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Legal meaning of, DAM... DYVOUR

    22.2.12  

DAM. A construction of wood, stone, or other materials, made across a stream of water for the purpose of confining it; a mole.
2. The owner of a stream not navigable, may erect a dam across it, and employ the water in any reasonable manner, either for his use or pleasure, so as not to destroy or render useless, materially diminish, or affect the application of the water by the proprietors below on the stream. He must not shut the gates of his dams and detain the water unreasonably, nor let it off in unusual quantities to the annoyance of his neighbors. 4 Dall. 211; 3 Caines, 207; 13 Mass. 420; 3 Pick, 268; 2 N. H. Rep. 532; 17 John. 306; 3 John. Ch. Rep. 282; 3 Rawle, 256; 2 Conn. Rep. 584; 5 Pick. 199; 20 John. 90; 1 Pick. 180; 4 Id. 460; 2 Binn. 475; 14 Srrg. & Rawle, 71; Id. 9; 13 John. 212; 1 McCord, 580; 3 N. H. Rep. 321; 1 Halst. R. 1; 3 Kents Com. 354.
3. When one side of the stream is owned by one person and the other by another, neither, without the eonsent of the other, can build a dam which extends beyond the filum aqua, thread of the river, without committing a trespass. Cro. Eliz. 269; 12 Mass. 211; Ang. on W. C. 14, 104, 141; vide Lois des Bat. P. 1, c. 3, s. 1, a. 3; Poth. Traite du Contrat de Societe, second app. 236; Hill. Ab. Index, h. t.; 7 Cowen, R. 266; 2 Watts, R. 327; 3 Rawle, R. 90; 17 Mass. R. 289; 5 Pick. R. 175; 4 Mass. R. 401. Vide Inundation.



DAMNIFICATION. That which causes a loss or damage to a society, or to one who has indemnified another. For example, when a society has entered into an obligation to pay the debt of the principal, and the principal has become bound in a bond to indemuify the surety, the latter has suffered a damnification the moment he becomes liable to be sued for the debt of the principal - and it has been held in an action brought by the surety, upon a bond of indemnity, that the terror of suit, so that the surety dare not go about his business, is a damnification. Ow. 19; 2 Chit. R. 487; 1 Saund. 116; 8 East, 593; Cary, 26.
2. A judgment fairly obtained against a party for a cause against which another person is bound to indemnify him, with timely notice to that person of the bringing of the action, is admissible as evidence in an action brought against the guarantor on the indemnity. 7 Cranch, 300, 322. See F. N. B. Warrantia Chartae; Lib. Int. Index, Warrantia Chartae; 2 S. & R. 12, 13.
DAMNIFY. To cause damage, injury or loss.
DAMNOSA HAEREDITAS. A name given by Lord Kenyon to that species of property of a bankrupt, which, so far from being valuable, would be a charge to the creditors for example, a term of years, where the rent would exceed the revenue.
2. The assignees are not bound to take such property, but they must make their election, and, having once entered into possession, they cannot afterwards abandon the property. 7 East, R. 342; 3 Campb. 340.
DAMNUM ABSQUE INJURIA. A loss or damage without injury.
2. There are cases when the act of one man may cause a damage or loss to another, and for which the latter has no remedy; he is then said to have received damnum absque injuria; as, for example, if a man should set up a school in the neighborhood of another school,and, by that means, deprive the former of its patronage; or if a man should build a mill along side of another, and consequently reduce his custom. 9 Pick. 59, 528.
3. Another instance may be given of the case where a man using proper care and diligence, while excavating for a foundation, injures the adjoining house, owing to the unsuitable materials used in such house; here the injury is damnum absque injuria.
4. When a man slanders another by publishing the truth, the person slandered is said to have sustained loss without injury. Bac. Ab. Actions on the Case, C Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
DAMNUM FATALE, civil law. Damages caused by a fortuitous event, or inevitable accident; damages arising from the act of God. Among these were included losses by shipwreck, lightning, or other casualty; also losses by pirates or by vis major, by fire, robbery, and burglary; but theft was not numbered among these casualties.
2. In general, bailees are not liable for such damages. Story, Bailm. p. 471.
DANE-LAGEEng. law. That system of laws which was maintained in England while the Danes had possession of the country.
DANGERS OF THE SEA, mar. law. This phrase is sometimes put in bills of lading, the master of the ship agreeing to deliver the goods therein mentioned to the consignee, who is named, the dangers of the sea excepted. Sometimes the phrase is "Perils of the Sea." (q. v.) See 1 Brock. R. 187.
DARREIN. A corruption of the French word "dernier," the last. It is sometimes used as, "darrein continuance," the last continuance. When any matter has arisen in discharge of the defendant in action, he may take advantage of it, provided he pleads itpuis darrein continuance; for if he neglect to do so, he waives his right. Vide article darrein continuance.
DARREIN SEISIN. The name of a plea to a writ of entry or a writ of right. 3 Met. 175.
DATE. The designation or indication in an instrument of writing, of the time, and usually of the time and place, when and where it was made. When the place is mentioned in the date of a deed, the law intends, unless the contrary appears, that it was executed at the place of the date. Plowd. 7 b., 31 H. VI. This word is derived from the Latin datum, because when deeds and agreements were written in that language, immediately before the day, month and year in which they were made, was set down, it was usual to put the word datum, given.
2. All writings ought to bear a date, and in some it is indispensable in order to make them valid, as in policies of insurance; but the date in these instruments is not inserted in the body of the writing because as each subscription makes a separate contract, each underwriter sets down the day, month and year he makes his subscription. Marsh. Ins. 336.
3. Deeds, and other writings, when the date is an impossible one, take effect from the time of deliver; the presumption of law is, that the deed was dated on the day it bears date, unless, as just mentioned, the time is impossible; for example, the 32d day of January.
4. The proper way of dating, is to put the day, month, and year of our Lord; the hour need not be mentioned, unless specially required; an instance of which may be taken from the Pennsylvania Act of the 16th June, 1836, sect. 40, which requires the sheriff, on receiving a writ of fieri facias, or other writ of execution, to endorse thereon the day of the month, the year, and the hour of the day whereon he received the same.
5. In public documents, it is usual to give not only the day, the month, and the year of our Lord, but also the year of the United States, when issued by authority of the general government; or of the commonwealth, when issued under its authority. Vide, generally, Bac. Ab. Obligations, C; Com. Dig, Fait, B 3; Cruise, Dig. tit, 32, c. 20, s. 1-6; 1 Burr. 60; 2 Rol. Ab. 27, 1. 22; 13 Vin. Ab. 34; Dane's Ab. lndex, h. t. See Almanac.
DATION, civil law, contracts. The act of giving something. It differs from donation, which is a gift; dation, on the contrary, is giving something without any liberality; as, the giving of an office.
2. Dation in payment, datio in solutionem, which was the giving one thing in payment of another which was due, corresponds nearly to the accord and satisfaction of the common law.
DATION EN PAIEMFNT, civil law. This term is used in Louisiana; it signifies that, when instead of paying a sum of money due on a pre-existing debt, the debtor gives and the creditor agrees to receive a movable or immovable.
2. It is somewhat like the accord and satisfaction of the common law. 16 Toull. n. 45 Poth. Vente, U. 601. Dation en paiement resembles in some respects the contract of sale; dare in solutum, est quasi vendere. There is, however, a very marked difference between a sale and a dation en paiement. 1st. The contract of sale is complete by the mere agreement of the parties the dation en paiement requires a delivery of the thing given. 2d. When the debtor pays a certain sum which he supposed he was owing, and be discovers he did not owe so much, he may recover back the excess, not so when property other than money has been given in payment. 3d. He who has in good faith sold a thing of which he believed himself to be the owner, is not precisely required to transfer the property of it to the buyer and, while he is not troubled in the possession of the thing, he cannot pretend that the seller has not fulfilled his obligations. On the contrary, the dation en paiement is good only when the debtor transfers to the creditor the property in the thing which he has agreed to take in, payment and if the thing thus delivered be the property of another, it will not operate as a payment. Poth. Vente, n. 602, 603, 604.
DATIVE. That which may be given or disposed of at will and pleasure. It sometimes means that which is not cast upon the party by the law, or by a testator, but which is given by the magistrate; in this sense it is that tutorship is dative, when the tutor is appointed by the malistrate. Lec. Elem. §239; Civ. Code of L. art. 288, 1671.
DAUGHTER. An immediate female descendant. See Son.
DAUGHTER-IN-LAW. In Latin, nurus, is the wife of one's son.
DAY. A division of time. It is natural, and then it consists of twenty-four hours, or the space of time which elapses while the earth makes a complete revolution on its axis; or artificial, which contains the time, from the rising until the setting of the sun, and a short time before rising and after setting. Vide Night; and Co. Lit. 135, a.
2. Days are sometimes calculated exclusively, as when an act required that an appeal should be made within twenty days after a decision. 3 Penna. 200; 3 B. & A. 581; 15 Serg. & Rawle, 43. In general, if a thing is to be done within such a time after such a fact, the day of the fact shall be taken inclusively. Hob. 139; Doug. 463; 3 T. R. 623; Com. Dig. Temps, A; 3 East, 407.
3. The law, generally, rejects fractions of days, but in some cases it takes notice of such parts. 2 B. & A. 586. Vide Date.
4. By the custom of some places, the word day's is understood to be working days, and not including Sundays. 3 Espin. N. P. C. 121. Vide, generally, 2 Chit. Bl. 141, note 3; 1 Chit. Pr. 774, 775; 3 Chit. Pr. 110; Lill. Reg. h. t; 1 Rop. Leg. 518; 15 Vin. Ab. 554; Dig. 33, 1, 2; Dig. 50, 16, 2, 1; Id. 2, 12, 8; and articles Hour; Month; Year.
DAY BOOK, mer. law. An account book, in which merchants and others make entries of their daily transactions. This is generally a book of original entries, and as such may be given in evidence to prove the sale and delivery, of merchandise or of work done.
DAY RULE, or DAY WRIT, English practice. A rule or order of the court, by which a prisoner on civil process, and not committed, is enabled, in term time, to go out of the prison, and its rule or bounds; a prisoner is enabled to quit the prison, for more or less time, by three kinds of rules, namely: 1. The day-rule. 2. The term-rule; and 3. The rules. See 9 East, R. 151.
DAYS IN BANKEng. practice. Days of appearance in the court of common pleas, usually called bancum. They are at the distance of about a week from each other, and are regulated by some festival of the church. 8 Bl. Com. 277.
DAYS OF GRACE. Certain days after the time limited by the bill or note, which the acceptor or drawer has a right to demand for payment of the bill or note; these days were so called because they were formerly gratuitously allowed, but now, by the custom of merchants, sanctioned by decisions of courts of justice, they are demandable of right. 6 Watts & Serg. 179. The number of these in the United States is generally three. - Chitty on Bills, h. t. But where the established usage of the where the instrument is payable, or of the bank at which it is payable, or deposited for collection, be to make the demand on the fourth or other day, the parties to the note will be bound by such usage. 5 How. U. S. Rep. 317; 1 Smith, Lead. Cas. 417. When the last day of grace happens on the 4th of July; 2 Caines Cas. in Err. 195; or on Sunday; 2 Caines' R. 343; 7 Wend. 460; the demand must be made on the day previous. 13 John. 470; 7 Wend. 460; 12 Mass. 89; 6 Pick. 80; 2 Caines, 343: 2 McCord, 436. But see 2 Conn. 69. See 20 Wend. 205; 1 Metc. R. 43; 2 Cain. Cas. 195; 7 How. Miss. R. 129; 4 J. J. Marsh. 332.
2. In Louisiana, the days of grace are no obstacle to a set off, the bill being due, for this purpose before the expiration of those days. Louis. Code, art. 2206.
3. In France all days of grace, of favor, of usage, or of local custom, for thne payment of bills of exchange, are abolished. Code de Com. art. 185. See 8 Verm. 833; 2 Port. 286; 1 Conn. 329; 1 Pick. 401; 2 Pick. 125; 3 Pick. 414; 1 N. & M. 83.
DAYS OF THE WEEK. These are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday. See Week.
2. The court will take judicial notice of the days of the week - for example, when a writ of inquiry was stated in the pleadings to have been executed on the fifteenth of June, and, upon an examination, it was found to be Sunday, the proceeding was held to be defective. Forteso. 373; S. C. Str. 387.
DE. A preposition used in many Latin phrases - as, de bone esse, de bonis non.
DE ARBITRATIONE FACTA, WRIT. In the ancient English law, when an action was brought for the same cause of action which had been before settled by arbitration, this writ was brought. Wats. on Arb. 256.
DE BENE ESSE, practice. A technical phrase applied to certain proceedings which are deemed to be well done for the present, or until an exception or other avoidance, that is, conditionally, and in that meaning the phrase is usually accepted. For example, a declaration is filed or delivered, special bail put in, witness examined, &c. de bene esse, or conditionally; good for the present.
2. When a judge has a doubt as to the propriety of finding a verdict, h(, may direct the jury to find one de bene esse; which verdict, if the court shall afterwards be of opinion it ought to have been found, shall stand. Bac. Ab. Verdict, A. Vide 11 S. & R. 84.
DE BONIS NON. This phrase is used in cases where the goods of a deceased person have not all been administered. When an executor or administrator has been appointed, and the estate is not fully settled, and the executor or administrator is dead, has absconded, or from any cause has been removed, a second administrator is appointed to to perform the duty remaining to be done, who is called an administrator de bonis non, an administrator of the goods not administered and he becomes by the appointment the only representative of the deceased. 11 Vin. Ab. 111; 2 P. Wms. 340; Com. Dig. Administration, B I; 1 Root's 11. 425. And it seems that though the estate has been distributed, an administrator de nonis non may be appointed, if debts remain unsatisfied. 1 Root's R. 174.
DE BONIS PROPRIIS. Of his own goods. When an executor or administrator has been guilty of a devastavit, (q. v.) he is responsible for the loss which the estate has sustained, de bonis propriis. He may also subject himself to the payment of a debt of the deceased, de bonis propriis, by his false plea, when sued in a representative as, if he plead plene administravit, and it be found against him, or a release to himself, when false. In this latter case the judgment is de bonis testatoris si, et si non de bonis propriis. 1 Saund. 336 b, n. 10 Bac. Ab. Executor, B 8.
DE CONTUMACE CAPIENDO. The name of a writ issued for the arrest of a defendant who is in contempt of the ecclesiastical court. 1 Nev. & Per. 680, 685, 689; 5 Dowl. 213, 646.
DE DOMO REPARANDA. The name of an ancient common law writ, by which one tenant in common might compel his co-tenant to concur in the expense of repairing the property held in common. 8 B. & C. 269; 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 216, note 17, and p. 787.
DE DONIS, STATUTE. The name of an English statute passed the 13 Edwd. I. c. 1, the real design of which was to introduce perpetuities, and to strengthen the power of the barons. 6 Co. 40 a; Co. Litt. 21; Bac. Ab. Estates in tail, in prin.
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DE HOMINE REPLEGIANDO. The name of a writ which is used to replevy a man out of prison, or out of the custody of a private person. See Homine replegiando; Writ de homine replegiando.
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DE JUDAISMO, STATUTUM. The name of a statute passed in the reign of Edw. I., which enacted severe and absurd penalties against the Jews. Barr. on Stat. 197.
2. The Jews were exceedingly oppressed during the middle ages throughout Christendom, and, are so still in some countries. In France, a Jew was a serf, and his person and goods belonged to the baron on whose demesnes he lived. He could not change his domicil without permission of the baron, who could pursue him as a fugitive even on the domains of the king. Like an article of commerce, he might be lent or hired for a time, or mortgaged. If he became a Christian, his conversion was considered a larceny of the lord, and his property and goods were confiscated. They were allowed to utter their prayers only in a low voice and without chanting. They were not allowed to appear in public without some badge or mark of distinction. Christians were forbidden to employ Jews of either sex as domestics, physicians or surgeons. Admission to the bar was forbidden to Jews. They were obliged to appear in court in person, when they demanded justice for a wrong done them, and it was deemed disgraceful to an advocate to undertake the cause of a Jew. If a Jew appeared in court against a Christian, he was obliged to swear by the ten names of God, and invoke a thousand imprecations against himself, if he spoke not the truth. Sexual intercourse between a Christian man and a Jewess was deemed a crime against nature, and was punishable with death by burning. Quia est rem habere cum cane, rem habere a Christiano cum Judaea quae CANIS reputatur - sic comburi debet. 1 Fournel, Hist. des Avocats, 108, 110. See Merlin, Repert. au mot Juifs.
3. - In the fifth book of the Decretals, it is provided, that if a Jew have a servant that desireth to be a Christian, the Jew shall be compelled to sell him to a Christian for twelve pence that it shall not be lawful for them to take any Christian to be their servant that they may repair their old synagogues, but not build new - that it shall not be lawful for them to open their doors, or windows on good Friday; that their wives neither have Christian nurses, nor themselves be nurses to Christian women - that they wear different apparel from the Christians, whereby they may be known, &c;See Ridley's View of the Civ. and Eccl Law, part 1, chap. 5, sect. 7 and Madox Hist. of the Exchequer, Index, as to their condition in England.
DE JURE, by right. Vide De facto.
DE LUNATICO INQUIRENDO. The name of a writ directed to the sheriff, directing him to inquire by good and lawful men whether the party charged is, a lunatic or not. See 4 Rawle, 234; 1 Whart. 52; 5 Halst. 217; 6 Wend. 497.
