MONOCRACY. A government by one person only.
MONOCRAT. A monarch who governs alone; an absolute governor. MONOGAMY. A marriage contracted between one man and one woman, in exclusion of all the rest of mankind; it is used in opposition to bigamy and polygamy. (q. v.) Wolff, Dr. de la Nat. 857. The state of having only one husband or one wife at one time.
MONOGRAM. A character or cipher composed of one or more letters interwoven, being an abbreviation of a name.
2. A signature made by a monogram would perhaps be binding, provided it could be proved to have been made and intended as a signature. 1 Denio, R. 471. And there seems to be no reason why such a signature should not be as binding as one which is altogether illegible. See Initial; Mark; Signature.
MONOMANIA. med. jur. Insanity only upon a particular subject; and with a single delusion of the mind.
2. The most simple form of this disorder is that in which the patient has imbibed some single notion, contrary to common sense and to his own experience, and which seems, and no doubt really is, dependent on errors of sensation. It is supposed the mind in other respects retains its intellectual powers. In order to avoid any civil act done, or criminal responsibility incurred, it must manifestly appear that the act in question was the effect of monomania. Cyclop. Pract. Medicine, title Soundness and Unsoundness of Mind; Dr. Ray on Insanity, 203; 13 Ves. 89; 3 Bro. C. C. 444; 1 Addams' R. 283; Hagg. R. 18; 2 Addams' R. 102; 2 Addams' R. 79, 94, 209; 5 Car. & P. 168; Dr. Burrows on Insanity, 484, 485. Vide Delusion; Mania; and Trebuchet, Jur. de la Med. 55 to 58
MONOPOLY, commercial law. This word has various significations. 1. It is the abuse of free commerce by which one or more individuals have procured the advantage of selling alone all of a particular kind of merchandise, to the detriment of the public.
2. - 2. All combinations among merchants to raise the price of merchandise to the injury of the public, is also said to be a monopoly.
3. - 3. A monopoly is also an institution or allowance by a grant from the sovereign power of a state, by commission, letters patent, or otherwise, to any person, or corporation, by which the exclusive right of buying, selling, making, working, or using anything, is given. Bac. Abr. h. t.; 3 Inst. 181.
4. The constitutions of Maryland, North Carolina, and Tennessee, declare that "monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free government, and ought not to be allowed." Vide art. Copyyright; Patent.
MONSTER, physiology, persons. An animal which has a conformation contrary to the order of nature. Dunglison's Human Physiol. vol. 2, p. 422.
2. A monster, although born of a woman in lawful wedlock, cannot inherit. Those who have however the essential parts of the human form and have merely some defect of coformation, are capable of inheriting, if otherwise qualified. 2 Bl. Com. 246; 1 Beck's Med. Jurisp. 366; Co. Litt. 7, 8; Dig. lib. 1, t. 5, l. 14; 1 Swift's Syst. 331 Fred. Code, Pt. 1, b. 1, t. 4, s. 4.
3. No living human birth, however much it may differ from human shape, can be lawfully destroyed. Traill. Med. Jur. 47, see Briand, Med. Leg. 1ere part. c. 6, art. 2, 3; 1 Fodere, Med. Leg. 402-405.
MONSTRANS DE DROIT. Literally showing of right, in the English law, is a process by which a subject claim from the crown a restitution of a right. Bac. Ab. Prerogative, E; 3 Bl. 256; 1 And. 181; 5 Leigh's R. 512.
MONSTRANS DE FAIT. Literally, showing of a deed; a profert. Bac. Ab. Pleas, &c. I 12, n. 1.
MONSTRAVERUNT, WRIT OF, Eng. law. A writ which lies for the tenants of ancient demesne who hold by free charter, and not for those tenants who hold by copy of court roll, or by the rod, according to the custom of the manor. F. N. B. 31.
MONTES PIETATIS, or Monts de Piete. The name of institutions established by public authority for lending money upon pledge of goods. In those establishments a fund is provided, with suitable warehouses, and all necessary accommodations. Directors, manage these concerns. When the money for which the goods pledged is not returned in proper time, the goods are sold to reimburse the institutions.