DE MEDIETATE LINGUAE. Of half tongue. Vide Medietas linguae.
DE MELIORIBUS DAMNIS. Of the better damages. When a plaintiff has sued several defendants, and the damages have been assessed severally against each, he has the choice of selecting the best, as he cannot recover the whole. This is doue by making, an election de melioribus damnis.
DE MERCATORIBUS. This is the name of a statute passed in the 11 Edw. I.; it is usually called the statute of Acton Burnell De Mercatoribus. It was passed in consequence of the complaints of foreign merchants, who could not recover the claims, because the lands of the debtors could not be sold for their debts. It enacted that the chattels and devisable burgages of the debtor might be sold for the payment of their debts. Cruise, Dig. t. 14, s. 6.
D.E NOVO. Anew. afresh. When a judgment upon an issue in part is reversed on error, for some mistake made by the court, in the course of the trial, a venire de novo is awarded in order that the case may again be submitted to the jury.
DE NOVI OPERIS NUNCIATIONE, Civil law. Where a thiug is intended to be done against another man's right, the party aggrieved may have in many cases, according to the civilians, an interdict or injunctIion, to hinder that which is intended to his prejudice: as where one buildeth an house contrary to the usual and received form of building to the injury of his neighbor, there lieth an injunction de novi operis nunciatione, which being served, the offender is either to desist from his work or to put in sureties that he shall pull it down, if he do not in a short time avow, i. e. show, the lawfulness thereof. Ridley's Civ. and Eccl. Law, part 1, chap 1, sect. 8.
DE ODIO ET ATIA. These words sisignify "from hatred and ill will." When a person was committed on a charge of a crime, from such a motive, he could sue the writ de otio et atia, and procure his liberty on giving bail. The object is now obtained by a writ of habeas corpus. Vide Writ de odio et atia.
DE PARTITIONE FACIENDA. The name of a writ for making partition. Vide Partition.
DE PROPRIETATE PROBANDAEng. Practice. The name of a writ which issues in a case of replevin when the defendant claims property in the chattels replevied, and the sheriff makes a return accordingly. The writ directs the sheriff to summon an inquest to determine on the validity of the claim, and, if they find for the defendant, the sheriff merely returns their finding. The plaintiff is not concluded by such finding, he may come into the court above and traverse it. Hamm. N. P. 456.
DE QUOTA LITIS. The name of a part or contract, in the civil law, by which one who has a claim difficult to recover, agrees with another to give a part for the purpose of obtaining his services to recover the rest. 1 Duv. n. 201.
2. Whenever such an agreement amounts to champerty, it is void by law. 5 Monr. 416; 5 John. Ch. 44.
3. Attorneys cannot lawfully make a bargain with their clients to receive for their compensation, a part of the thing sued for; in New York, 2 Caines, 147; Ohio, 1 Ham. 132;Alabama, 755; and some other states - but in some of the states such contracts are not unlawful.
DE REPARATIONE FACIENDA. The name of a writ which lies by one tenant in common against the other, to cause him to aid in repairing the common propert. 8 B. & C. 269.
DE RETORNO HABENDO The name of a writ issued after a judgment has been given in replevin, that the defendant should have a return of the goods replevied. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3376.
DE SON TORT. Of his own wrong. This term is usually applied to a person who, having no right to meddle with the affairs or estate of a deceased person, yet undertakes to do. so, by acting as executor of the deceased. Vide Executor de son tort.
DE SON TORT DEMESNE, Of his own wrong, pleading. The name of a replication in an action for a wrong or injury. When the defendant pleads a matter merely in excuse of an injury to the person or reputation of another, the plaintiff may reply de son tort demesne sans tiel cause; that it was the defendant's own wrong without such cause. Vide the articles, De Injuria, and Without, and also 8 Co. 69 a; Bro. h. t.; Com. Dig. Pleader, F 18.
DE UNA PARTE. A deed de una parte, is one where only one party grants, gives, or binds himself to do.a thing to another. It differs from a deed inter partes. (q. v.) 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2001.
DE WARRANTIA DIEI, WRITEng. law. Where a man is required to appear on a certain day in person, and before that day the king certifies that the party is in the king's service, he may sue this writ, commanding the justices not to record his default for that day for the cause before mentioned. F. N. B. 36.
DEACON, Eccl. law. A minister or servant in the church whose office, in some churches, is to assist the priest in divine service, and the distribution of the sacrament.

DEBATE, legislation, practice. A contestation between two or more persons, in which they take different sides of a question, and maintain them, respectively, by facts and arguments; or it is a discussion, in writing, of some contested point.
2. The debate should be conducted with fairness, candor and decorum, and supported by facts and arguments founded in reason; when, in addition, it is ornamented by learning, and decorated by the powers of rhetoric, it becomes eloquent and persuasive. It is essential that the power of debate should be free, in order to an energetic discharge of his duty by the debator.
3. The Constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 6, provides, that for any speech or debate, in either bouse, the senators and representatives shall not be questioned in any other place.
4. It is a rule of the common law, that counsel may, in, the discharge of professional duty, use strong epithets, however derogatory to the character of the opponent, or his attorney, or other agent or witness, in commenting on the facts of the case, if pertinent to the cause, and stated in his instructions, without any liability to any action for the supposed slander, whether the thing stated were true or false. 1 B. & Ald. 232; 3 Dow's R. 273, 277, 279; 7 Bing. R. 459; S. C. 20 E. C. L. R. 198. Respectable and sensible counsel, however, will always refrain from the indulgence of any unjust severity, both on their own personal account, and because browheating a witness, or other person, will injuriously affect their case in the eyes of a respectable court and jury. 3 Chit. Pr. 887, 8.
DEBENTURE. A certificate given, in pursuance of law, by the collector of a port of entry, for a certain sum, due by the United States, payable at a time therein mentioned, to an importer for drawhack of duties on merchandise imported and exported by him, provided the duties arising on the importation of the said merchandise shall have been discharged prior to the time aforesaid. Vide Act of Congress of March 2, 1799, s. 80; Encyclop6die, h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
DEBET ET DETINET, pleading. He owes and detains. In an action of.debt, the form of the writ is either in the debet and detinet, that is, it states that the defendant owes and unjustly detains the debt or thing in question, it is so brought between the original contracting parties; or, it is in the detinet only; that is, that the defendant unjustly detains from the plaintiff the debt or thing for which the action is brought; this is the form in in action by an executor, because the debt or duty is not due to him, but it is unjustly detained from him. 1 Saund. 1.
2. There is one case in which the writ must be in the detinet between the contracting parties. This is when the action is instituted for the recovery of goods, as a horse, a ship, and the like, the writ must bein the detinet, for it cannot be said a man owes another a horse, or a ship, but only that he detains them from him. 3 Bl. Com. 153, 4; 11 Vin. Ab. 32 1; Bac. Ab. Debt, F; 1 Lilly's Reg. 543; Dane's Ab. h. t.
DEBIT, accounts, commerce. A term used in book-keeping, to express the left-hand page of the ledger, to which are carried all the articles supplied or paid on the subject of an account, or that are charged to that account. It also signifies the balance of an account.
DEBITUM IN PRAESENTI, SOLVENDUM IN FUTURO. A debt due at present, to be paid in future. There is a difference between debt payable now and one payable at a future time. On the former an action may be brought, on the latter no action lies until it becomes due. See Due; Owing; and 13 Pet. 494; 11 Mass. 493.
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DECAPITATION, punishment. The punishment of putting a person to death by taking off his head.
DECEDENT. In the acts of descent and distribution in Pennsylvania, this word is frequently used for a deceased person, testate or intestate.
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DECEM TALES, practice. In the English law this is a writ which gives to the sheriff apponere decem tales; i. e. to appoint ten such men for the supply of jurymen, when a sufficient number do not appear to make up a full jury.
DECENNARYEng. law. A town or tithing, consisting originally of ten families of freeholders. Ten tithings composed a hundred. 1 Bl. Com. 114.
DECIES TANTUMEng. law. The name of an obsolete writ which formerly lay against a juror who had taken money for giving his verdict; called so, because it was sued out to recover from him ten times as much as he took.
DECMATION. The punishment of every tenth soldier by lot, was, among the Romans, called decimation.
DECIME. A French coin, of the value of a tenth part of a franc, or nearly two cents.
DECISION, practice. A judgment given by a competent tribunal. The French lawyers call the opinions which they give on questions propounded to them, decisions. Vide Inst. 1, 2, 8 Dig. 1, 2, 2.
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DECOCTION, med. jurisp. The operation of boiling certain ingredients in a fluid, for the purpose of extracting the parts soluble at that temperature. Decoction also means the product of this operation.
2. In a case in which the indictment charged the prisoner with having administered to a woman a decoction of a certain shrub called savin, it appeared that the prisoner had administered an infusion (q. v.) and not a decoction; the prisoner's counsel insisted that he was entitled to an acquittal, on the ground that the medicine was misdescribed, but it was held that infusion and decoction are ejusdem generis, and that the variance was immaterial. 3 Camp. R. 74, 75.
DECONFES, canon law in France. Formerly those persons who died without confession were so called; whether they refused to confess or whether they were criminals to whom the sacrament was refused. Droit Canon, par M. L'Abbe Andre. Dupin, Gloss. to Loisel's Institutes, says, Le deconfes est celui qui meurt sans confession et sans testament car l'un n'alloit point sans l'autre. See Intestate.
DECORUM. Proper behaviour; good order.
2. Decorum is requisite in public places, in order to permit all persons to enjoy their rights; for example, decorum is indispensable in church, to enable those assembled, to worship. If, therefore, a person were to disturb the congregation, it would be lawful to put him out. The same might be done in case of a funeral. 1 Mod. 168; 1 Lev. 196 2 Kebl. 124. But a request to desist should be first made, unless, indeed," when the necessity of the case would render such precaution impossible. In using force to restore order and decorum, care must be taken to use no more than is necessary; for any excess will render the party using it guilty of an assault and battery. Vide Battery.
DECOY. A pond used for the breeding and maintenance of water-fowl. 11 Mod. 74, 130; S. C. 3 Salk. 9; Holt, 14 11 East, 571.
DECREE, practice. The judgment or sentence of a court of equity.
2. It is either interlocutory or final. The former is given on some plea or issue arising in the cause, which does not decide the main question; the latter settles the matter in dispute, and a final decree has the same effect as a judgment at law. 2 Madd. Ch. 462; 1 Chan. Cas. 27; 2 Vern. 89; 4 Bro. P. C. 287.; Vide 7r-Vin. Ab. 394; 7 Com. Dig. 445; 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 223 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
DECREE, legislation. In some countries as in France, some acts of the legislature, or of the sovereign, which have the force of law, are called decrees; as, the Berlin and Milandecrees.
DECREE ARBITRAL, Scotch law. A decree made by arbitrators chosen by the parties; an award. 1 Bell's Com. 643.
DECREE OF REGISTRATION, Scotch law. A proceeding by which the creditor has immediate execution; it is somewhat like a warrant of attorney to confess judgment. 1Bell's Com. B. 1, c. 1, p. 4.
DECRETAL ORDER. Chancery practice. An order made by the court of chancery, upon a motion or petition, in the nature of a decree. 2 Dan. Ch. Pr. 637.
DECRETALS. eccles. law. The decretals are canononical epistles, written by the pope alone, or by the pope and cardinals, at the instance or suit of some one or more persons, for the ordering and determining some matter in. controversy, and have the authority of a law in themselves.
2. The decretals were published in three volumes. The first volume was collected by Raymundus Barcinius, chaplain to Gregory IX., about the year 1231, and published by him to be read in schools, and used in the ecclesiastical courts. The second volume is the work of Boniface VIII compiled about the year 1298, with additions to and alterations of the ordinances of his predecessors. The third volume is called the Clementines, because made by Clement V., and was published by him in the council of Vienna, about the year 1308. To these may be added the Extravagantes of John XXII. and other bishops of Rome, which, relatively to the others, are called Novelle Constitutiones. Ridley's View, &c. 99, 100,; 1 Fournel, Hist. des Avocats, 194-5.
3. The false decretals were forged. in the names of the early bishops of Rome, and first appeared about A. D. 845-850. The author of them is not known. They are mentioned in a letter written in the name of the council of Quiercy, by Charles the Bald, to the bishops and lords. of France. See Van Espen Fleury, Droit de Canon, by Andre.
DEDI, conveyancing. I have given. This word amounts to a warranty in law, when it is in a deed; for example, if in a deed it be said, I have given, &c., to A B, this is a warranty to him and his heirs. Brooke, Abr. Guaranties, pl. 85. Yet the warranty wrought by this word is a special warranty, and extendeth to the heirs of the feoffee during the life of the donor only. Co. Litt. 884, b. Vide Concessi.
DEDICATION. Solemn appropriation. It may be expressed or implied.
2. An express dedication of property to public use is made by a direct appropriation of it to such use, and it will be enforced. 2 Peters, R. 566; 6 Hill, N. Y. Rep. 407.
3. But a dedication of property to public or pious uses may be implied from the acts of the owner. A permission to the public for the space of eight or even six years, to use a street without bar or impediment, is evidence from which a dedication to the public may be inferred. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1631; 11 East, R. 376; 12 Wheat. R. 585; 10 Pet. 662; 2 Watts, 23; 1 Whart. 469; 3 Verm, 279; 6 Verm. 365; 7 Ham. part 2, 135; 12 Wend. 172; 11 Ala. R. 63, 81; 1 Spencer, 86; 8 Miss. R. 448 5 Watts & S. 141; Wright, 150; 6 Hill, 407 24 Pick. 71; 6 Pet. 431, 498 9 Port.,527; 3 Bing. 447; sed vide 5 Taunt. R . 125. Vide Street, and the following authorities: 3 Kent, Com. 450; 5 Taunt. 125 5 Barn. & Ald. 454: 4 Barn. & Ald. 447; Math. Pres. 833. As to what shall amount to a dedication of an invention to public use, see 1 Gallis. 482; 1 Paine's C. C. R. 345; 2. Pet. R. 1; 7 Pet. R. 292; 4 Mason, R. 1018. See Destination.
DEDIMUS, practice. The name of a writ to commission private. persons to do some act in the place of a judge; as, to administer an oath of office to a justice of the peace, to examine witnesses, and the like. 4 Com. Dig. 319; 3 Com. Dig. 359; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t. Rey, in his Institutions Judiciaires, de l'Angleterre, tom. 2, p. 214, exposes the absurdity of the name given to this writ; he says it is applicable to every writ which emanates from the same authority; dedimus, we have given.
DEDIMUS POTESTATEM DE ATTORNO FACIENCDO. The name of a writ which was formerly issued by authority of the crown in England to authorize an attorney to appear for a defendant.
2. By statute of Westminster 2, 13 Edw. I. c. 10, all persons impleaded may make an attorney to sue for them in all pleas moved by or against them, in the superior courts there enumerated. 3 Mann. & Gran. 184, note.
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DEFALCATION, practice, contracts. The reduction of the claim of one of the contracting parties against the other, by deducting from it a smaller claim due from the former to the latter.
2. The law operates this reduction , in certain cases, for, if the parties die or are insolvent, the balance between them is the only claim; but if they are solvent and alive, the defendant may or may not defalcate at his choice. See Set off. For the etymology of this word, see Bracken. Law Misc. 186; 1 Rawle's R. 291; 3 Binn. R. 135.
3. Defalcation also signifies the act of a defaulter. The bankrupt act of August 19, 1841, (now repealed), declares that a person who owes debts which have been created in consequence of a defalcation as a public officer, or as executor, administrator, guardian or trustee, or while acting in any other fiduciary capacity, shall not have the benefit of that law.
DEFAMATION, tort. The speaking slanderous words of a person so as, de bona fama aliquid detrahere, to hurt his good fame. Vide Slander.
2. In the United States, the remedy for defamation is by an action on the case, where the words are slanderous.
3. In England, besides the remedy by action, proceedings may be instituted in the ecclesiastical court for redress of the injury. The punishment for defamation, in this court, is payment of costs and penance enjoined at the discretion of the judge. When the slander has been privately uttered, the penance may be ordered to be performed in a private place; when publicly uttered, the sentence must be public, as in the church of the parish of the defamed party, in time of divine service,, and the defamer may be required publicly to pronounce that by such words, naming them, as set forth in the sentence, he had defamed the plaintiff, and, therefore, that he begs pardon, first, of God, and then of the party defamed, for uttering such words. Clerk's Assist. 225; 3 Burn's Eccl. Law, Defamation, pl. 14; 2 Chit. Pr. 471 Cooke on Def.
DEFAULT. The neglect to perform a legal obligation or duty; but in technical language by default is often understood the non-appearance of the defendant within the time prescribed by law, to defend himself; it also signifies the non-appearance of the plaintiff to prosecute his claim.
2. When the plaintiff makes default, he may be nonsuited; and when the defendant makes default, judgment by default is rendered against him. Com. Dig. Pleader, E 42 Id. B 11. Vide article Judgment by Default, and 7 Vin. Ab. 429; Doct. Pl. 208 Grah. Pr. 631. See, as to what will excuse or save a default, Co. Litt. 259 b.
DEFAULT, contracts, torts. By the 4th section of the English statute of frauds, 29 Car. H., c. 3, it is enacted that "no action shall be brought to charge the defendant upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another person, unless the agreement," &c., "shall be in writing," &c. By default under this statute is understood the non-performance of duty, though the same be not founded on a contract. 2 B. & A. 516.