2. These establishments are found principally on the continent of Europe. With us private persons, called pawnbrokers, perform this office, sometimes with doubtful fidelity. See Bell's Com. B. 5, c. 2, s. 2.
MONTH. A space of time variously computed, as it is applied to astronomical, civil or solar, or lunar months.
2. The astronomical month contains one-twelfth part of the time employed by the sun in going through the zodiac. In law, when a month simply is mentioned, it is never understood to mean an astronomical month.
3. The civil or solar month is that which agrees with the Gregorian calendar, and these months are known by the names of January, February, March, &c. They are composed of unequal portions of time. There are seven of thirty-one days each, four of thirty, and one which is sometimes composed of twenty-eight days, and in leap years, of twenty-nine.
4. The lunar mouth is composed of twenty-eight days only. When a law is passed or contract made, and the month is expressly stated to be solar or civil, which is expressed by the term calendar month, or when it is expressed to be a lunar month, no difficulty can arise; but when time is given for the performance of an act, and the word month simply is used, so that the intention of the parties cannot be ascertained then the question arises, how shall the month be computed? By the law of England a month means ordinarily, in common contracts, as, in leases, a lunar month; a contract, therefore, made for a lease of land for twelve months, would mean a lease for forty-eight weeks only. 2 Bl. Com. 141; 6 Co. R. 62; 6 T. R. 224. A distinction has been made between "twelve months," and "a twelve-month;" the latter has been held to mean a year. 6 Co. R. 61.
5. Among the Greeks and Romans the months were Iunar, and probably the mode of computation adopted in the English law has been adopted from the codes of these countries. Clef des Lois Rom. mot Mois.
6. But in mercantile contracts, a month simply signifies a calendar month; a promissory note to pay money in twelve months, would therefore mean a promise to pay in one year, or twelve calendar months. Chit. on Bills, 406; 1 John. Cas. 99; 3 B. & B. 187; 1 M. & S. 111; Story on Bills, 143; Story, P. N. 213; Bayl. on Bills, c. 7; 4 Kent, Comm. Sect. 56; 2 Mass. 170; 4 Mass. 460; 6 Watts. & Serg. 179.
7. In general, when a statute Speaks of a month, without adding "calendar," or other words showing a clear intention, it shall be intended a lunar month. Com. Dig. Ann. B; 4 Wend. 512; 15 John. R. 358. See 2 Cowen, R. 518; Id. 605. In all legal proceedings, as in commitments, pleadings, &c. a month means four weeks. 3 Burr. R. 1455; 1 Bl. Rep. 450; Dougl. R. 446 463.
8. In Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, and perhaps some other states, 1 Hill. Ab. 118, n., a month mentioned generally in a statute, has been construed to mean a calendar month. 2 Dall. R. 302; 4 Dall. Rep. 143; 4 Mass. R. 461; 4 Bibb. R. 105. In England, in the ecclesiastical law, months are computed by the calendar. 3 Burr. R. 1455; 1 M. & S. 111.
9. In New York, it is enacted that whenever the term "month," or "months," is or shall be used in any statute, act, deed, verbal or written contract, or any public or private instrument whatever, it shall be construed to mean a calendar, and not a lunar month; unless otherwise expressed. Rev. Stat. part 1, c. 19, tit. 1, 4. Vide, generally, 2 Sim. & Stu. 476; 2 A. K. Marsh. Rep. 245; 3 John. Ch. Rep. 74; 2 Campb. 294; 1 Esp. R. 146; 6 T. R. 224; 1 M. & S. 111; 3 East, R. 407; 4 Moore, 465; 1 Bl. Rep. 150; 1 Bing. 307; S. C. 8 Eng. C. L. R. 328;. 1 M. & S. 111; 1 Str. 652; 6 M. & S. 227; 3 Brod. & B. 187; S. C. 7 Eng. C. L. R. 404.
MONUMENT. A thing intended to transmit to posterity the memory of some one; it is used, also, to signify a tomb where a dead body has been deposited. In this sense it differs from a cenotaph, which is at empty tomb. Dig. 11, 7, 2, 6; Id. 11, 7, 2, 42.
MONUMENTS. Permanent landmarks established for the purpose of ascertaining boundaries.
2. Monuments may be either natural or artificial objects, as rivers, known streams, springs, or marked trees. 7 Wheat. R. 10; 6 Wheat. R. 582; 9 Cranch, 173; 6 Pet. 498; Pet. C. C. R. 64; 3 Ham. 284; 5 Ham. 534; 5 N. H. Rep. 524; 3 Dev. 75. Even posts set up at the corners, 5 Ham. 534, and a clearing, 7 Cowen, 723, are considered as monuments. Sed vide 3 Dev. 75.
3. When monuments are established, they must govern, although neither courses, nor distances, nor 'computed' contents correspond; 5 Cowen, 346; 1 Cowen, 605; 6 Cowen, 706; 7 Cowen, 723; 6 Mass. 131; 2 Mass. 380; 3 Pick. 401; 5 Pick. 135; 3 Gill & John. 142,; 5 Har. & John. 163, 255; 2 Id. 260; Wright, 176; 5 Ham. 534; 1 H. & McH. 355; 2 H. & McH. 416; Cooke, 146; 1 Call, 429; 3 Call, 239; 3 Fairf. 325; 4 H. & M. 125; 1 Hayw. 22; 5 J. J. Marsh. 578; 3 Hawks, 91; 3 Murph. 88; 4 Monr. 32; 5 Monr. 175; 2 Overt. 200; 2 Bibb, 493; S. C. 6 Wheat. 582; 4 W. C. C. Rep. 15. Vide Boundary.
MOORING, mar. law. The act of arriving of a ship or vessel at a particular port, and there being anchored or otherwise fastened to the shore.
2. Policies of insurance frequently contain a provision that the ship is insured from one place to another, "and till there moored twenty-four hours in good safety." As to what shall be a sufficient mooring, see 1 Marsh. Ins. 262; Park. on Ins. 35; 2 Str. 1251; 3. T. R. 362.
MOOT, English law. A term used in the inns of court, signifying the exercise of arguing imaginary cases, which young barristers and students used to perform at certain times, the better to be enabled by this practice to defend their clients cases. A moot question is one which has not been decided.
MORA, In civil law. This term, in mora, is used to denote that a party to a contract, who is obliged to do anything, has neglected to perform it, and is in default. Story on Bailm. 123, 259; Jones on Bailm. 70; Poth. Pret a Usage, c. 2, 2, art. 2, n. 60; Encyclopedie, mot Demeure; Broderode, mot Mora.
MORA, estates. A moor, barren or unprofitable ground; marsh; a heath. 1 Inst. 5; Fleta, lib. 2, c. 71.
MORAL EVIDENCE. That evidence which is not obtained either from intuition or demonstration. It consists of those convictions of the mind, which are produced by the use of the senses, the testimony of men, and analogy or induction. It is used in contradistinction to mathematical, evidence. (q. v.) 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3050.
MORAL INSANITY, med. jur. A term used by medical men, which has not yet acquired much reputation in the courts. Moral insanity is said to consist in a morbid perversion of the moral feelings, affections, inclinations, temper, habits, and moral dispositions, without any notable lesion of the intellect, or knowing and reasoning faculties, and particularly without any maniacal hallucination. Prichard, art. Insanity, in Cyclopaedia of Practical Medicine
2. It is contended that some human beings exist, who, in consequence of a deficiency in the moral organs, are as blind to the dictates of justice, as others are deaf to melody. Combe, Moral Philosophy, Lect. 12.
3. In some, this species of malady is said to display itself in an irresistible propensity to commit murder; in others, to commit theft, or arson. Though most persons afflicted with this malady commit such crimes, there are others whose disease is manifest in nothing but irascibility. Annals D'Hygiene tom. i. p. 284. Many are subjected to melancholy, and dejection, without any delusion or illusion. This, perhaps without full consideration, has been judicially declared to be a "groundless theory." The courts, and law writers, have not given it their full assent. 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 352; 1 Beck, Med. Jur. 553 Ray, Med. Jur. Prel. Views, 23, p. 49.
MORAL OBLIGATION. A duty which one owes, and which he ought to perform, but which he is not legally bound to fulfil.