DEFAULTER, com. law. One who is deficient in his accounts, or falls in making his accounts correct.
DEFEASANCE, contracts, conveyancing. An instrument which defeats the force or operation of some other deed or estate. That, which in the same deed is called a condition, in another deed is a defeasance.
2. Every defeasance must contain proper words, as that the thing shall be void. 2 Salk. 575 Willes, 108; and vide Carth. 64. A defeasance must be made in eodem modo, and by, matter as high as the thing to be defeated; so that if one be by deed) the other must also be by deed. Touchs. 397.
3. It is a general rule, that the defeasance shall be a part, of the same transaction with the conveyance; though the defeasance may be dated after the deed. 12 Mass. R. 13 Pie P. 413 1 N. 11. Rep. 41; but see 4 Yerg. 57, contra. Vide Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Vin. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. h. t.; Id. Pleader, 2 W 35, 2 W 37; Lilly's Reg. h. t.; Nels. Ab. h. t.; 2 Saund. 47 n, note 1; Cruise, Dig. tit. 32, c. 7,, s. 25; 18 John. R. 45; 9 Wend. R. 538; 2 Mass. R. 493.
DEFEASIBLE. What may be undone or annulled.
DEFECT. The want of something required by law.
2. It is a general rule that pleadings shall have these two requisites; 1. A matter sufficient in law. 2. That it be deduced and expressed according to the forms of law. The want of either of these is a defect.
3. Defects in matters of substance cannot be cured, because it does not appear that the plaintiff is entitled to recover; but when the defects are in matter of form, they are cured by a verdict in favor of the party who committed them. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3292; 2 Wash. 1; 1 Hen. & Munf. 153; 16 Pick. 128, 541; 1 Day, 315; 4 Conn, 190; 5 Conn. 416; 6 Conn. 176; 12 Conn. 455; 1 P. C. C. R. 76; 2 Green, 133; 4 Blackf. 107; 2 M'Lean, 35; Bac. Ab. Verdict, X.
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DEFICIT. This Latin term signifies that something is wanting. It is used to express the deficiency which is discovered in the accounts of an accountant, or in the money in which he has received.
DEFINITE NUMBER. An ascertained number; the term is usually applied in opposition to an indefinite number.
2. When there is a definite number of corporators, in order to do a lawful act, a majority of the whole must be present; but it is not necessary they should, be unanimous; a majority of those present can, in general, perform the act. But when the corporators consist of an indefinite number, any number, consisting of a majority of those present, may do the act. 7 Cowen, R. 402 9 B. & Cr. 648, 851; 7 S. & 11. 517; Ang. & Am. on Corp. 281.
DEFINITION. An enumerition of the principal ideas of which a compound idea is formed, to ascertain and explain its nature and character; or it is that which denotes and points out the substance of a thing, to us. Ayliffe's Pand. 59.
2. A definition ought to contain every idea which belongs to the thing defined, and exclude all others.
3. A definition should be, 1st. Universal, that is, such that it will apply equally to all individuals of, the same kind. 2d. Proper, that is, such that it will not apply to any other individual of any other kind. 3d. Clear, that is, without any equivocal, vague, or unknown word. 4th. Short, that is, without any useless word, or any foreign to the idea intended to be defined.
4. Definitions are always dangerous, because it is always difficult to prevent their being inaccurate, or their becoming so; omnis definitio injure civili periculosa est, parum est enim, ut non subvertipossit.
5. All ideas are not susceptible of definitions, and many words cannot be defined. This inability is frequently supplied, in a considerable degree, by descriptions. (q. v.)
DEFINITIVE. That which terminates a suit a definitive sentence or judgment is put in opposition to an interlocutory judgment; final. (q. v.)
DEFLORATION. The act by which a woman is deprived of her virginity.
2. When this is done unlawfully, and against her will, it bears the name of rape, (q. v.) when she consents, it is fornication. (q. v.)
DE FORCIANT. One who wrongfully keeps the owner of lands and tenements out of the possession of them. 2 Bl. Com. 350.
DEFORCIARE. To withhold lands or tenements from the right owner. This is a word of art which cannot be supplied by any other word. Co. Litt. 331 b; 3 Tho. Co. Litt. 3; Bract. lib. 4, 238; Fleta, lib. c.
DEFORCEMENT, tort. In its most extensive sense it signifies the holding of any lands or tenements to which another person has a right; Co . Litt. 277; so that this includes, as well, an abatement, an intrusion, a disseisin, or a discontinuance, as any other species of wrong whatsoever, by which the owner of the freehold is kept out of possession. But, as contradistinguished from the former, it is only such a detainer, of the freehold, from him who has the right of property, as falls within none of the injuries above mentioned. 3 Bl. Com. 173; Archb. Civ. Pl. 13; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
DEFORCEMENT, Scotch law. The opposition given, or resistance made, to messengers or other officers, while they are employed in executing the law.
2. This crime is punished by confiscation of movables, the one half to the king, and the other to the creditor at whose suit the diligence is used. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4,4,32.
DEFUNCT. A term used for one that is deceased or dead. In some acts of assembly in Pennsylvania, such deceased person is called a decedent. (q. v.)
DEGRADATION, punishment, ecclesiastical law. A censure by which a clergy man is deprived of his holy orders, which he had as a priest or deacon.
TO DEGRADE, DEGRADING. To, sink or lower a person in the estimation of the public.
2. As a man's character is of great importance to him, and it is his interest to retain the good opinion of all mankind, when he is a witness, he cannot be compelled to disclose any matter which would tend to disgrace or degrade him, 13 How. St. Tr. 17, 334, 16 How. St. Tr. 161. A question having that tendency, however, may be asked, and, in such case, when the witness chooses to answer it, the answer is conclusive. 1 Phil. Ev. 269; R. & M. 383.
DEGREE, descents. This word is derived from the French degre, which is itself taken from the Latin gradus, and signifies literally, a step in a stairway, or the round of a ladder.
2. Figuratively applied, and as it is understood in law, it is the distance between those who are allied by blood; it means the relations descending from a common ancestor, from generation to generation, as by so many steps. Hence, according to some Lexicographers, we obtain the word, pedigree (q. v.) Par degrez, by degree, the descent being reckoned par degrez. Minshew. Each generation lengthens the line of descent one degree, for the degrees are only the generations marked in a line by small circles or squares, in which the names of the persons forming it are written. Vide Consanguinity;, Line; and also Ayliffe's Parergon, 209; Toull. Dr. Civ. Frau. liv. 3, t. 1, c. 3, n. 158; Aso & Man. Inst. B. 2, t. 4, c. 3, §1.
DEGREE, measures. In angular measures, a degree is equal to sixty minutes, or the thirtieth part of a sine. Vide Measure.
DEGREE, persons. By. degree, is understood the state or condition of a person. The ancient English statute of additions, for example, requires that in process, for the better description of a defendant, his state, degree, or mystery, shall be mentioned.
DEGREES, academical. Marks of distinction conferred on students, in testimony of their proficiency in arts and sciences. They are of pontifical origin. See 1 Schmidt's Thesaurus, 144; Vicat, ad voc. Doctores Minshew, Dict. ad voc Bacheler; Merl. Rep ad voc Universite; Van Espen, p. 1, tit. 10, c. Giaunone Istoria, di Napoli, lib. xi. c. 2, for a full account of this matter.
DEHORS. Out of; without. By this word is understood something out of the record, agreement, will, or other thing spoken of; something foreign to the matter in question.
DEI JUDICIUM. The judgment of God. This name was given to the barbarous and superstitious trial by ordeal.
DEL CREDERE, contracts. A del credere commission is one under which the agent, in consideration of an additional premium, engages to insure to his principal not only the solvency of the debtor, but the punctual discharge of the debt; and he is liable, in the first instance, without any demand from the debtor. 6 Bro. P. C. 287; Beawes, 429; 1 T. Rep. 112; Paley on Agency, 39.
2. If the agent receive the amount of sales, and remit the amount to the principal by a bill of exchange, he is not liable if it should be protested. 2 W. C. C. R. 378. See, also, Com. Dig. Merchant, B; 4 M. & S. 574.
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DELAY, civil law. The time allowed either by law or by agreement of the parties to do something.
2. The law allows a delay, for a party who has been summoned to appear, to make defence, to appeal; it admits of a delay during which and action may be brought, certain rights exercised, and the like.
3. By the agreement of the parties there may be a delay in the payment of a debt, the fulfilment of a contract, &c. Vide Code, 3, 11, 4; Nov. 69, c. 2 Merl. Rep. h
DELECTUS PERSONAE. This phrase, which literally signifies the choice of a person, is applied to show that partners have the right to select their copartners; and that no set of partners can take another person into the partnership, without the consent of each of the partners. Story on Partn. 6 Colly. on Partn. 4; 1 Swanst. 508; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1443.
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TO DELIBERATE. To examine, to consult, in order to form an opinion. Thus, a jury deliberate as to their verdict.
DELIBERATION, contracts, crimes. The act of the understanding, by which the party examines whether a thing proposed ought to be done or not to be done, or whether it ought to be done in one manner or another. The deliberation relates to the end proposed, to the means of accomplishing that end, or to both.
2. It is a presumption of law that all acts committed, are do-ne with due deliberation, that the party intended to do what he has done. But he may, show the contrary; in contracts, for example, he may show he has been taken by surprise; (q. v.) and when a criminal act is charged, he may prove that it Was an accident, and not with deliberation, that in fact there was no intention or will. See Intention; Will.
DELIBERATION. legislation. The council which is held touching some business, in an assembly having the power to act in relation to it.
2. In deliberative assemblies, it is presumed that each member will listen to the opinions and arguments of the others before he arrives at a conclusion.
DELICT, civil law. The act by which one person, by fraud or malignity, causes some damage or tort to some other. In its most enlarged sense, this term includes all kinds of crimes and misdemeanors, and even the injury which has been caused by another, either voluntarily or accidentally without evil intention; but more commonly by delicts are understood those small offences which are punislied by a small fine or a short imprisonment.
2. Delicts are either public or private; the public are those which affect the whole community by their hurtful consequences; the private is that which is directly injurious to a private individual. Inst. 4, 18; Id. 4, 1 Dig. 47, 1; Id. 48, 1.
3. A quasi-delict, quasi delictum, is the act of a person, who without malignity, but by an inexcusable imprudence, causes an injury to another. Poth. Ob. n. 116; Ersk. Pr. Laws of Scotl. B. 4, t. 4, s. 1.
DELINQUENT, civil law. He who has been guilty of some crime, offence or failure of duty.
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DELUSION, med. jurisp. A diseased state of the mind, in which persons believe things to exist, which exist only, or in the degree they are conceived of only in their own imaginations, with a persuasion so fixed and firm, that neither evidence nor argument can convince them to the contrary.
2. The individual is, of course, insane. For example, should a parent unjustly persist without the least ground in attributing to his daughter a course of vice, and use her with uniform unkindness, there not being the slightest pretence or color of reason for the supposition, a just inference of insanity, or delusion, would arise in the minds of a jury: because a supposition long entertained and persisted in, after argument to the contrary, and against the natural affections of a parent, suggests that he must labor under some morbid mental delusion. 3 Addams' R. 90, 91; Id. 180; Hagg. R. 27 and see Dr. Connolly's Inquiry into Insanity, 384; Ray, Med. Jur. Prel. Views., §20, p. 41, and §22, p. 47; 3 Addams, R. 79; 1 Litt. R. 371 Annales d'Hygiene Publique, tom. 3, p. 370; 8 Watts, 70; 13 Ves. 89; 1 Pow. Dev. by Jarman, 130, note Shelf. on Lun. 296; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2104-10.
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DEFANDANT, practice. The plaintiff or party who brings a real action, is called the demandant. Co. Litt. 127; 1 Com. Dig. 85.
DEMENCY, dementia, med. jur. A defect, hebetude, or imbecility of the under standing, general or partial, but confined to individual faculties of the mind, particularly those concerned in associating and comparing ideas, whence proceeds great, confusion and incapacity in arranging the thoughts. 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 351; Cyclop. Practical Med. tit. Insanity; Ray, Med. Jur. ch. 9; 1 -Beck's Med. Jur. 547.
2. Demency is attended with a general enfeeblement of the moral and intellectual faculties, consequence of age or disease, which were originally well developed and sound. It is characterised by forgetfulness of the past; indifference to the present and future, and a childish disposition. It differs from idiocy and imbecility. In these latter, the powers of the mind were never possessed, while in demency, they have been lost.
3. Demency may also be distinguished from mania, with which it is sometimes confounded. In the former, the mind has lost its strength, and thereby the reasoning faculty is impaired; while in the latter, the madness arises from an exaltation of vital power, or from a morbid excess of activity.
4. Demency is divided into acute and chronic. The former is a consequence of temporary errors of regimen, fevers, hemorrhages, &c., and is susceptible of cure the latter, or chronic demency, may succeed mania, apoplexy, epilepsy, masturbation, and drunkenness, but is generally that incurable decay of the mind which occurs in old age.
5. When demency has been fully established in its last stages, the acts of the individual of a civil nature will be void, because the party had no consenting mind. Vide Contracts; Wills; 2 Phillim. R. 449. Having no legal will or intention, he cannot of course commit a crime. Vide Insanity; Mania.
DEMESNE, Eng. law. The name given to that portion of the Iands of a manor which the lord retained in his own hands for the use of himself and family. These lands were called terra dominicales or demesne lands, because they were occupied by the lord, or dominus manerii, and his servants, &c. 2 Bl. Com. 90. Vide Ancient Demesne; Demesne as of fee; and Soil assault demesne.
DEMESNE AS OF FEE. A man is said to be seised in his demesne as of fee of a corporeal inheritance, because he has a property dominicum or demesne in the thing itself. 2 Bl. Com. 106. But when he has no dominion in the thing itself, as in the case of an incorporeal hereditament, he is said to be seised as of fee, and not in his demesne as of fee. Liit. s. 10; 17 S. & R. 196; Jones on Land Titles, i66.
2. Formerly it was the practice in an action on the case, e. g. for a nuisance to real estate, to aver in the declaration the seisin of the plaintiff in demesne as of fee; and this is still necessary, in order to estop the record with the land; so that it may run with or attend the title. Arch. Civ. Pl. 104; Co. Ent. 9, pl. 8 Lill. Ent. 62; 1 Saund. Rep. 346; Willes, Rep. 508. But such an action may be maintained on the possession as well as on the seisin, although the effect of the record in this case upon the title would not be the same. Steph. on Pl. 322 Arch. Dig. 104; 1 Lutw. 12; 2 Mod. 71; 4 T. R. 718; 2 Saund. 1 Arch. Dig. 105; Cro. Car. 500. 575
DEMIDIETAS. This word is used in ancient records for a moiety, or one half. DEMIES. In some universities and colleges this term is synonymous with scholars. Boyle on Charities, 129.
DEMISE, contracts. In its most extended signification, it is a conveyance either in fee, for life, or for years. In its more technical meaning, it is a lease or conveyance for a term of years. Vide Cow. L. & T. Index, h. t.; Ad. Eject. Index, h. t.; 2 Hill. Ab. 130; Com. Dig. h. t., and the heads there referred to. According to Chief Justice Gibson, the term demise strictly denotes a posthumous grant, and no more. 5 1 Whart. R. 278. See 4 Bing. N. C. 678; S. C. 33 Eng. C. L. R. 492; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1774, et seq.
DEMISE, persons. A term nearly synonymous with death. It is usually applied in England to the death of the king or queen.
DEMOCRACY, government. That form of government in which the sovereign power is exercised by the people in a body, as was the practice in some of the states of Ancient Greece; the term representative democracy has been given to a republican government like that of the United States.
DEMONSTRATION. Whatever is said or written to designate a thing or person. For example, a gift of so much money, with a fund particularly referred to for its payment, so that if the fund be not the testator's property at his death, the legacy will fail; this is called a demonstrative legacy. 4 Ves. 751; Lownd. Leg. 85; Swinb. 485.
2. A legacy given to James, who married my cousin, is demonstrative; these expressions present the idea of a demonstration; there are many James, but only one who married my cousin. Vide Ayl. Pand. 130; Dig. 12, 1, 6; Id. 35, 1, 34 Inst. 2, 20, 30.
3. By demonstration is also understood that proof which excludes all possibility of error; for example, mathematical deductions.
DEMURRAGE, mar. law. The freighter of a ship is bound not to detain it, beyond the stipulated or usual time, to load, or to deliver the cargo, or to sail. The extra days beyond the lay days (being the days allowed to load and unload the cargo), are called the days of demurrage; and that term is likewise applied to the payment for such delay, and it may become due, either by the ship's detention, for the purpose of loading or unloading the cargo, either before, or during, or after the voyage, or in waiting for convoy. 3 Kent, Com. 159; 2 Marsh, 721; Abbott on Ship. 192 5 Com. Dig. 94, n., 505; 4 Taunt. 54, 55; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 426; Harr. Dig. Ship and Shipping, VII.
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DEMY SANKE or SANGUE. This is a barbarous corruption of, demi sang, half-blood. (q. v.)
DENARII. An ancient general term for any sort of pecunia numerata, or ready money. The French use the word denier in the same sense: payer de ses propres deniers.
DENARIUS DEI. A term used in some countries to signify a certain sum of money which is given by one of the contracting parties to the other, as a sign of the completion of the contract.
2. It does not however bind the parties he who received it may return it in a limited time, or the other may abandon it, and avoid the engagement.