2. These obligations are of two kinds 1st. Those founded on a natural right; as, the obligation to be charitable, which can never be enforced by law. 2d. Those which are supported by a good or valuable antecedent consideration; as, where a man owes a debt barred by the act of limitations, this cannot be recovered by law, though it subsists in morality and conscience; but if the debtor promise to pay it, the moral obligation is a sufficient consideration for the promise, and the creditor may maintain an action of assumpsit, to recover the money. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 623.
MORATUR, IN LEGE. He demurs in law. He rests on the pleadings of the case, and abides the judgment of the court.
MORGANTIC MARRIAGE. During the middle ages, there was an intermediate estate between matrimony and concubinage, known by this name. It is defined to be a lawful and inseparable conjunction of a single man, of noble and illustrious birth, with a single woman of an inferior or plebeian station, upon this condition, that neither the wife nor children should partake of the title, arms, or dignity of the husband, nor succeed to his inheritance, but should have a certain allowance assigned to them by the morgantic contract. The marriage ceremony was regularly performed; the union: was for life and indissoluble; and the children were considered legitimate, though they could not inherit. Fred. Code, book 2, art. 3; Potb. Du Marriage, 1, c. 2, s. 2; Shelf. M. & D. 10; Pruss. Code, art. 835.
MORT D'ANCESTOR. An ancient and now almost obsolete remedy in the English law. An assize of mort d'ancestor was a writ which was sued out where, after the decease of a man's ancestor, a stranger abated, and entered into the estate. 1, Co. Litt. 159. The remedy in such case is now to bring ejectment.
...
MORTIFICATION, Scotch law. This term is nearly synonymous with mortmain.
MORTMAIN. An unlawful alienation of lands, or tenements to any corporation, sole or aggregate, ecclesiastical or temporal. These purchases having been chiefly made by religious houses, in consequence of which lands became perpetually inherent in one dead hand, this has occasioned the general appellation of mortmain to be applied to such alienations. 2 Bl. Com. 268; Co. Litt. 2 b; Ersk. Inst. B. 2, t. 4, s. 10; Barr. on the Stat. 27, 97.
2. Mortmain is also employed to designate all prohibitory laws, which limit, restrain, or annul gifts, grants, or devises of lands and other corporeal hereditaments to charitable uses. 2 Story, Eq. Jur. 1137, note 1. See Shelf. on Mortm. 2, 3.
MORTUARIES, Eng. law. These are a sort of ecclesiastical heriots, being a customary gift claimed by and due to the minister, in many parishes, on the death of the parishioner. 2 Bl. Com. 425.
MORTUUM VADIUM. A mortgage; a dead pledge
MORTUUS EST. A return made by the sheriff, when the defendant is dead, as an excuse for not executing the writ. 4 Watts, 270, 276.
MOTHER, domestic relations. A woman who has borne a child.
2. It is generally the duty of a mother to support her child, when she is left a widow, until he becomes of age, or is able to maintain himself; 8 Watts, R. 366; and even after he becomes of age, if he be chargeable to the public, she may, perhaps, in all the states, be compelled, when she has sufficient means, to support him. But when the child has property sufficient for his support, she is not, even during his minority, obliged to maintain him. 1 Bro. C. C. 387; 2 Mass. R. 415; 4 Miss. R. 97.
3. When the father dies without leaving a testamentary guardian, at common law, the mother is entitled to be the guardian of the person and estate of the infant, until he arrives at fourteen years, when he is able to choose a guardian. Litt. sect. 123; 3 Co. 38; Co. Litt. 84 b; 2 Atk. 14; Com Dig. B, D, E; 7 Ves. 348. See 10 Mass. 135, 140; 15 Mass. 272; 4 Binn. 487; 4 Stew. & Part. 123; 2 Mass. 415; Harper, R. 9; 1 Root, R. 487.
4. In Pennsylvania, the orphans' court will, in such case, appoint a guardian until the infant shall attain his fourteenth year. During the joint lives of the parents, (q. v.) the father (q. v.) is alone responsible for the support of the children; and has the only control over them, except when in special cases the mother is allowed to have possession of them. 1 P. A. Browne's Rep. 143; 5 Binn. R. 520; 2 Serg. & Rawle 174. Vide 4 Binn. R. 492, 494.
5. The mother of a bastard child, as natural guardian, has a right to the custody and control of such child, and is bound to maintain it. 2 Mass. 109; 12 Mass. 387, 433; 2 John. 375; 15 John. 208; 6 S. & R. 255; 1 Ashmead, 55.
MOTHER-IN-LAW. In Latin socrus. The mother of one's wife, or of one's husband.
MOTION, practice. An application to a court by one of the parties in a cause, or his counsel, in order to obtain some rule or order of court, which he thinks becomes necessary in the progress of the cause, or to get relieved in a summary manner, from some matter which would work injustice.
2. When the motion. is made on some matter of fact, it must be supported by an affidavit that such facts are true; and for this purpose, the party's affidavit will be received, though, it cannot be read on the hearing. 1 Binn. R. 145; S. P. 2 Yeates' R. 546. Vide 3 Bl. Com. 304; 2 Sell. Pr. 356; 15 Vin. Ab. 495; Grah. Pr. 542; Smith's Ch. Pr. Index, h. t.
MOTIVE. The inducement, cause or reason why a thing is done.
2. When there is such a mistake in the motive, that had the truth been known, the contract would pot have been made, it is generally void., For example, if a man should, after the death of Titius, of which he was ignorant, insure his life, the error of the motive would avoid the contract. Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, c. 2, art. 1. Or, if Titius should sell to Livius his horse, which both parties supposed to be living at some distance from the place where the contract was made, when in fact, the horse was then dead, the contract would be void. Poth. Vente, n. 4; 2 Kent, Com. 367. When the contract is entered into under circumstances of clear mistake or surprise, it will not be enforced. See the following authorities on this subject. 1 Russ. & M. 527; 1 Ves. jr. 221; 4 Price, 135; 1 Ves. jr. 210; Atkinson on Titl. 144. Vide Cause; Consideration.
3. The motive of prosecutions is frequently an object of inquiry, particularly when the prosecutor is a witness, and in his case, as that of any other witness, when the motion is ascertained to be bad, as a desire of revenge for a real or supposed injury, the credibility of the witness will be much weakened, though this will not alone render him incompetent. See Evidence; Witness.
MOURNING. This word has several significations. 1. It is the apparel worn at funerals, and for a time afterwards, in order to manifest grief for the death of some one, and to honor his memory. 2. The expenses paid for such apparel.
2. It has been held in England, that a demand for mourning furnished to the widow and family of the testator, is not a funeral expense. 2 Carr. & P. 207. Vide 14 Ves. 346; 1 Ves. & Bea. 364. See 2 Bell's Comm. 156.
MOVABLES, estates. Such subjects of property as attend a man's person wherever he goes, in contradistinction to things immovable. (q. v.)
2. Things movable by their nature are such as may be carried from one place to another, whether they move themselves, as cattle, or cannot be removed without an extraneous power, as inanimate things. Movables are further distinguished into such as are in possession, or which are in the power of the owner, as, a horse in actual use, a piece of furniture in a man's own house; or such as are in the possession of another, and can only be recovered by action, which are therefore said to be in action, as a debt. Vide art. Personal Property, and Fonbl. Eq. Index, h. t.; Pow. Mortg. Index, h. t.; 2 Bl. Com. 884; Civ. Code of Lo. art. 464 to 472; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 462.
MULATTO. A person born of one white and one black parent. 7 Mass. R. 88; 2 Bailey, 558.
MULCT, punishment. A fine imposed on the conviction of an offence.
MULCT, commerce. An imposition laid on ships or goods by a company of trade, for the maintenance of consuls and the like. Obsolete.
MULIER. A woman, a wife; sometimes it is used to designate a marriageable virgin, and in other cases the word mulier is employed in opposition to virgo. Poth. Pand. tom. 22, h. t. In its most proper signification, it means a wife.
2. A son or a daughter, born of a lawful wife, is called filius mulieratus or filia mulierata, a son mulier, or a daughter mulier. The term is used always in contradistinction to a bastard; mulier being always legitimate. Co. Litt. 243.
3. When a man has a bastard son, and afterwards marries the mother, and has by her another son, the latter is called the mulier puisne. 2 Bl. Com. 248.