3. It differs from arrhae in this, that the latter is a part of the consideration, while the denarius dei is no part of it. 1 Duverg. n. 132 3 Duverg. n. 49; Repert. de Jur. verbo Denier a Dieu.
DENIAL, pleading. To traverse the statement of the opposite party a defence. See Defence; Traverse.
DENIER A DIEU, French law. It is a sum of money which the hirer of a thing gives to the other party as evidence, or for the consideration of the * contract, which either party may annul, within twenty-four hours, the one who, giving the denier a dieu, by demanding, and the other by returning it. It differs from arrhae. Vide Arrhae; Denarius Dei.
DENIZATION, Eng. law.. The act by which a foreigner becomes a subject of England; but he has not the rights either of a natural born subject, nor of one who has become naturalized. Bac. Ab. Aliens, B.
DENIZEN, English law. An alien born, who has obtained, ex donatione legis, letters patent to make him au English subject.
2. He is intermediate between a natural born subject and an alien. He may. take lands by purchase or devise, which an alien cannot, but he is incapable of taking by inheritance. 1 Bl. Com. 374. In the United States there is no such civil condition.
DENUNCIATION, crim. law. This term is used by the civilians to signify the act by which au individual informs a public officer, whose duty it is to prosecute offenders, that a crime has been committed. It differs from a complaint. (q. v.) Vide 1 Bro. C. L. 447; 2 Id. 389; Ayl. Parer. 210, Poth. Proc. Cr. sect. 2, §2.
DEODAND, English law. This word is derived from Deo dandum, to be given to God; and is used to designate the instrument, whether it be an animal or inanimate thing, which has caused the death of a man. 3 Inst. 57; Hawk. bk. 1, c. 8.
2. The deodand is forfeited to the king, and was formerly applied to pious uses. But the presentment of a deodand by a grand jury, under their general charge from the judge of assize, is void. 1 Burr. Rep. 17.
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DEPARTURE, pleading. Said to be when a party quits or departs from the case, or defence, which he has first made, and has recourse to another; it is when his replication or rejoinder contains matter not pursuant to the declaration, or plea, and which does not support and fortify it. Co. Litt. 304, a; 2 Saund. 84, a, n. (1); 2 Wils. 98; 1 Chit. Pl. 619. The following example will illustrate what is a departure: if to assumpsit, the defendant plead infancy, and to a replication of necessaries, rejoin, duress, payment, release, &c., the rejoinder is a departure , and a good cause of demurrer, because the defendant quits or departs from the case or defence which he first made, though either of these matters, newly pleaded, would have been a good bar, if first pleaded as such.
2. A departure in pleading is never allowed, for the record would, by such means, be spun out into endless prolixity; for he who has departed from and relinquished his first plea, might resort to a second, third, fourth, or even fortieth defence; pleading would, by such means, become infinite. He who had a bad cause, would never be brought to issue, and he who had a good one, would never obtain the end of his suit. Summary on Pleading, 92; 2 Saund. 84, a. n. (l); 16 East, R. 39; 1 M. & S. 395 Coin. Dig. Pleader, F 7, 11; Bac. Abr. Pleas, L; Vin. Abr. Departure; 1 Archb. Civ. Pl. 247, 253; 1 Chit. Pl. 618.
3. A departure is cured by a verdict in favor of him who makes it, if the matter pleaded by way of departure is a sufficient answer, in substance, to what is before pleaded by the opposite party; that is, if it would have been sufficient, if pleaded in the first instance. 2 Saund. 84 1 Lill. Ab. 444.
DEPARTURE, maritime law. A deviation from the course of the voyage insured. 2. A departure is justifiable or not justifiable it is justifiable ill consequence of the stress of weather, to make necessary repairs, to succor a ship in distress, to avoid capture, of inability to navigate the ship, mutiny of the crew, or other compulsion. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1189.
DEPENDENCY. A territory distinct from the country in which the supreme sovereign, power resides, but belonging rightfully to it, and subject to the laws and regulations which the sovereign may think proper to prescribe. It differs from a colony, because it is not settled by the citizens of the sovereign or mother state; and from possession, because it is held by other title than that of mere conquest: for example, Malta was considered a dependency of Great Britain in the year 1813. 3 Wash. C. C. R. 286. Vide act of congress, March 1, 1809, commonly called the non-importation law.
DEPENDENT CONTRACT. One which it is not the duty of the contractor to perform, until some obligation contained in the same agreement has been performed by the other party. Ham. on Part. 17, 29, 30, 109.
DEPONENT, witness. One who gives information, on oath or affirmation, respecting some facts known to him, before a magistrate he who makes a deposition.
DEPOPULATION. In its most proper signification, is the destruction of the people of a country or place. This word is, however, taken rather in a passive than an active one; we say depopulation, to designate a diminution of inhabitants, arising either from violent causes, or the want of multiplication. Vide 12 Co. 30.
DEPORTATION, civil law. Among the Romans a perpetual banishment, depriving the banished of his rights as a citizen; it differed from relegation (q. v.) and exile. (q. v.). 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 125 note; Inst. 1, 12, 1 and 2; -Dig. 48, 22, 14, 1.
TO DEPOSE, practice. To make a deposition; to give testimony as a witness.
TO DEPOSE, rights. The act of depriving an individual of a public employment or office, against his will. Wolff, §1063. The term is usually applied to the deprivation of all authority of a sovereign.
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DEPREDATION, French law. The pillage which is made of the goods of a decedent. Ferr. Mod. h. t.
DEPRIVATION, ecclesiastical Punishment. A censure by which a clergyman is deprived of his parsonage, vicarage, or other ecclesiastical promotion or dignity. Vide Ayliffe's Parerg. 206; 1 Bl. Com. 393.
DEPUTY. One authorized by an officer to exercise the office or right which the officer possesses, for and in place of the latter.
2. In general, ministerial officers can appoint deputies; Com. Dig. Officer, D 1; unless the office is to be exercised by the ministerial officer in person; and where the office partakes of a judicial and ministerial character, although a deputy may be made for the performance of ministerial acts, one cannot be made for the performance of a judicial act; a sheriff cannot therefore make a deputy to hold an inquisition, under a writ of inquiry, though he may appoint a deputy to serve a writ.,
3. In general, a deputy has power to do every act which his principal might do but a deputy cannot make a deputy.
4. A deputy should always act in the name of his principal. The principal is liable for the deputy's acts performed by him as such, and for the neglect of the deputy; Dane's Ab. vol. 3, c. 76, a. 2; and the deputy is liable himself to the person injured for his own tortious acts. Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Com. Dig. Officer, D; Viscount, B. Vide 7 Vin. Ab. 556 Arch. Civ. Pl. 68; 16 John. R. 108.
DEPUTY OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL. An officer appointed by the attorney general, who is to hold his office during the pleasure of the latter, and whose duty it is to perform, within a specified district, the duties of the attorney general. He must be a member of the bar. In Pennsylvania, by an act of assembly, passed May 3, 1850, district attorneys are elected by the people, who are required to perform the duties which, before that act, were performed by deputies of the attorney general.
DEPUTY DISTRICT ATTORNEYS. The Act of Congress of March 3, 1815, 2 Story L. U. S. 1530, authorizes and directs the district attorneys of the United States to appoint by warrant, an attorney as their substitute or deputy in all cases when necessary to sue or prosecute for the United States, in any of the state or county courts, by that act invested with certain jurisdiction, within the sphere of whose jurisdiction the said district attorneys do not themselves reside or practice; and the said substitute or deputy shall be sworn or affirmed to the faithful execution of his duty.
DERELICT, common law. This term is applied in the common law in a different sense from what it bears in the civil law. In the former it is applied to lands left by the sea.
2. When so left by degrees the derelict land belongs to the owner of the soil adjoining but when the sea retires suddenly, it belongs to the government. 2 Bl. Com. 262 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 239; 1 Sumn. 328, 490 1 Gallis. 138; Bee, R. 62, 178, 260; Ware, R. 332.
DERELICTO, civil law. Goods voluntarily abandoned by their owner; he must, however, leave them, not only sine spe revertendi, but also sine animzo revertendi; his intention to abandon them may be inferred by the great length of time during which he may have been out of possession, without any attempt to regain them. 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 239; 2 Bro. Civ. Law, 51; Wood's Civ. Law, 156; 19 Amer. Jur. 219, 221, 222 Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 1 Ware's R. 4 1.
DERIVATIVE. Coming from another; taken from something preceding, secondary; as derivative title, which is that acquired from another person. There is considerable difference between an original and a derivative title. When the acquisition is original, the right thus acquired to the thing becomes property, which must be unqualified and unlimited, and since no one but the occupant has any right to the thing, he must have the whole right of disposing of it. But with regard to derivative acquisition, it may be otherwise, for the person from whom the thing is acquired may not have an unlimited right to it, or he may convey or transfer it with certain reservations of right. Derivative title must always be by contract.
2. Derivative conveyances are, those which presuppose some other precedent conveyance, and serve only to enlarge, confirm, alter, restrain, restore, or transfer the interest granted by such original conveyance, 3 Bl. Com. 321.
DERIVATIVE POWER. An authority by which one person enables another to do an act for him. See Powers.
DEROGATION, civil law. The partial abrogation of a law; to derogate from a law is to enact something which is contrary to it; to abrogate a law is' to abolish it entirely. Dig. lib. 50, t. 17, 1. 102. See Abrogation.
DESCENDANTS. Those who have issued from an individual, and include his children, grandchildren, and their children to the remotest degree. Ambl. 327 2 Bro. C. C. 30; Id. 230 3 Bro. C. C. 367; 1 Rop. Leg. 115; 2 Bouv. n. 1956.
2. The descendants form what is called the direct descending line. Vide Line. The term is opposed to that of ascendants. (q. v.)
3. There is a difference between the number of ascendants and descendants which a man may have every one his the same order of ascendants, though they may not be exactly alike as to numbers, because some may be descended from a common ancestor. In the line of descendants they fork differently, according to the number of children and continue longer or shorter as generations continue or cease to exist. Many families become extinct, while others continue; the line of descendants is therefore diversified in each family.
DESCENDER. In the descent; as formedon in the descender. Bac. Ab. Formedon, A 1. Vide Formedon.
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DESCRIPTIO PERSONAE. Description of the person. In wills, it frequently happens, that the word heir is used as a descriptio personae; it is then a sufficient designation of the person.
DESCRIPTION. A written account of the state and condition of personal property, titles, papers, and the like. It is a kind of inventory, (q. v.) but is more particular in ascertaining the exact condition of the property, and is without any appraisement of it.
2. When goods are found in the possession of a person accused of stealing them, a description ought to be made of them. Merl. Rep. h. t.
3. A description is less perfect than a definition. (q. v.) It gives some knowledge of the accidents and qualities of a thing; for example, plants, fruits, andanimals, are described by their shape, bulk, color, and the like accidents. Ayl. Pand. 60.
4. Description may also be of a person, as description of a legatee. 1 Roper on Leg. chap. 2.
DESERTER. One who abandons his post; as, a soldier who abandons the public service without leave; or a sailor who abandons a ship when he has engaged to serve.
DESERTION, crim. law. An offence which consists in the abandonment of the public service, in the army or navy, without leave.
2. The Act of March 16, 1802, s. 19, enacts, that if any non-commissioned officer, musician, or private, shall desert the service of the United Staies, he shall, in addition to the penalties mentioned in the rules and articles of war, be liable to serve for and during such period as shall, with the time he may have served previous to his desertion, amount to the full term of his enlistment; and such soldier shall and may be tried by a court-martial, and punished, although the term of his enlistment may have elapsed previous to his being apprehended or tried.
3. By the articles of war, it is enacted, that "any non-commissioned officer or soldier who shall, without leave from his commanding officer, absent himself from his troop, company, or detachment, shall, upon being convicted thereof, be punished, according to the nature of his offence, at the discretion of a court-martial." Art. 21.
4. By the articles for the government of the navy, art. 16, it is enacted, that "if any person in the navy shall desert to an enemy, or rebel, he shall suffer death;" and by art. 17, "if any person in the navy shall desert, or shall entice others to desert, he shall suffer death, or such other punishmemt as a court-martial shall adjudge."
DESERTION, torts. The act by which a man abandons his wife and children, or either of them.
2. On proof of desertion, the courts possess the power to grant the 'Wife, or such children as have been deserted, alimony (q. v.)
DESERTION, MALICIOUS. The act of a hushand or wife, in leaving a consort, without just cause, for the purpose of causing a perpetual separation. Vide Abandonment, malicious.
DESERTION OF SEAMEN, contracts. The abandonment, by a sailor, of a ship or vessel, in which he engaged to perform a voyage, before the expiration of his time, and without leave.
2. Desertion, without just cause, renders the sailor liable, on his shipping articles, for damages, and will, besides, work a forfeiture of his wages previously earned.
3 Kent, Com. 155. It has been decided, in England, that leaving the ship before the completion of the voyage is not desertion, in the case, 1. Of the seaman's entering into the public service, either voluntarily or by impress; and 2. When he is compelled to leave it by the inhuman treatment of the captain. 2 Esp. R. 269; 1 Bell's Com. 514, 5th ed.; 2 Rob. Adm. R. 232.
DESIGNATIO PERSONAE. The persons described in a contract as being parties to it.
2. In all contracts, under seal, there must be some designatio personae. In general, the names of the parties,appear in the body of the deed, "between A B of, &c., of the one part, and C D of, &c., of the other part," being the common formula. But there is a sufficient designation and description of the party to be charged, if his name is written at the foot of the instrument.
3. A deed alleged to have been made between plaintiff and defendant began as follows: "Tis agreed that a gray nag bought of A B by C D shall run twenty five miles in two hours for X, In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals." The plaintiff and defendant subscribed their names at the bottom of the writing, and afterwards sealed and delivered the document as their deed. Held, that the omission to state the names of the contracting parties in the body of the instrument, was supplied by the signatures at the bottom, and it sufficiently appeared whose deed it was. 1 Raym. 2; 1 Salk. 214 2 B. & P. 339.
4. When a person is described in the body of the instrument by the name of James, and he signs the name of John, on being sued by the latter name he cannot deny it. 3 Taunt. 505; Cro. Eliz. 897, n. (a.) Vide 11 Ad. & Ell. 594; 3 P. & D. 271.
DESIGNATION, wills. The expression used by a testator, instead of the name of the person or the thing he is desirous to name; for example, a legacy to. the eldest son of such a person, would be a designation of the legatee. Vide 1 Rop. Leg. ch. 2.
2. A bequest of the farm which the testator bought of such a person; or of the picture he owns, painted by such an artist, would be a designation of the thing devised or bequeathed.
DESPACHEURS. The name given, in some countries, to persons appointed to settle cases of average. Ord. Hamh. t. 21, art. 10.
DESPATCHES. Official communications of official Persons, on the affairs of government.
2. In general, the bearer of despatches is entitled to all the facilities that can be given him, in his own country, or in a neutral state; but a neutral cannot, in general, be the bearer of despatches of one of the belligerent parties. 6 C. Rob. 465 see 2 Dodson, 54; Edw. 274.
DESPERATE. Of which there is no hope.
2. This term is used frequently, in making an inventory of a decedent's effects, when a debt is considered so bad that there is no hope of recovering it. It is then called a desperate debt, and, if it be so returned, it will be prima facie, considered as desperate. See Toll. Ex. 248 2 Williams, Ex. 644; 1 Chit. Pr. 580. See Sperate.
DESPITUS. This word signifies, in our ancient law books, a contemptible person. Flet. lib. 4, c. 5, §4. The English word despite is derived from it, which signifies spite or contempt against one's will - defiance with contempt, or contempt of opposition.
DESPOT. This word, in its most simple and original acceptation, signifies master and supreme lord; it is synonymous with monarch; but, taken in bad part, as it is usually employed, it signifies a tyrant. In some states, despot is the title given to the sovereign, as king is given in others. Encyc. Lond.
DESPOTISM, government. That abuse of government, where the sovereign power is not divided, but united in the hands of a single man, whatever may be his official title. It is not, properly, a form of government. Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. tit. prel. n. 32; Rutherf Inst. b. 1, c. 20, §1. Vide Tyranny; Tyrant.
DESRENABLE, Law French. Unreasonable. Britt. c. 121.
DESTINATION. The application which the testator directs shall be made of the legacy he gives; for example, when a testator gives to a hospital a sum of money, to be applied in erectiug buildings, he is said to give a destination to the legacy. Destination also signifies the intended application of a thing. Mill stones, for example, taken out of a mill to be picked, and to be returned, have a destination, and are considered as real estate, although detached from the freehold. Heir looms, (q. v.) although personal chattels, are, by their destination, considered real estate and money agreed or directed to be laid out in land, is treated as real property. Newl. on Contr. ch. 8; Fonbl. Eq. B. 1, c. 6, §9; 3 Wheat. R. 577; 2 Bell's Com. 2; Ersk. Inst. 2 §14. Vide Mill.
2. When the owner of two adjoining houses uses, during his life, the property in such a manner as to make one property subject to the other, and devises one property to one person, and the other to another, this is said not to be an easement or servitude, but a destination by the former owner. Lois des Bat. partie 1, c. 4, art. 3, §3; 5 Har. & John. 82. See Dedication.
DESTINATION, com. law. The port at which a ship is to end her voyage is called her port of destination. Pard. n. 600.
DESUETUDE. This term is applied to laws which have become obsolete. (q.v.)
DETAINER. 1. The act of keeping a person against his will, or of keeping goods or property. All illegal detainers of the person amount to false imprisonment, and may be remedied by habeas corpus.