MULTIFARIOUSNESS, equity pleading. By multifariousness in a bill, is understood the improperly joining in one bill distinct matters, and thereby confounding them; as, for example, the uniting in one bill, several matters, perfectly distinct and unconnected, against one defendant; or the demand of several matters of distinct natures, against several defendants in the same bill. Coop. Eq. Pl. 182; Mitf. by Jeremy, 181; 2 Mason's R. 201; 18 Ves. 80; Hardr. R. 337; 4 Cowen's R. 682; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4165.
2. In order to prevent confusion in its pleadings and decrees, a court of equity will anxiously discountenance this multifariousness. The following case will illustrate this doctrine; suppose an estate should be sold in lots to different persons, the purchasers could not join in exhibiting one bill against the vendor for a specific performance; for each party's case would be distinct, and would depend upon its own peculiar circumstances, and therefore there should be a distinct bill upon each contract; on the other hand, the vendor in the like case, would not be allowed to file one bill for a specific performance against all the purchasers of the estate, for the same reason. Coop. Eq. Pl. 182; 2 Dick. Rep. 677; 1 Madd. Rep. 88; Story's Eq . PI. 271 to 286. It is extremely difficult to say what constitutes multifariousness as an abstract proposition. Story, Eq. Pl. 530, 539; 4 Blackf. 249; 2 How. S. C. Rep. 619, 642; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4243.
MULTITUDE. The meaning of this word is not very certain. By some it is said that to make a multitude there must be ten persons at least, while others contend that the law has not fixed any number. Co. Litt. 257.
MULTURE, Scotch law. The quantity of grain or meal payable to the proprietor of the mill, or to the multurer, his tacksman, for manufacturing the corns. Ersk. Prin. Laws of Scotl. B. 2 t. 9, n. 19.
MUNERA. The name given to grants made in the early feudal ages, which were mere tenancies at will, or during the pleasure of the grantor. Dalr. Feud. 198, 199; Wright on Ten. 19.
MUNICIPAL. Strictly, this word applies only to what belongs to a city. Among the Romans, cities were called municipia; these cities voluntarily joined the Roman republic in relation to their sovereignty only, retaining, their laws, their liberties, and their magistrates, who were thence called municipal magistrates. With us this word has a more extensive meaning; for example, we call municipal law, not the law of a city only, but the law of the state. 1 Bl. Com. Municipal is used in contradistinction to international; thus we say an offence against the law of nations is an international offence, but one committed against a particular state or separate community, is a municipal offence.
MUNICIPALITY. The body of officers, taken collectively, belonging to a city, who are appointed to manage its affairs and defend its interests.
MUNIMENTS. The instruments of writing and written evidences which the owner of lands, possessions, or inheritances has, by which he is enabled to defend the title of his estate. Termes de la Ley, h. t.; 3 Inst. 170.
MURAGE. A toll formerly levied in England for repairing or building public walls.
MURAL MONUMENTS. Monuments made in walls.
2. Owing to the difficulty or impossibility of removing them, secondary evidence may be given of inscriptions on walls, fixed tables, gravestones, and the like. 2 Stark. Rep. 274.
MURDER, crim. law. This, one of the most important crimes that can be committed against individuals, has been variously defined. Hawkins defines it to be the wilful killing of any subject whatever, with malice aforethought, whether the person slain shall be an Englishman or a foreigner. B. 1, c. 13, s. 3. Russell says, murder is the killing of any person under the king's peace, with malice prepense or aforethought, either express or implied by law. 1 Rus. Cr. 421. And Sir Edward Coke, 3 Inst. 47, defines or rather describes this offence to be, " when a person of sound mind and discretion, unlawfully killeth any reasonable creature in being, and under the king's peace, with malice aforethought either express or implied."
2. This defnition, which has been adopted by Blackstone, 4 Com. 195; Chitty, 2 Cr. Law, 724; and others, has been severely and perhaps justly criticised. What, it has been asked, are sound memory and understanding? What has soundness of memory to do with the act; be it ever so imperfect, how does it affect the guilt? If discretion is necessary, can the crime ever be committed, for, is it not the highest indiscretion in a man to take the life of another, and thereby expose his own? If the person killed be an idiot or a new born infant, is he a reasonable creature? Who is in the king's peace? What is malice aforethought? Can there be any malice afterthought? Livingst. Syst. of Pen. Law; 186.