2. - 2. A detainer or detention of goods is either lawful or unlawful; when lawful, the party having possession of them cannot be deprived of it. The detention may be unlawful, although the original taking was lawful; as when goods were distrained for rent, and the rent was -afterwards paid; or when they 'Were pledged, and the money borrowed, and interest were afterwards paid; in these, and the like cases, the owner should make a demand, (q. v.) and if the possessor refuse to restore them, trover, detinue, or replevin will lie, at the option of the plaintiff.
3. - 3. There may also be a detainer of land and this is either lawful and peaceable, or unlawful and forcible. 1. The detainer is lawful where the entry has been lawful, and the estate is held by virtue of some right. 2. It is unlawful and forcible, where the entry has been unlawful, and with force, and it is retained, by force, against right; or even when the entry has been peaceable and lawful, if the detainer be by force, and against right; as, if a tenant at will should detain with force, after the will has determined, he will be guilty of a forcible detainer. Hawk. P. C. ch. 64, s. 22; 2 Chit. Pr. 288; Com. Dig, B. 2; 8 Cowen, 216; 1 Hall, 240; 4 John. 198; 4 Bibb, 501. A forcible detainer is a distinct offence from a forcible entry. 8 Cowen, 216. See Forcible entry and detainer.
4. - 4. A writ or instrument, issued or made by a competent officer, authorizing the keeper of a prison to keep in his custody a person therein named. A detainer may be lodged against. one within the walls of a prison, on what account soever he is there. Com. Dig. Process, E 3 b.
DETENTION. The act of retaining a person or property, and preventing the removal of such person or property.
2. The detention may be occasioned by accidents, as, the detention of a ship by calms, or by ice; or it may, be hostile, as the detention of persons or ships in a foreign country, by order of the government. In general, the detention of a ship does not change the nature of the contract, and therefore, sailors will be entitled to their wages during the time of the detention. 1 Bell's Com. 517, 519, 5th ed.; Mackel. Man. §210.
3. A detention is legal when the party has a right to the property, and has come lawfully into possession. It is illegal when the taking was unlawful, as is the case of forcible entry and detainer, although the party may have a right of possession; but, in some, cases, the (retention may be lawful, although the taking may have been unlawful. 3 Penn. St. R. 20. When the taking was legal, the detention may be illegal; as, if one borrow a horse, to ride from A to B, and afterwards detain him from the owner, After demand, such detention is unlawful, and the owner may either retake his property, or have an actiqn of replevin or detinue. 1 Chit. Pr. 135. In some cases, the detention becomes criminal although the taking was lawful, as in embezzlement.
DETERMINABLE. What may come to an end, by the happening of a contingency; as a determnable fee. See 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1695.
DETERMINABLE FEE. Also called a qualified or base fee, is one which has a quality subjoined to it, and which must be determined whenever the qualification annexed to it is at in end. A limitation to a man and his heirs on the part of his father, affords an example of this species of estate. Litt. §254; Co. Litt. 27 a, 220; 1 Prest. on Estates, 449; 2 Bl. Com. 109; Cruise, tit 1, §82; 2 Bouv. Inst; n., 1695.
DETERMINATE. That which is ascertained; what is particularly designated; as, if I sell you my horse Napoleon, the article sold is here determined. This is very different from a contract by which I would have sold you a horse, without a particular designation of any horse. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 947, 950.
DETERMINATION. The end, the conclusion, of a right or authority; as, the determination of a lease. 1 Com. Dig. Estates by Grant, G 10, 11, and 12.. The determination of an authority is the end of the authority given; the end of the return day of a writ determines the authority of the sheriff; the death of the principal determines the authority of a mere attorney. By determination is also understood the decision or judgment of a court of justice.
DETINET. He detains. Vide Debet et Detinet, and Detinuit.
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DETINUIT, practice. He detained.
2. Where an action of replevin is instituted for goods which the defendant had taken, but which he afterwards restored, it is said to be brought in the detinuit; in such case the judgment is, that the plaintiff recover the damages assessed by the jury for the taking and unjust detention, or for the latter only, where the former was justifiable, and his costs. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3562. 3. When the replevin is in the detinet, that he detains the goods, the jury must find in addition to the above, the value of the chattels, (assuming they are still detained, not in a gross sum, but each separate article must be separately valued, for perhaps the defendant may restore some of them, in which case the plaintiff is to recover the value of the remainder. Vide Debet et Detinet.
DEVASTAVIT. A devastavit is a mis-management and waste by an executor, administrator, or other trustee of the estate and effects trusted to him, as such, by which a loss occurs.
2. It takes place by direct abuse, by mal-administration, and by neglect.
3. - §1. By direct abuse. This takes place when the executor, administrator, or trustee, sells, embezzles, or converts to his own use, the goods entrusted to him; Com. Dig. Administration, I 1; releases a claim due to the estate; 8 Bac. Abr. 700; Hob. 266; Cro. Eliz. 43; 7 John. R. 404; 9 Mass. 352; or surrenders a lease below its value. 2 John. Cas. 376; 3 P. Wms. 330. These instances sufficiently show that any wilful waste of the property will be considered as a direct devastavit.
4. - §2. By mal-administration. Devastavit by mal-administration most frequently occurs by the payment of claims which were not due nor owing; or by paying others out of the order in which they ought to be paid; or by the payment of legacies before all the, debts have been satisfied. 4 Serg. & Rawle, 394; 5 Rawle, 266.
5. - §3. By neglect. Negligence on the part of an executor, administrator, or trustee, may equally tend to the waste of the estate, as the direct destruction or mal-administration of the assets, and render him guilty of a devastavit. The neglect to sell the goods at a fair price, within a reasonable time, or, if they are perishable goods, before they are wasted, will be a devastavit. And a neglect to collect a doubtful debt, which by proper exertion might have been collected, will be so considered. Bac. Ab. Executors, L.
6. The law requires from trustees, good faith and due diligence, the want of which is punished by making them responsible for the losses which may be sustained by the property entrusted to them when, therefore, a party has been guilty of a devastavit, he is required to. make up the loss out of his own estate. Vide Com. Dig. Administration, I; 11 Vin. Ab. 306; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 209; 1 Vern. 328; 7 East, R. 257 1 Binn. 194; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 241 1 John. R. 396; 1 Caines' Cas. 96 Bac. Ab. Executor, L; 11 Toull. 58, 59, n. 48.
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DEVISAVIT VEL NON, practice. The name of an issue sent out of a court of chancery, or one which exercises chancery jurisdiction, to a court of law, to try the validity of a paper asserted and denied to be a will, to ascertain whether or not the testator did devise, or whether or not that paper was his will. 7 Bro. P. C. 437; 2 Atk. 424; 5 Barr, 21.
DEVISE. A devise is a disposition of real property by a person's last will and testament, to tale effect after the testator's death.
2. Its form is immaterial, provided the instrument is to take effect after the death of the party; and a paper in the form of an indenture, which is to have that effect, is considered as a devise. Finch. 195 6 Watts, 522; 3 Rawle, 15; 4 Desaus. 617, 313; 1 Mod. 117; 1 Black. R. 345.
3. The term devise, properly and technically, applies only to real estate the object of the devise must therefore be that kind of property. 1 Hill. Ab. ch. 36, n. 62 to 74. Devise is also sometimes improperly applied to a bequest or legacy. (q. v.) Vide 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2095, et seq; 4 Kent, Com. 489 8 Vin. Ab. 41 Com. Dig. Estates by Devise.
4. In the Year Book, 9 H. VI. 24, b. A. D. 1430, Babington says, the nature of a devise, when lands are devisable, is, that one can devise that his lands shall be sold by executors and this is good. And a devise in such form has always been in use. And so a man may have frank tenement of him who had nothing, in the same manner as one may have fire from a flint, and yet there is no fire in the flint. But it is to perform the last will of the devisor.
DEVISEE. A person to whom a devise has been made.
2. All persons who are in rerum natura, and even embryos, may be devisees, unless excepted by some positive law. In general, he who can acquire property by his labor and industry, may receive a devise. C. & N. 353.
DEVISOR. A testator; one, who devises his real estate.
2. As a general rule all persons who. may sell an estate may devise it. The disabilities of devisors may be classed, in three divisions. 1. Infancy. In some of the United States this disability is partially removed; in Illinois, Maryland, Mississippi and Ohio, an unmarried woman at the age of eighteen years may devise. 2. Coverture. In general, a married woman cannot devise; but in. Connecticut and Ohio she may devise her lands; and in Illinois, her separate estate. In Louisiana, she may devise without the consent of her hushand. Code, art. 132. 3. Idiocy and non sane memory. It is evident that a person non compos can make no devise, because he has no will.
3. The removal of the disability which existed at the time of the devise does, not, of itself, render it valid. For example, when the hushand dies, and the wife becomes a feme sole; when one non compos is restored to his sense; and when an infant becomes of age; these several acts do not make a will good, which at its making was void. 11 Mod. 123, 157; 2 Vern . 475; Comb, 84; 4 Rawle, R. 3.36. Vide. Testament or ill.
DEVOIR. Duty. It is used in the statute of 2 Ric. II., c. 3, in the sense of duties or customs.
DEVOLUTION, eccl. law. The transfer, by forfeiture, of a right and power which a person has to another, on account of some act or negligence of the person who is vested with such right or power: for example, when a person has the right of preseptation, and he does not present within the time prescribed, the right devolves on his next immediate superior. Ayl. Par. 331.
DI COLONNA, mar. contracts. This contract tales place between the owner of a ship, the captain and the mariners, who agree that the voyage shall be for the benefit of all. This is a term used in the Italian law. Targa, oh. 36, 37: Emerigon, Mar. Loans, s. 5.
2. The New England whalers are owned and navigated in this manner, and under this species of contract. The captain and his mariners are all interested in the profits of the voyage in certain proportion, in the same manner as the captain and crew of a privateer, according to the agreement between them. Such agreement, being very common in former times, all the mariners and the masters being interested in the voyage. It is. necessary to know this, in order to understand many of the provisions of the laws of Oleron, Wishuy, the Consolato del Mare, and other ancient codes of maritime and commercial law. Hall on Mar. Loans, 42.
TO DICTATE. To pronounce word for word what is destined to be at the same time written by another. Merlin Rep. mot Suggestion, p. 5 00; Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 2, c. 5, n. 410.
DICTATOR, civil law. A Magistrate at Rome invested with absolute power. His authority over the lives and fortunes of the citizens was without bounds. His office continued but for six months. Hist. de Ia Jur. h. t.; Dig. l, 2, 18; Id. 1, 1, 1.
DICTUM, practice. Dicta are judicial opinions expressed by the judges on points that do not necessarily arise in the case.
2. Dicta are regarded as of little authority, on account of the manner in which they are delivered; it frequently happening that they are given without much reflection, at the bar, without previous examination. "If," says Huston, J., in Frants v. Brown, 17 Serg. & Rawle, 292, "general dicta in cases turning on special circumstances are to be considered as establishing the law, nothing is yet settled, or can be long settled." "What I have said or written, out of the case trying," continues the learned judge, "or shall say or write, under such circumstances, maybe taken as my opinion at the time, without argument or full consideration; but I will never consider myself bound by it when the point is fairly trying and fully argued and considered. And I protest against any person considering such obiter dicta as my deliberate opinion." And it was considered by another learned judge. Mr. Baron Richards, to be a "great misfortune that dicta are taken down from judges, perhaps incorrectly, and then cited as absolute propositions." 1 Phillim. Rep. 1406; S. C. 1 Eng. Ecc. R. 129; Ram. on Judgm. ch. 5, p. 36; Willes' Rep. 666; 1 H. Bl. 53-63; 2 Bos. & P. 375; 7 T. R. 287; 3 B. & A. 341; 2 Bing. 90. The doctrine of the courts of France on this subject is stated in 11 Toull. 177, n. 133.
3. In the French law, the report of a judgment made by one of the judges who has given it, is called the dictum. Poth. Proc. Civ. partie 1, c. 5, art. 2.
DIES. A day. There are four sorts of days: 1. A natural day; as, the morning and the evening made the first day. 2. An artificial day; that is, from day-break until twilight in the evening. 3. An astrological day, dies astrologicus, from sun to sun. 4. A legal day, which is dies juridicus, and dies non juridicus. 1. Dies juridici, are all days given in term to the parties in court. Dies non juridici are those which are not appointed to do business in court, as Sundays, and the like. Dies in banco, days of appearance in the English court of common bench. 3 Bl. Com. 276. Vide Day, and 3 Com. Dig. 358.
DIES DATUS, practice. A day or time given to a defendant in a suit, which is in fact a continuance of the cause. It is so called when given before a declaration; when it is allowed afterwards it assumes the name of imparlance. (q. v.)
DIES NON or DIES NON JURIDICI. Non-judicial days. Days during which courts do not transact any business, as Sunday. The entry of judgment upon such a day is void. W . Jones, 156.
DIET. An assembly held by persons having authority to manage the public affairs of the nation. In Germany, such assemblies are known by this name:
DIFFERENCE. A dispute, contest, disagreement, quarrel.
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DIGNITIES. English law. Titles of honor.
2. They are considered as incorporeal hereditaments.
3. The genius of our government forbids their admission into the republic.
DILAPIDATION. Literally, this signifies the injury done to a building by taking stones from it; but in its figurative, which is also its technical sense, it means the waste committed or permitted upon a building.
DILATORY. That which is intended for delay. It is a maxim, that delays in law are odious, dilationes in lege sunt odiosae. Plowd. 75.
DILATORY DEFENCE. chancery practice. A dilatory defence is one, the object of which is to dismiss, suspend, or obstruct the suit, without touching the merits, until the impediment or obstacle insisted on shall be removed.
2. These defences are of four kinds: 1. To the jurisdiction of the court. 2. To the person of the plaintiff or defendant. 3. To the form of proceedings, as that the suit is irregularly brought, or it is defective in its appropriate allegation of the parties; and, 4. To the propriety of maintaining the suit itself, because of the pendancy of another suit for the same controversy. Montag. Eq. Pl. 88; Story Eq. Pl. §434. Vide Defence: Plea, dilatory.
DILATORY PLEAS. Those which delay the plaintiff's remedy, by questioning, not the cause of action, but the propriety of the suit, or the mode in which the remedy is sought. Vide Plea, dilatory.
DILIGENCE, contracts. The doing things in proper time.
2. It may be divided into three degrees, namely: ordinary diligence, extraordinary diligence, and slight diligence. It is the reverse of negligence. (q. v.) Under that article is shown what degree of negligence, or want of diligence, will make a party to a contract responsible to the other. Vide Story, Bailm. Index h. t.; Ayl. Pand. 113 1 Miles, Rep. 40.
DILIGENCE. In Scotland, there are certain forms of law, whereby a creditor endeavors to make good his payment, either by affecting the person of his debtor, or by securing the subjects belonging to him from alienation, or by carrying the property of these subjects to himself. They are either real or personal.
2. Real diligence is that which is proper to heritable or real rights,. and of this kind there are two sorts: 1. Inhibitions. 2. Adjudication, which the law has substituted in the place of apprising.
3. Personal diligence is that by which the person of the debtor may be secured, or his personal estate affected. Ersk. Pr. L. Scotl. B. 2, t. 11, s. 1.
DIME, money. A silver coin of the United States, of the value of one-tenth part of a dollar or ten cents.
2. It weighs forty-one and a quarter grains. Of one thousand parts, nine hundred are of pure silver and one hundred of alloy. Act of January 18, 1837, s. 8 and 9, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2523-4.
DIMINUTION OF THE RECORD, practice. This phrase signifies that the record from an inferior court, sent up to a superior, is incomplete. When this is the case, the parties may suggest a diminution of the record, and pray a writ of/ certiorari to the justices of the court below to certify the whole record. Tidd's Pr. 1109; 1 S. & R. 472; Co. Ent. 232; 8 Vin. Ab. 552; 1 Lilly's Ab. 245; 1 Nels. Ab. 658; Cro. Jac. 597; Cro. Car. 91; Minor, R. 20; 4 Dev. R. 575; 1 Dey. & Bat. 382; 1 Munf. R. 119. Vide Certiorari. DIOCESE, eccl. law. The district over which a bishop exercises his spiritual functions. 1 B1. Com. 111.
DIPLOMA. An instrument of writing, executed by, a corporation or society, certifying that a certain person therein named is entitled to a certain distinction therein mentioned.
2. It is usually, granted by learned institutions to their members, or to persons who have studied in them.
3. Proof of the seal of a medical institution and of the signatures of its officers thereto affixed, by comparison with the seal and signatures attached to a diploma received by the witness from the same institution, has been held to be competent evidence of the genuineness of the instrument, although the witness never saw the officers write their names. 25 Wend. R. 469.
4. This word, which is also written duploma, in the civil law, signifies letters issued by a prince. They are so called, it is supposed, a duplicatis tabellis, to which Ovid is thought to allude, 1 Amor. 12, 2, 27, when he says, Tunc ego vos duplices rebus pro nomine sensi Sueton in Augustum, c. 26. Seals also were called Diplomata. Vicat ad verb.
DIPLOMACY., The science which treats of the relations and interests of nations with nations.
DIPLOMATIC AGENTS. This name has been given to public officers, who have been commissioned, according to law, to superintend and transact the affairs of the government which has employed them, in a foreign country. Vattel, liv. 4, c. 5.
2. These agents are of divers orders, and are known by different denominations. Those of the first order are almost the perfect representatives of the government by which they are commissioned; they are legates, nuncios, internuncios, ambassadors, ministers, plenipotentiaries. Those of the second order do not so fully represent their government; they are envoys, residents, ministers, charges d'affaires, and consuls. Vide these several words.