3. According to Coke's definition there must be, lst. Sound mind and memory in the agent. By this is understood there must be a will, (q. v.) and legal discretion. (q. v.) 2. An actual killing, but it is not necessary that it should be caused by direct violence; it is sufficient if the acts done apparently endanger. life, and eventually fatal. Hawk. b. 1, c. 31, s. 4; 1 Hale, P. C. 431; 1 Ashm. R. 289; 9 Car. & Payne, 356; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 152; 2 Palm. 545. 3. The party killed must have been a reasonable being, alive and in the king's peace. To constitute a birth, so as to make the killing of a child murder, the whole body must be detached from that of the mother; but if it has come wholly forth, but is still connected by the umbilical chord, such killing will be murder. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1722, note. Foeticide (q. v.) would not be such a killing; he must have been in rerum natura. 4. Malice, either express or implied. It is this circumstance which distiuguishes murder from every description of homicide. Vide art. Malice.
4. In some of the states, by legislative enactments, murder has been divided into degrees. In Pennsylvania, the act of April 22, 1794, 3 Smith's Laws, 186, makes "all murder which shall be perpetrated by means of poison, or by lying in wait, or by any other kind of wilful, deliberate, and premeditated killing, or which shall be committed in the perpetration or attempt to perpetrate, any arson, rape, robbery, or burglary, shall be deemed murder of the first degree; and all other kinds of murder shall be deemed murder of the second degree; and the jury before whom any person indicted for murder shall be tried, shall, if they find the person guilty thereof, ascertain in their verdict, whether it be murder of the first or second degree; but if such person shall be convicted by confession, the court shall proceed by examination of witnesses, to determine the degree of the crime, and give sentence accordingly. Many decisions have been made under this act to which the reader is referred: see Whart. Dig. Criminal Law, h. t.
5. The legislature of Tennessee has adopted the same distinction in the very words of the act of Pennsylvania just cited. Act of 1829, 1 Term. Laws, Dig. 244. Vide 3 Yerg. R. 283; 5 Yerg. R. 340.
6. Virginia has adopted the same distinction. 6 Rand. R. 721. Vide, generally, Bac. Ab. h. t.; 15 Vin. Ab. 500; Com. Dig. Justices, M 1, 2; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Hawk. Index, h. t.; 1 Russ. Cr. b. 3, c. 1; Rosc. Cr. Ev. h. t. Hale, P. C. Index, h. t.; 4 Bl. Com. 195; 2 Swift's Syst. Index, h. t.; 2 Swift's Dig. Index, h. t.; American Digests, h. t.; Wheeler's C. C. Index, h. t.; Stark. Ev. Index, h. t.; Chit. Cr. Law, Index, h. t.; New York Rev. Stat. part 4, c. 1, t. 1 and 2.
MURDER, pleadings. In an indictment for murder, it must be charged that the prisoner "did kill and murder" the deceased, and unless the word murder be introduced into the charge, the indictment will be taken to charge manslaughter only. Foster, 424; Yelv. 205; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, *243, and the authorities and cases there cited.
MURDRUM, old Engl. law. During the times of the Danes, and afterwards till the reign of Edward III, murdrum was the killing of a man in a secret manner, and in that it differed from simple homicide.
2. When a man was thus killed, and he was unknown, by the laws of Canute he was presumed to be a Dane, and the vill was compelled to pay forty marks for his death. After tlie conquest, a similar law was made in favor of Frenchmen, which was abolished by 3 Edw. III.
3. By murdrum was also understood the fine formerly imposed in England upon a person who had committed homicide perinfortunium or se defendendo. Prin. Pen. 219, note r.
MUSICAL COMPOSITION. The act of congress of February 3, 1831, authorizes the granting of a copyright for a musical composition. A question was formerly agitated whether a composition published on a single sheet of paper, was to be considered a book, and it was decided in the affirmative. 2 Campb. 28, n.; 11 East, 244. See Copyright.
TO MUSTER, mar. law. By this term is understood to collect together and exhibit soldiers and their arms; it also signifies to employ recruits and put their names down in a book to enrol them.

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