DIPLOMATICS. The art of judging of ancient charters, public documents or diplomas, and discriminating the true from the false. Encyc. Lond. h. t.
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DIRIMANT IMPEDIMENTS, canon law. Those bars to a marriage, which, if consummated, render it null. They differ from prohibitive impediments. (q. v.)
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DISAFFIRMANCE. The act by which a person who has entered into a voidable contract; as, for example, an infant, does disagree to such contract, and declares he will not abide by it.
2. Disaffirmance is express or implied. The former, when the declaration is made in terms that the party will not abide by the contract. The latter, when he does an act which plainly manifests his determination not to abide by it; as, where an infant made a deed for his land, and, on coming of age, be made a deed for the same land to another. 2 Dev. & Bat. 320; 10 Pet. 58; 13 Mass. 371, 375.
TO DISAVOW. To deny the authority by which an agent pretends to have acted as when he has exceeded the bounds of his authority.
2. It is the duty of the principal to fulfil the contracts which have been entered into by his authorized agent; and when an agent has exceeded his authority, he ought promptly to disavow such act, so that the other party may have his remedy against the agent. See Agent; Principal.
DISBURSEMENT. Literally, to take money out of a purse. Figuratively, to pay out money; to expend money; and some times it signifies to advance money.
2. A master of a ship makes dishursements, whether with his own money or that of the owner, when he defrays expenses for the ship.
3. An executor, guardian, trustee, or other accountant, is said to have made dishursements when he expended money on account of the estate which he holds. These, when properly made, are always allowed in the settlement of the accounts.

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DISCONTINUANCE, pleading. A chasm or interruption in the pleading.
2. It is a rule, that every pleading, must be an answer to the whole of what is adversly alleged. Com. Dig. Pleader, E 1, ri 4; 1 Saund. 28, n. 3; 4 Rep. 62, a. If, therefore, in an action of trespass for breaking a close, and cutting three hundred trees, the defendant pleads as to cutting all but two hundred trees, some matter of justifica- tion or title, and as to the two hundred trees says nothing, the plaintiff is entitled to sign judgment, as by nil dicit against him, in respect of the two hundred trees, and to demur, or reply to the plea, as to the remainder of the trespasses. On the other hand, if he demurs or replies to the plea, without signing, judgment for the part not answered, the whole action is said to be discontinued. For the plea, if taken by the plaintiff as an answer to the, whole action, it being, in fact, a partial answer only, is, in contemplation of law, a mere nullity, and a discontinuance takes place. And such discontinuance will amount to error on the record; such error is cured, however, after verdict, by the statute of Jeo fails, 32 H. VIII. c. 80; and after judgment by nil dicit, confession, or non sum informatus, by stat. 4 Ann. c. 16. It is to be observed, that as to the plaintiff's course of proceeding, there is a distinction between a case like this, where the defendant does not profess to answer the whole, and a case where, by the commencement of his plea, he professes to do so, but, in fact, gives a defective and partial answer, applying to part only. The latter case amounts merely to insufficient pleading, and the plaintiff's course, therefore, is not to sign judgment for the part defectively answered, but to demur to the whole plea. 1 Saund. 28, n.
3. It is to be observed, also, that where the part of pleading to which no answer is given, is immaterial, or such as requires no separate or specific answer for example, if it be mere matter of allegation, the rule does not in that case apply. Id. See Com. Dig. Pleader, W; Bac. Abr. Pleas, P.
DISCONTINUANCE, estates. An alienation made or suffered by the tenant in tail, or other tenant seised in autre droit, by which the issue in, tail, or heir or successor, or those in reversion or remainder, are driven to their action, and cannot enter.
2. The term discontinuance is used to distinguish those cases where the party whose freehold is ousted, can restore it only by action, from those in which he ma restore it by entry. Co. Litt. 325 a 3 Bl. Com. 171; Ad. Ej. 35 to 41; Com. Dig. h. t.; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Vin. Ab. h. t.; Cruise's Dig. Index, b.. t..5 2 Saund. Index, h. t.
DISCONTINUANCE, practice. This takes place when a plaintiff leaves a chasm in the proceedings of his cause, as by not continuing the process regularly from day to day, and time to time, as he ought. 3 Bl. Com. 296. See Continuance. A discontinuance, also, is an entry upon the record that the plaintiff discontinues his action.
2. The plaintiff cannot discontinue his action after a demurrer joined and entered, or after a verdict or a writ of inquiry without leave of court. Cro. Jac. 35 1, Lilly's Abr. 473; 6 Watts & Serg. 1417. The plaintiff is, on discontinuance, generally liable for costs. But in some cases, he is not so liable. See 3 Johns. R. 249; 1 Caines' R. 116; 1 Johns. R. 143; 6 Johns. R. 333; 18 Johns. R. 252; 2 Caines' Rep. 380; Com. Dig. Pleader, W 5; Bac. Abr. Pleas' P.
DISCOUNT, practice. A set off, or defalcation in an action. Vin. Ab. h. t.
DISCOUNT, contracts. An allowance made upon prompt payment in the purchase of goods; it is also the interest allowed in advancing money upon bills of exchange, or other negotiable securities due at a future time And to discount, signifies the act of buying a bill of exchange, or promissory note for a less sum than that which upon its face, is payable.
2. Among merchants, the term used when a bill of exchange is transferred, is, that the bill is sold, and not that it is discounted. See Poth. De l'Usure, n. 128 3 Pet. R. 40.
DISCOVERT. Not covert, unmarried. The term is applied to a woman unmarried, or widow; one not within the bonds of matrimony.
DISCOVERY, intern. law. The act of finding an unknown country.
2. The nations of Europe adopted the principle, that the discovery of any part of America gave title to the government by whose subjects, or by whose authority it was made, against all European governments. This title was to be consummated by possession. 8 Wheat. 543.
DISCOVERY, practice, pleading. The act of disclosing or revealing by a defendant, in his answer to a bill filed against him in a court of equity. Vide Bill of Discovery; 8 Vin. Ab. 537; 8 Com. Dig: 515.
DISCOVERY; rights. The patent laws of the United States use this word as synonymous with invention or improvement of July 4, 1836, s. 6.
TO DISCREDIT, practice, evidence. To deprive one of credit or confidence.
2. In general, a party may discredit a witness called by the opposite party, who testifies against him, by proving that his character is such as not to entitle him to credit or confidence, or any other fact which shows he is not, entitled to belief. It is clearly settled, also, that the party voluntarily calling a witness, cannot afterwards impeach his character for truth and veracity. 1 Moo. & Rob. 414; 3 B. & Cress. 746; S. C. 10 Eng. Com. Law R. 220. But if a party calls a witness, who turns out unfavorable, he may call another to prove the same point. 2 Campb. R. 556 2 Stark. R. 334; S. C. 3 E. C. L. R. 371 1 Nev & Man. 34; 4 B. & Adolph. 193; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 47; 1 Phil. Ev. 229; Rosc. Civ. Ev. 96.
DISCREPANCY. A difference between one thing and another, between one writing and another; a variance. (q. v.)
2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial. A discrepancy is immaterial when there is such a difference between a thing alleged, and a thing offered in evidence, as to show they are not substantially the same; as, when the plaintiff in his declaration for a malicious arrest averred, that "the plaintiff, in that action, did not prosecute his said suit, but therein made default," and the record was, that he obtained a rule to discontinue. 4 M. & M. 2 5 3. An immaterial discrepancy is one which does not materially affect the cause as, where a declaration stated that a deed bore date in a certain year of our Lord, and the deed was simply dated " March 30, 1701." 2 Salk. 658; 19 John. 49 5 Taunt. 707; 2 B. & A. 301; 8 Miss. R. 428; 2 M'Lean, 69; 1 Metc. 59; 21 Pick. 486.
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DISCUSSION, civil law. A proceeding, on the part of a surety, by which. the property of the principal debtor is made liable before resort can be had to the sureties; this is called the benefit of discussion. This is the law in Louisiana. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 3014 to 3020. See Domat, 3, 4, 1 to 4; Burge on Sur. 329, 343, 348; 5 Toull. p. 544 7 Toull. p. 93; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1414.
DISFRANCHISEMENT. The act of depriving a member of a corporation of his right as such, by expulsion. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 192.
2. It differs from amotion, (q. v.) which is applicable to the removal of an officer from office, leaving him his rights as a member. Willc. on Corp. n. 708; Ang. & Ames on Corp. 237; and see Expulsion.
DISGRACE. Ignominy, shame, dishonor. No witness is required to disgrace himself. 13 How. St. Tr. 17, 334; 16 How. St. Tr. 161. Vide Crimination; To Degrade.
DISHERISON. Disinheritance; depriving one of an inheritance. Obsolete. Vide Disinherison.
DISHERITOR. One who disinherits, or puts another out of his freehold. Obsolete.
TO DISHONOR, contr. This term is applied to the nonfulfilment of commercial engagements. To dishonor a bill of exchange, or a promissory note, is to refuse or neglect to pay it at maturity.
2. The holder is bound to give notice to the parties to such instrument of its dishonor, and his laches will discharge the indorsers. Chit. on Bills, 394, 395, 256 to 278.
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DISINHERITANCE. The act by which a person deprives his heir of an inheritance, who, without such act, would inherit.
2. By the common law, any one may give his estate to a stranger, and thereby disinherit his heir apparent. Coop. Justin. 495. 7 East, Rep. 106.
DISINTERESTED WITNESS. One who has no interest in the cause or matter in is-sue, and who is lawfully competent to testify.
2. In North Carolina and Tennessee, wills to pass lands must be attested by disinterested witnesses. See Attesting Witness; Competent Witness; Credible Witness; Respectable Witness, and Witness.
DISJUNCTIVE TERM. One which is placed between two contraries, by the affirming of one of which, the other is taken away: it is usually expressed by the word or. Vide 3 Ves. 450; 7 Ves. 454; 2 Rop. Leg. 290.; 1 P. Wms. 433; 2 Cox, Rep. 213; 2 P. Wms. 283 2 Atk. 643; 6 Ves. 341; 2 Ves. sr. 67; 2 Str. 1175; Cro. Eliz. 525; Pollexf. 645; 1 Bing. 500; 3 T. R. 470; 1 Ves. sr. 409; 3 Atk. 83, 85; Ayl. Pand. 56; 2 Miles, Rep. 49.
2. In the civil law, when a legacy is given to Caius or Titius, the word or is considered and, and both Caius and Titius are entitled to the legacy in equal parts. 6 Toull. n. 704. See Copulative term; Construction, subdivision, And; Or.. Also, Bac. Ab. Conditions, P 5.
DISMES. Another name for tithes. Dime, (q. v.) a piece of federal money, is sometimes improperly written disme.
TO DISMISS A CAUSE, practice. A term used in courts of chancery for removing a cause out of court without any further hearing.
DISOBEDIENCE. The want of submission to the orders of a superior.
2. In the army, disobedience is a misdemeanor.
3. For disobedience to parents, children may be punished; and apprentices may be imprisoned for disobedience to the lawful commands of their master. Vide Correction.
DISORDERLY HOUSE, crim. law. A house, the inmates of which believe so badly as to become a nuisance to the neighborhood.
2. The keeper of such house may be indicted for keeping a public nuisance. Hardr. 344; Hawk. b. 1, c. 78, s. 1 and 2 Bac. Ab. Inns, A; 1 Russ. on Cr. 298; 1 Wheel. C. C. 290; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 342; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 298; Bac. Ab. Nuisances, A; 4 Chit. BI.. Com. 167, 8, note. The hushand must be joined with the wife in an indictment to suppress a disorderly house. Justice's Case, Law 16; 1 Shaw, 146. Vide Bawdy house; Ill fame.
DISPARAGEMENT. An injury by union or comparison with some person or thing of inferior rank or excellence; as, while the infant was in ward, by the English law, the guardian had the power of tendering him a suitable match without disparagement. 2 Bl. Com. 70.
TO DISPAUPER, Eng. law. To deprive a person of the privilege of suing in forma pauperis. (q. v.)
2. When a person has been admitted to sue in forma pauperis, and, before the suit is ended, it appears that the party. has become the owner of a sufficient estate real or personal, or has been guilty of some wrong, he may be dispaupered.
DISPENSATION. A relaxation of law for the benefit or advantage of an individual. In the United States, no power exists, except in the legislature, to dispense with law, and then it is not so much a dispensation as a change of the law.
TO DISPONE, Scotch law. This is a technical word, which implies, it is said, a transfer of feudal property by a particular deed, and is not equivalent to the term alienate; but Lord Eldon says, "with respect to the word dispone, if I collect the opinions of a majority of the judgcs rightly, I am of opinion that the word dispone would have the same effect as the word alienate.) (q. v.) Sandford on Entails, 179, note.
DISPOSITION, French law. This word has several accept-ations; sometimes it signifies the effective marks of the will of some person; and at others the instrument containing those marks.
2. The dispositions of man make the dispositions of the law to cease; for example, when a man bequeaths his estate, the disposition he makes of it, renders the legal disposition of it, if he had died intestate, to cease.
DISSEISED pleading. This is a word with a technical meaning, which, when inserted in an indictment for forcible entry and detainer, has all the force of the words expelled or unlawfully, for the last is superfluous, and the first is implied in the word disseised. 8 T. R. 357; Cro. Jac. 32; vide 3 Yeates' R. 39; S. C. 4 Dall. Rep. 212.
DISSEISEE, torts. One who is wrongfully put out of possession of his lands.
DISSEISIN, torts. The privation of seisin. It takes the seisin or estate from one man and places it in another. It is an ouster of the rightful owner from the seisinor estate in the land, and the coinmencement of a new estate in the wrong doer. It may be by abatement, intrusion, discontinuance, or deforcement, as well as by disseisin, properly so called. Every dispossession is not a disseisin. A disseisin, properly so called, requires an ouster of the freehold. A disseisin at election is not a disseisin in fact; 2 Prest. Abs. tit. 279, et seq.; but by admission only of the injured party, for the purpose of trying his right in a real action. Co. Litt. 277; 3 Greenl. 316; 4 N. H. Rep. 371; 5 Cowen, 371; 6 John. 197; 2 Fairf. 309, 2 Greenl. 242; 5 Pet. 402; 6 Pick. 172.
2. Disseisin may be effected either in corporeal inheritances, or incorporeal. Disseisin of things corporcal, as of houses, lands, &c., must be by entry and actual dispossession of the freehold; as if a man enters, by force or fraud, into the house of another, and turns, or at least, keeps him or his servants out of possession. Disseisin of incorporeal hereditaments cannot be an actual dispossession, for the subject itself is neither capable of actual bodily possession nor dispossession. 3 B1. Com. 169, 170. See 15 Mass. 495 6 John. R. 197; 2 Watts, 23; 6 Pick. 172 1 Verm. 155; 11 Pet. R. 41; 10 Pet. R. 414; 14 Pick. 374; 1 Dana's R. 279; 2 Fairf. 408; 11 Pick. 193; 8 Pick. 172; 8 Vin. Ab. 79; 1 Swift's Dig. 504; 1 Cruise, *65; Arch. Civ. Pl. 12; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 2 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 343; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 1 Chit. Pr. 374, note (r.)
DISSEISOR, torts. One who puts another out of the possession of his lands wrongfully.
DISSENT, contracts. A disagreement to something which has been done. It is express or implied.
2. The law presumes that every person to whom a conveyance has been made has given his assent to it, because it is supposed to be for his benefit. To rebut the presumption, his dissent must be expressed. Vide 4 Mason, R. 206; 11 Wheat. R. 78; 1 Binn. R. 502; 2 Binn. R. 174; 6 Binn. R. 338; 12 Mass. R. 456; 17 Mass. R. 552; 3 John. Ch. R. 261; 4 John. Ch. R. 136, 529; and dssent, and the authorities there cited.
DISSOLUTION, contracts. The dissolution of a contract, is the annulling its effects between the contracting parties.
2. This dissolution of a partnership, is the putting an end to the partnership. Its dissolution does not affect contracts made between the. partners and others; so that they are entitled to all their rights, and they are liable on their obligations, as if the partnership had not been dissolved. Vide article Partnership and 3 Kent, Com. 27 Dane's Ab. h. t.; Gow on Partn. Index, h. t.; Wats. on Partn. h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
DISSOLUTION, practice. The act of rendering a legal proceeding null, or changing its character; as, a foreign attachment in Pennsylvania is: dissolved by entering bail to the action. Injunctions are dissolved by the court.
TO DISSUADE, crim. law. To induce a person not to do an act.
2. To dissuade a witness from giving evidence against a person indicted, is an indictable offence at common law. Hawk. B. 1, c. 2 1, s. 1 5. The mere attempt to stifle evidence, is also criminal, although the persuasion should not succeed, on the general principle that an incitement to commit a crime, is in itself criminal. 1 Russ. on Cr. 44; 6 East, R. 464; 2 East, R. 6, 21; 2 Str. 904; 2 Leach, 925. Vide To Persuade.
DISTRACTED PERSON, This term is used in the statutes of Illinois; Rev. Laws of Ill. 1833, p. 332; and New Hampshire; Dig. Laws of N. H. 1830, p. 339; to express a state of insanity.
TO DISTRAIN. To take an keep any personal chattel in custody, as a distress. (q. v.)
DISTRAINOR. One who makes a distress of goods and chattels to enforce some right.
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DISTRIBUTION. By this term is understood the division of an intestate's estate according to law.
2. The English statute of 22 and 23 Car. II. c. 10, which was itself probably borrowed from the 118th Novel of Justinian, is the foundation of, perhaps, most acts of distribution in the several states. Vide 2 Kent, Com. 342, note; 8 Com. Dig. 522; 11 Vin. Ab. 189, 202; Com. Dig. Administration, H.
DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE. That virtue, whose object it is to distribute rewards and punishments to every one according to his merits or demerits. Tr. of Eq. 3; Lepage, El. du Dr. ch. 1, art. 3, §2 1 Toull. n. 7, note. See Justice.
DISTRICT. A certain portion of the country, separated from the rest for some special purposes. The United States are divided into judicial districts, in each of which is established a district court; they are also divided into election districts; collection districts, &c.
DISTRICT ATTORNEYS OF THE UNITED STATES. There shall be appointed, in each judicial district, a meet person, learned in the law, to act as attorney of the United States in such district, who shall be sworn or affirmed to the faithful execution of his office. Act of September 24, 1789, s. 35, 1 Story's Laws, 67.
2. His duty is to prosecute, in such district, all delinquents, for crimes and offences cognizable under the authority of the United States, and all civil actions in which the United States shall be concerned, except in the supreme court, in the district in which that court shall be holden. Ib.
3. Their salaries vary in different districts. Vide Gordon's Dig. art. 403. By the Act of March 3, 1815, 2 Story's L. U. S. 1530, district attorneys are authorized to appoint deputies, in certain cases, to sue in the state courts. See Deputy District Attorney.
DISTRICT COURT. The name of one of the courts of the United States. It is held by a judge, called the district judge. Several courts under the same name have been established by state authority. Vide Courts of the United States.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. The name of a district of country, ten miles square, situate between the states of Maryland and Virginia, over which the national government has exclusive jurisdiction. By the constitution, congress may " exercise exclusive jurisdiction in all cases whatsoever, over such district, not exceeding ten miles square, as may, by, cession of particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of government of the United States." In pursuance of this authority, the states of Maryland and Virginia, ceded to the United States, a small territory on the banks of the Potomac, and congress, by the Act of July 16, 1790, accepted the same for the permanent seat of the government of the United States. The act provides for the removal of the seat of government from the city of Philadelphia to the District of Columbia, on the first Monday of December, 1800. It is also provided, that the laws of the state, within such district, shall not be affected by the acceptance, until the time fixed for the removal of the government thereto, and until congress shall otherwise by law provide.
2. It seems that the District of Columbia, and the territorial districts of the United States, are not states within the meaning of the constitution, and of the judiciary act, so as to enable a citizen thereof to sue a citizen of one of the states in the federal courts. 2 Cranch, 445; 1 Wheat, 91.
3. By the Act of July 11, 1846, congress retroceded the county of Alexandria, part of the District of Columbia, to the state of Virginia.
DISTRINGAS, remedies. A writ directed to the sheriff, commanding him to distrain one of his goods and chattels, to enforce his compliance of what is required of him, as for his appearance in a court on such a day, and the like. Com. Dig. Process, D 7; Chit. Pr. Index, h. t. Sellon's Pr. Index, h. t.; Tidd's Pr. Index, h. t. 11 East, 353. It is also a form of execution in the action of detinue, and assize of nuisance. Registrum Judiciale, 56; 1 Rawle, 44, 48; Bro. Abr. pl. 26; 22; H. VI. 41. This writ is likewise used to compel the appearance of a corporation agregate. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4191.
DISTURBANCE, torts. A wrong done to an incorporeal hereditament, by hindering or disquieting the owner in the enjoyment of it. Finch. L. 187; 3 Bl. Com. 235; 1 Swift's Dig. 522; Com. Dig. Action upon the case for a disturbance, Pleader, 3 I 6; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 298.
DIVIDEND. A portion of the principal, or profits, divided among several owners of a thing.
2. The term is usually applied to the division of the profits arising out of bank or other stocks; or to the division, among the creditors, of the elects of an insolvent estate.
3. In another sense, according to some old authorities, it signifies one part of an indenture. T. L.
DIVISIBLE. The susceptibility of being divided.
2. A contract cannot, in general, be divided in such a manner that an action may be brought, or a right accrue, on a part of it. 2 Penna. R. 454. But some contracts are susceptible of division, as when a reversioner sells a part of the reversion to one man, and a part to another, each shall have an action for his share of the rent, which may accrue on a contract, to pay a particular rent to the reversioner. 3 Whart. 404; and see Apportionment. But when it is to do several things, at several times, an action will lie upon every default. 15 Pick. R. 409. See 1 Greenl. R. 316; 6 Mass. 344. See Entire.

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DOCKET, practice. A formal record of judicial proceedings.
2. The docket should contain the names of the parties, and a minute of every proceeding in the case. It is kept by the clerk or prothonotary of the court. A sheriff's docket is not a record. 9 Serg. & R. 91. Docket is also said to be a brief writing, on a small piece of paper or parchment, containing the substance of a larger writing.
DOCTORS COMMONS. A building in London used for a college of civilians. Here the judge of the court of arches, the judge of the admiralty, and the judge of the court of Canterbury, with other eminent civilians, reside. Commons signifies, in old English, pittance or allowance; because it is meant in common among societies, as Universities, Inns of Courts, Doctors Commons, &c. The Latin word is, demensum a demetiendo; dividing every one his part Minsheu. It is called Doctors Commons, because the persons residing there live in a collegiate commoning together.
DOCUMENTS, evidence. The deeds, agreements, title papers, letters, receipts, and other written instruments used to prove a fact. Among the civilians, by documents is also understood evidence delivered in the forms established by law, of whatever nature such evidence may be, but applied principally to the testimony of witnesses. Savig. Dr. Rom. §165.
2. Public documents are all such records, papers and acts, as are filed in the public offices of the United States or of the several states; as, for example, public statutes, public proclamations, resolutions of the legislature, the journals of either branch of the legislature, diplomatic correspondence communicated by the president to congress, and the like. These are in general evidence of the facts they contain or recite. 1 Greenl. §491.
DOG. A well known domestic animal. In almost all languages this word is, a term or name of contumely or reproach. See 3 Bulst. 226; 2 Mod. 260; 1 Leo. 148; and the title action on the case for defamation in the Digests; Minsheu's Dictionary.
2. A dog is said at common law to have no intrinsic value, and he cannot therefore be the subject of larceny. 4 Bl. Com. 236; 8 Serg. & Rawle, 571. But the owner has such property in him, that he may maintain trespass for an injury to his dog; "for a man may have property in some things which are of so base nature that no felony can be committed of them, as of a bloodhound or mastiff." 12 H. VIII. 3; 18 H. VIII. 2; 7 Co. 18 a; Com. Dig. Biens, F; 2 Bl. Com. 397; Bac. Ab. Trover, D; F. N. B. 86; Bro. Trespass, pl. 407 Hob. 283; Cro. Eliz. 125; Cro. Jac. 463 2 Bl. Rep.
3. Dogs, if dangerous animals, may lawfully be killed, when their ferocity is known to their owner, or in self-defence 13 John. R. 312; 10 John. R. 365; and when bitten by a rabid animal, a dog may be lawfully killed by any one. 13 John. R. 312.
4. When a dog, in consequence of his vicious habits, becomes a common nuisance, the owner may be indicted. And when he commits an injury, if the owner had a knowledge of his mischievous propensity, he is liable to an action on the case. Bull. N. P. 77; 2 Str. 1264; Lord Raym. 110. 1 B. & A. 620; 4 Camp. R. 198; 2 Esp. R. 482; 4 Cowen, 351; 6 S. & R. 36; Addis. R. 215; 1 Scam. 492 23 Wend 354; 17 Wend. 496; 4 Dev. & Batt. 146.
5. A man has a right to keep a dog to guard his premises, but not to put him at the entrance of his house, because a person coming there on lawful business may be injured by him, and this, though there may be another entrance to the house. 4 C. & P. 297; 6 C. & P. 1. But if a dog be chained, and a visitor so incautiously go near him that he is bitten, he has no right of action against the owner. 3 Chit. Bl. 154, n. 7. Vide Animal; Knowledge; Scienter.
DOGMA, civil law. This word is used in the first chapter, first section, of the second Novel, and signifies an ordinance of the senate. See also Dig. 27, 1, 6.
DOLI CAPAX. Capable of deceit, mischief, having knowledge of right and wrong. See Discretion; Criminal law, 2.
DOLLAR, money. A silver coin of the United States of the value of one hundred cents, or tenth part of an eagle.
2. It weighs four hundred and twelve and a half grains. Of one thousand parts, nine hundred are of pure silver and one hundred of alloy. Act of January 18, 1837, ss. 8 & 9, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2523, 4; Wright, R. 162.
3. In all computations at the custom-house, the specie dollar of Sweden and Norway shall be estimated at one hundred and six cents. The specie dollar of Denmark, at one hundred and five cents. Act of May 22, 1846.
DOLUS, civil law. A fraudulent address or trick used to deceive some one; a fraud. Dig. 4, 3, 1; Code, 2, 21.
2. Dolus differs from fault in this, that the latter proceeds from an error of the understanding; while to constitute the former there must be a will or intention to do wrong. Wolff, Inst. §17.
DOMAIN. It signifies sometimes, dominion, territory governed - sometimes, possession, estate - and sometimes, land about the mansion house of a lord. By domain is also understood the right to dispose at our pleasure of what belongs to us.
2. A distinction, has been made between property and domain. The former is said to be that quality which is conceived to be in the thing itself, considered as belonging to such or such person, exclusively of all others. By the latter is understood that right which the owner has of disposing of the thing. Hence domain and property are said to be correlative terms; the one is the active right to dispose, the other a passive quality which follows the thing, and places it at the disposition of the owner. 3 Toull. n. 8 3. But this distinction is too subtle for practical use. Puff. Droit de la Nature et des Gens, loi 4, c. 4, §2. Vide 1 B1. Com. 105, 106; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 456; Clef des Lois Rom. h. t.; Domat, h. t.; 1 Hill. Ab. 24; 2 Hill. Ab. 237; and Demesne as Of fee; Property; Things.
DOME-BOOK, DOOM-BOOK or DOM-BEC A book in which Alfred the Great, of England, after uniting the Saxon heptarchy, collected the various customs dispersed through the kingdom, and digested them into one uniform code. 4 Bl. Com. 411.
DOMESDAY, or DOMESDAY-BOOK. An ancient record made in the time of William the Conqueror, and now remaining in the English exchequer, consisting of two volumes of unequal sizes, containing surveys of the lands in England.
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DOMINANT. estates. In the civil law, this term is used to signify the estate to which a servitude or easement is due from another estate; for example, where the owners of the estate, Blackacre, have a right of way or passage over the estate Whiteacre, the former is called the dominant, and the latter the servient estate. Bouv. Inst. n. 1600.
DOMINION. The right of the owner of a thing to use it or dispose of it at his pleasure. See Domain; 1 White's New Coll. 85; Jacob's Intr. 39.
DOMINIUM, empire, domain. It is of three kinds: 1, Directum dominium, or usufructuary dominion; dominium utile, as between landlord and tenenant; or, 2. It is to full property, and simple property. The former is such as belongs to the cultivator of his own estate; the other is the property of a tenant. 3. Dominion acquired by the law of nations, and dominion acquired by municipal law. By the law of nations, property may be acquired by occupation, by accession, by commixtion, by use or the pernancy of the usufruct, and by tradition or delivery. As to the dominium eminens, the right of the public, in cases of emergency, to seize upon the property of individuals, and convert it to public use, and the right of individuals, in similar cases, to commit a trespass on the persons and properties of others, see the opinion of chief justice McKean in Respublica v. Sparhawk, 1 Dallas, 362, and the case of Vanhorn v. Dorrance, 2 Dall. Rep. 304. See, further, as to dominium eminens, or the right of the community to take, at a fair price, the property of individuals for public use, the supplement of 1802 to the Pennsylvania compromising law, respecting the Wyoming controversy; also, Vattel, l. 1, c. 20, §§244-248; Bynkershoek, lib. 2, c. 15; Rousseau's Social Compact, c. 9; Domat; l. 1, tit. 8, §l, p. 381, fol. ed.; the case of a Jew, whom the grand seignior was compelled by the mufti to purchase out, cited in Lindsay et al. v. The Commissioners, 2 Bay. S. Car. Rep. 41. See Eminent domain.
DOMITAE. Subdued, tame,. not wild; as, animals domitae, which are tame or domestic animals.
DOMO REPARANDO. the name of an ancient writ in favor of a party who was in danger of being injured by the fall, of his neighbor's house.
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DOOM. This word formerly signified a judgment. T. L.
DORMANT PARTNER. One who is a participant in the profits of a firm, but his name being concealed, his interest is not apparent. See Partners,
DOOR. The place of usual entrance in a house, or into a room in the house.
2. To authorize the breach of an outer door in order to serve process, the process must be of a criminal nature; and even then a demand of admittance must first have been refused. 5 Co. 93; 4 Leon. 41; T. Jones, 234; 1 N. H. Rep. 346; 10 John. 263; 1 Root, 83 , 134; 21 Pick. R. 156. The outer door may also be broken open for the purpose of executing a writ of habere facias. 5 Co. 93; Bac. Ab. Sheriff, N. 3.
3. An outer door cannot in general be broken for the purpose of serving civil process; 13 Mass. 520; but after the defendant has been arrested, and he takes refuge in his own house, the officer may justify breaking an outer door to take him. Foster, 320; 1 Roll. R. 138; Cro. Jac. 555.; 10 Wend. 300; 6 Hill, N. Y. Rep. 597. When once an officer is in the house, he may break open an inner door to make an arrest. Kirby, 386 5 John. 352; 17 John. 127, See 1 Toull. n. 214, p. 88.
DOT. This French word is adopted in Louisiana. It signifies the fortune, portion, or dowry, which a woman brings to her hushand by the marriage. 6 N. S. 460. See Dote; Dowry.
DOTAL PROPERTY. By the civil law, and in Louisiana, by this term is understood that property, which the wife brings to the hushand to assist him in bearing the expenses of the marriage establishment. Civil Code of Lo. art. 2315. Vide Extradotal property.
DOTATION, French law. The act by which the founder of a hospital, or other charity, endows it with property to fulfil its destination.
DOTE, Span. law. The property which the wife gives to the hushand on account of marriage.
2. It is divided into adventitia and profectitia; the former is the dote which the father or grandfather, or other of the ascendants in the direct paternal line, give of their own property to the hushand; the latter (adventitia) is that property which the wife gives to the hushand, or that which is given to him for her by her mother, or her collateral relations, or a stranger. Aso & Man. Inst. B. 1, t. 7, c . 1, §i.
DOTE ASSIGNANDO, Eng. law. The name of a writ which lay in favor of a widow, when it was found by office that the king's tenant was seised of tenements in fee or fee tail at the time of his death, and that he held of the king in chief.
DOTE UNDE NIHIL HABET. The name of a writ of dower which a widow sues against the tenant, who bought land of her hushand in his lifetime, and in which her dower remains, of which he was seised solely in fee simple or fee tail. F. N. B. 147; Booth, Real Act. 166. See Dower unde nihil habet
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DOUBT. The uncertainty which exists in relation to a fact, a proposition, or other thing; or it is an equipoise of the mind arising from an equality of contrary reasons. Ayl. Pand. 121.
2. The embarrassing position of a judge is that of being in doubt, and it is frequently the lot of the wisest and most enlightened to be in this condition, those who have little or no experience usually find no difficulty in deciding the most, problematical questions.
3. Some rules, not always infallible, have been adopted in doubtful cases, in order to arrive at the truth. 1. In civil cases, the doubt ought to operate against him, who having it in his power to prove facts to remove the doubt, has neglected to do so. In cases of fraud when there is a doubt, the presumption of innocence (q. v.) ought to remove it. 2. In criminal cases, whenever a reasonable doubt exists as to the guilt of the accused that doubt ought to operate in his favor. In such cases, particularly, when the liberty, honor or life of an individual is at stake, the evidence to convict ought to be clear, and devoid of all reasonable doubt. See Best on Pres. §195; Wils. on Cir. Ev. 26; Theory of Presumptive Proof, 64; 33 How. St. Tr. 506; Burnett, Cr. Law of Scotl. 522; 1 Greenl. Ev. §1 D'Aguesseau, Oeuvres, vol. xiii. p. 242; Domat, liv. 3, tit. 6.
4. No judge is presumed to have any doubt on a question of law, and he cannot therefore refuse to give a judgment on that account. 9 M. R. 355; Merlin, Repert. h. t.; Ayliffe's Pand. b. 2, t. 17; Dig. lib. 34, t. 5; Code, lib. 6, t. 38. Indeed, in some countries; in China, for example, ignorance of the law in a judge is punishable with blows. Penal Laws of China, B. 2, s. 61.
DOVE. The name of a well known bird.
2. Doves are animals ferae naturae, and not the subject of larceny, unless they are in the owner's custody; as, for example, in a dove-house, or when in the nest before they can fly. 9 Pick. 15. See Whelp.
DOWAGER. A widow endowed; one who has a jointure.
2. In England, this is a title or addition given to the widows of princes, dukes, earls, and other noblemen.
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DRAGOMAN. An interpreter employed in the east, and particularly at the Turkish court.
2. The Act of Congress of August 26, 1842, c. 201, s. 8, declares that it shall not be lawful for the president of the United States to allow a dragoman at Constantinople, a salary of more than two thousand five hundred dollars.
DRAIN. Conveying the water from one place to another, for the purpose of drying the former
2. The right of draining water through another map's land. This is an easement or servitude acquired by grant or prescription. Vide 3 Kent, Com. 436 7 Mann. & Gr. 354; Jus aguaeductus; Rain water; Stillicidium.
DRAwhACK, com. law. An allowance made by the government to merchants on the reexportation of certain imported goods liable to duties, which, in some cases, consists of the whole; in others, of a part of the duties which had been paid upon the importation. For the various acts of congress which regulate drawhacks, see Story, L. U. S. Index, h. t.
DRAWEE. A person to whom a bill of exchange is addressed, and who is requested to pay the amount of money therein mentioned.
2. The drawee may be only one person, or there may be several persons. The drawee may be a third person, or a man may draw a bill on himself. 18 Ves. jr. 69; Carth. 509; 1 Show. 163; 3 Burr. 1077.
3. The drawee should accept or refuse to accept the bill at furthest within twenty-four hours after presentment. 2 Smith's R. 243; 1 Ld. Raym. 281 Com. Dig. Merchant, F 6; Marius, 15; but it is said the holder is entitled. to a definite answer if the mail go out in the meantime. Marius' 62. In case the bill has been left with the drawee for his acceptance, he will be considered as having accepted it, if he keep the bill a great length of time, or do any other act which gives credit to the bill, and induces the holder not to protest it; or is intended as a surprise upon him, and to induce him to consider the bill as accepted. Chit. on Bills, 227. When he accepts it, it is his duty to pay it at maturity.
DRAWER, contracts. The party who makes a bill of exchange.
2. The obligations of the drawer to the drawee and every subsequent holder lawfully entitled to the possession, are, that the person on whom he draws is capable of binding himself by his acceptance that he isto be found at the place where he is described to reside, if a description be given in the bill; that if the bill be duly presented to him, he will accept in writing on the bill itself, according to its tenor, and that he will pay it when it becomes due, if presented in proper time for that purpose; and that if the drawee fail to do either, he, the drawer, will pay the amount, provided he have due notice of the dishonor. 3. The engagement of the drawer of a bill is in all its parts absolute and irrevocable. 2 H. Bl. 378; 3 B. & P. 291; Poth. Contr. de Change, n. 58; Chit. Bills, 214, Dane's Ab. h. t.
DRAWING. A representation on paper, card, or other substance.
2. The Act of Congress of July 4, 1836, section 6, requires all persons who apply for letters patent for an invention, to accompany their petitions or specifications with a drawing or drawings of the whole, and written references, when the nature of the case admits of drawings.
DREIT. The same as Droit. (q. v.)
DRIFTWAY. A road or way over which cattle are driven. 1 Taunt. R. 279; Selw. N. P. 1037; Wool. on Ways, 1.
DRIP. The right of drip is an easementt by which the water which falls on one house is allowed to fall upon the land of another.
2. Unless the owner has acquired the right by grant or prescription, he has no right so to construct his house as to let the water drip over his neighbor's land. 1 Roll. Ab. 107. Vide Rain water; Stillicidium; and 3 Kent, Com. 436; Dig. 43, 23, 4 et 6; 11 Ad. & Ell. 40; S. C. 39 E. C. L. R. 21.
DRIVER. One employed in conducting a coach, carriage, wagon, or other vehicle, with horses, mules, or other animals.
2. Frequent accidents occur in consequence of the neglect or want of skill of drivers of public stage coaches, for which the employers are responsible.
3. The law requires that a driver should possess reasonable skill and be of good habits for the journey; if, therefore, he is not acquainted with the road he undertakes to drive; 3 Bingh. Rep. 314, 321; drives with reins so loose that he cannot govern his horses; 2 Esp. R. 533; does not give notice of any serious danger on the road; 1 Camp. R. 67; takes the wrong side of the road; 4 Esp. R. 273; incautiously comes in collision with another carriage; 1 Stark. R. 423; 1 Campb. R. 167; or does not exercise a sound and reasonable discretion in travelling on the road, to avoid dangers and difficulties, and any accident happens by which any passenger is injured, both the driver and his employers will be responsible. 2 Stark. R. 37; 3 Engl. C. L. Rep. 233; 2 Esp. R. 533; 11. Mass. 57; 6 T. R. 659; 1 East, R. 106; 4 B. & A. 590; 6 Eng. C. L. R. 528; 2 Mc Lean, R. 157. Vide Common carriers Negligence; Quasi Offence.
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DRUNKENNESS. Intoxication with strong liquor.
2. This is an offence generally punished by local regulations, more or less severely.
3. Although drunkenness reduces a man to a temporary insanity, it does not excuse him or palliate his offence, when he commits a crime during a fit of intoxication, and which is the immediate result of it. When the act is a remote consequence, superinduced by the antecedent drunkenness of the party, as in cases of delirium tremens or mania a potu, the insanity excuses the act. 5 Mison's R. 28; Amer. Jurist, vol. 3, p. 5-20; Martin and Yeager's. R. 133, 147;. Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 1 Russ. on Cr. 7; Ayliffe's Parerg. 231 4 Bl. Com. 26.
4. As there must be a will and intention in order to make a contract, it follows, that a man who is in such a state of intoxication as not to know what he is doing, may avoid a contract entered into by him while in this state. 2 Aik. Rep. 167; 1 Green, R. 233; 2 Verm. 97; 1 Bibb, 168; 3 Hayw. R. 82; 1 Hill, R. 313; 1 South. R. 361; Bull. N. P. 172; 1 Ves. 19; 18 Ves. 15; 3 P. Wms. 130, n. a; Sugd. Vend. 154; 1 Stark. 126; 1 South. R. 361; 2 Hayw. 394; but see 1 Bibb, R. 406; Ray's Med. Jur. ch. 23, 24; Fonbl. Eq. B. 2, 3; 22 Am. Jur. 290; 1 Fodere, Med. Leg. §215. Vide Ebriosity; Habitua. drunkard.
DRY. Used figuratively, it signifies that which produces nothing; as, dry exchange; dry rent; rent seek.
DRY EXCHANGE, contracts. A term invented for disguising and covering usury; in which something, was pretended to pass on both sides, when in truth nothing passed on one side, whence it was called dry. Stat. 3 Hen. VII. c. 5 Wolff, Ins. Nat. §657.
DRY RENT, contracts. Rent-seek, was a rent reserved without a clause of distress.
DUCAT. The name of a foreign coin. The ducat of Naples shall be estimated in the computations of customs, at eighteen cents. Act of May 22, 1846.
DUCES TECUM, practice, evidence. Bring with thee. A writ commonly called a subpoena duces tecum, commanding the person to whom it is directed to bring with him some writings, papers, or other things therein specified and described, before the court. 1 Phil. Ev. 886.
2. In general all papers in the possession of the witness must be produced; but to this general rule there are exceptions, among which are the following: 1. That a party is not bound to exhibit his own title deeds. 1 Stark. Ev. 87; 8 C. & P. 591; 2 Stark. R. 203; 9 B. & Cr. 288. 2. One who has advanced money on a lease, and holds it as his security, is not bound to produce it. 6 C. & P. 728. 3. Attorneys and solicitors who hold the papers of their clients cannot be compelled to produce them, unless the client could have been so compelled. 6 Carr. & P. 728. See 5 Cowen, R. 153, 419; Esp. R. 405; 11 Price, R. 455; 1 Adol. & Ell. 31; 1 C. M. & R. 38 1 Hud. & Brooke, 749. On the question how far this clause is obligatory on a witness, see 1 Dixon on Tit. Deeds, 98, 99, 102; 1 Esp. N. P. Cas. 405; 4 Esp. N. P. C. 43; 9 East, Rep. 473.
DUCKING-STOOL, punishment. An instrument used, in dipping women in the water, as a punishment, on conviction of being common scolds. It is sometimes confounded with tumbrel. (q. v.)
2. This barbarous punishment was never in use in Pennsylvania. 12 Serg. & Rawle, 220.
DUCROIRE. This is a French word, which has the same meaning as the Italian phrase del credere. (q. v.) 2 Pard. Dr. Com. n. 564.
DUE. What ought to be paid; what may be demanded. It differs from owing in this, that, sometimes, what is owing is not due; a note, payable thirty days after date, is owing immediately after it is delivered to the payee, but it is not due until the thirty days have elapsed.
2. Bills of exchange, and promissory notes, are not, due until the end of the three days of grace, (q. v.) unless the last of these days happen to fall on a Sunday, or other holyday, when it becomes due on the Saturday before, and not on the Monday following. Story, P. N. §440; 1 Bell's Com. 410 Story on Bills, §283; 2 Hill, N. Y. R. 587; 2 Applet. R. 264.
3. Due also signifies just or proper; as, a due presentment, and demand of payraent, must be made. See 4 Rawle, 307; 3 Leigh, 389; 3 Cranch, 300.
DUE-BILL. An acknowledgment of a debt, in writing, is so called. This instrument differs from a promissory note in many particulars; it is not payable to order, nor is it assignable by mere endorsement. See I 0 U; Promissory notes.
DUELLING, crim. law. The fighting of two persons, one against the other, at an appointed time and place, upon a precedent quarrel. It differs from an array in this, that the latter occurs on a sudden quarrel, while the former is always the result of design.
2. When one of the parties is killed, the survivor is guilty of murder. 1 Russ. on Cr. 443; 1 Yerger's R. 228. Fighting a duel, even where there is no fatal result, is, of itself, a misdemeanor. Vide 2 Com. Dig. 252; Roscoe's Cr. Ev. 610; 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 728; Id. 848; Com. Dig. Battel, B; 3 Inst. 157; 6 East, 464 Hawk. B. 1, c. 31, s. 21; 3 East, R. 581 3 Bulst. 171 4 Bl. Com. 199 Prin. Pen. Law, c. 19, p 245; Const. R. 107; 1 Stew. R. 506; 20 John. 457; 3 Cowen, 686. For cases of mutual combat, upon a sudden quarrel, Vide 1 Russ. on Cr. 495.
DUKE. The title given to those who are in the highest rank of nobility in England.
DUM FUIT INFRA AETATEM. The name of a writ which lies when an infant has made a feoffment in fee of his lands, or for life, of a gift in tail.
2. It may be sued out by him after he comes of full age, and not before; but, in the mean time, he may enter, and his entry remits him to his ancestor's rights. F. N. B. 192; Co. Litt. 247, 337.
DUM SOLA. While single or unmarried. This phrase is applied to single women, to denote that something has been done, or may be done, while the woman is or was unmarried. Example, when a judgment is rendered against a woman dum sola, and afterwards she marries, the scire facias to revive, the judgment must be against both hushand and wife.
DUM NON FUIT COMPOS MENTIS, Eng. law. The name of a writ, which the heirs of a person who was non compos mentis, and who aliened his lands, might have sued out, to restore him to his rights. T. L.
DUMB. One who cannot speak; a person who is mute. See Deaf and dumb, Deaf, dumb, and blind; Mute, standing mute.
DUMB-BIDDING, contracts. In sales at auction, when the amount which the owner of the thing sold is willing to take for the article, is written, and placed by the owner under a candlestick, or other thing, and it is agreed that no bidding shall avail unless equal to that; this is called dumbidding. Babingt. on Auct. 44.
DUNG. Manure. Sometimes it is real estate, and at other times personal property. When collected in a heap, it is personal estate; when spread out-on the land, it becomes incorporated in it, and it is then real estate. Vide Manure.
DUNGEON. A cell under ground; a place in a prison built under ground, dark, or but indifferently lighted. In the prisons of the United States, there are few or no dungeons.
DUNNAGE, mer. law. Pieces of wood placed against the sides and bottom of the hold of a vessel, to preserve the cargo from the effect of leakage, according to its nature and quality. 2 Magens, 101, art. 125, 126 Abbott on Shipp. 227.
DUPEX QUERELA, Eng. eccl. law. A complaint in the nature of an appeal from the ordinary to his next immediate superior. 3 Bl. Com 247.
DUPLICATA. It is the double of letters patent, letters of administration, or other instrument.
DUPLICATE. The double of anything.
2. It is usually applied to agreements, letters, receipts, and the like, when two originals are made of either of them. Each copy has the same effect. The term duplicate means a document, which is essentially the same as some other instrument. 7 Mann. & Gr. 93. In the English law, it also sign ifies the certificate of discharge given to an insolvent debtor, who takes the benefit of the act for the relief of insolvent debtors.
3. A duplicate writing has but one effect. Each duplicate is complete evidence of the intention of the parties. When a duplicate is destroyed, for example, in the case of a will, it is presumed. both are intended to be destroyed; but this presumption possesses greater or less force) owing to circumstances. When only one of the duplicates is in the possession of the testator, the destruction of that is a strong presumption of an intent to revoke both; but if he possessed both, and destroys but one, it is weaker; when he alters one, and afterwards destroys it , retaining the other entire, it has been held that the intention was to revoke both. 1 P. Wms. 346; 13 Ves. 310 but that seems to be doubted. 3 Hagg. Eccl. R. 548.
DUPLICATUM JUS, a twofold or double right. Those words, according to Bracton, lib. 4, c. 3, signify the same as dreit dreit, or droit droit, and are applied to a writ of right, patent, and such other writs of right as are of the same nature, and do, as it were, flow from it, as the writ of right. Booth on Real Actions, 87.
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DURANTE. A term equivalent to during, which is used in some law phrases, as durante absentia, during absence; durante minor cetate, during minority; durante bene placito, during our good pleasure.
DURANTE ABSENTIA. When the executor is out of the jurisdiction of the court or officer to whom belongs the probate of wills and granting letters of administration, letters of administration will be granted to another during the absence of the executor; and the person thus appointed is called the administrator durante absentia.
DURANTE MINORE AETATE. During the minority.
2. During his minority, an infant can enter into no contract, except those for his benefit. If he should be appointed an executor, administration of the estate will be granted, durante minore &,tate, to another person. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1555.
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DUTIES. In its most enlarged sense, this word is nearly equivalent to taxes, embracing all impositions or charges levied on persons or things; in its more restrained sense, it is often used as equivalent to customs, (q. v.) or imposts. (q. v.) Story, Const. §949. Vide, for the rate of duties payable on goods and merchandise, Gord. Dig. B. 7, t. 1, c. 1; Story's L. U. S. Index, h. t.
DUTY, natural law. A human action which is, exactly conformable to the laws which require us to obey them.
2. It differs from a legal obligation, because a duty cannot always be enforeed by the law; it is our duty, for example, to be temperate in eating, but we are under no legal obligation to be so; we ought to love our neighbors, but no law obliges us to love them.
3. Duties may be considered in the relation of man towards God, towards himself, and towards mankind. 1. We are bound to obey the will of God as far as we are able to discover it, because he is the sovereign Lord of the universe who made and governs all things by his almighty power, and infinite wisdom. The general name of this duty is piety: which consists in entertaining just opinions concerning him, and partly in such affections towards him, and such, worship of him, as is suitable to these opinions.
4. - 2. A man has a duty to perform towards himself; he is bound by the law of nature to protect his life and his limbs; it is his duty, too, to avoid all intemperance in eating and drinking, and in the unlawful gratification of all his other appetites.
5. - 3. He has duties to perform towards others. He is bound to do to others the same justice which he would have a right to expect them to do to him.
DWELLING: HOUSE. A building inhabited by man. A mansion. (q. v.)
2. A part of a house is, in one sense, a dwelling house; for example, where two or more persons rent of the owner different parts of a house, so as to have among them the whole house, and the owner does not reserve or occupy any part, the separate portion of each will, in cases of burglary, be considered the dwelling house of each. 1 Mood. Cr. bas. 23.
3. At common law, in cases of burglary, under the term dwelling house are included the out-houses within the curtilage or common fence with the dwelling house. 3 Inst. 64; 4 Bl. Com. 225; and vide Russ & Ry. Cr. Cas. 170; Id. 186; 16 Mass. 105; 16 John. 203; 18 John. 115; 4 Call, 109; 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 274; Burglary; Door; House; Jail; Mansion.
DYING DECLARATIONS. When a man has received a mortal wound or other injury, by which he is in imminent danger of dying, and believes that he must die, and afterwards does die, the statements he makes as to the manner in which he received such injury, and the person who committed it, are called his dying declarations.
2. These declarations are received in evidence against the person thus accused, on the ground that the party making them can have no motive but to tell the truth. The following lines have been put into the mouth of such a man:
                Have I not hideous Death before my view,
                Retaining but a quantity of life,
                Which bleeds away, even as a form of wax
                Resolveth from his figure 'gainst the fire ?
                What in the world should make me now deceive,
                Since I must lose the use of all deceit?
                Why then should I be false, since it is true
                That I must die here, and live hence by truth.
See Death; Deathbed or dying declarations; Declarations.
DYNASTY. A succession of kings in the same line or family; government; sovereignty.
DYSNOMY. Bad legislation; the enactment of bad laws.
DYSPEPSIA, med. jur., contracts. A state of the stomach in which its functions are disturbed, without the presence of other diseases; or when, if other diseases are present, they are of minor importance. Dunglison's Med. Dict. h. t.
2. Dyspepsia is not, in general, considered as a disease which tends to shorten life, so as to make a life uninsurable; unless the complaint has become organic dyspepsia, or was of such a degree at the time of the insurance, as, by its excess, to tend to shorten life. 4 Taunt. 763.
DYVOUR, Scotch law. A bankrupt.

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