CABALLERIA, Spanish law. A measure of land, which is different in different provinces. Diccionario por la Real Academia. In those parts of the United States, which formerly belonged to Spain, the caballeria is a lot of one hundred feet front and two hundred feet deep, and equal, in all respects, to five peonias. (q. v.) 2 White's Coll. 49; 12 Pet. 444. note. See Fanegas.
CABINET. Certain officers who taken collectively make a board; as, the president's, cabinet, which is usually composed of the secretary of state, secretary of the treasury, the attorney general, and some others.
2. These officers are the advisers of the president.
CADASTRE. A term derived from the French, which has been adopted in Louisiana, and which signifies the official statement of the quantity and value of real property in any district, made for the purpose of justly apportioning the taxes payable on such property. 3 Am. St. Pap. 679; 12 Pet. 428, n.
CADET. A younger brother, one trained up for the army or navy.
CADI. The name of a civil magistrate among the Turks.
CALENDER. An almanac. Julius Caesar ordained that the Roman year should consist of 365 days, except every fourth year, which should contain 366, the additional day to be reckoned by counting the twenty-fourth day of February (which was the 6th of the calends of March) twice. See Bissextile is period of time exceeds the solar year by eleven minutes or there abouts, which amounts to the error of a day in about 131 years. In 1582, the error amounted to eleven days or more, which was corrected by Pope Gregory. Out of this correction grew the distinction between Old and New Style. The Gregorian or New Style was introduced into England in 1752, the 2d day of September (0. S.) of that year being reckoned as the 14th day of September, (N. S.) glee Almanac.
CALENDER, crim. law. A list of prisoners, containing their names, the time when they were committed, and by whom, and the cause of their commitments.
CALIFORNIA. The name of one of the states of the United States. It was admitted into the Union, by-an Act of Congress, passed the 9th September, 1850, entitled "An act for the admission of the state of California into the Union."
1. This section enacts and declares that the state of California shall be one of the United States, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, in all respects whatever.
2. Enacts that the state of California shall be entitled to two representatives, until the representatives in Congress shall be apportioned according to the actual enumeration of the inhabitants, of the United States.
3. By this section a condition is expressly imposed on the said state that the people thereof shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the public lands within its limits, nor pass any law, nor do any act, whereby the title of the United States to, and right to dispose of the same, shall be impaired or questioned. It also provides that they shall never lay any tax, or assessment of any description whatever, upon the public domain of the United States; and that in no case shall non-resident proprietors, who are citizens of the United States, be taxed higher than residents; that all navigable waters within the said state shall be common highways, forever free, as well to the inhabitants of said state, as to citizens of the United States, without any tax, impost or duty therefor; with this proviso, viz., that nothing contained in the act shall be construed as recognizing or rejecting the propositions tendered by the people of California, as articles of compact in the ordinance adopted by the convention whicb formed the constitution of that state.
2. The principal features of the constitution, of California, are similar to those of most, of the recently formed state constitutions. It establishes an elective judiciary, and: confers on the executive a qualified veto. It prohibits the creation of a state debt exceeding $300,000. It provides for the protection of the homestead from execution, and secures the property of married females separate from that of their husbands. It makes a liberal provision for the support of schools, prohibits the legislature from granting divorces, autborizing lotteries, and creating corporations, except by general laws, and from establishing any bank's of issue or circulation. It provides also that every stockholder of a corporation or joint-stock association, shall be individually and personally liable for his proportion of all its, debts or liabilities. There is also a clause prohibiting slavery, which, it is said, was inserted by the unanimous vote of the delegates.
CALLING THE PLAINTIFF, practice. When a plaintiff perceives that he has not given evidence to maintain his issue, and intends to become nonsuited, he withdraws himself, when the cryer is ordered to call the plaintiff, and on his failing to appear, he becomes nonsuited. 3 Bl. Com. 376.
CALUMNIATORS, civil law. Persons who accuse others, whom they know to be innocent, of having committed crimes. Code 9, 46, 9.
CAMBIST. A person skilled in exchange; one who deals or trades in promissory notes or bills of exchange.
CAMERA STELLATA, Eng. law. The court of the Star Chamber, now abolished.
CAMPARTUM. A part or portion of a larger field or ground, which would otherwise be in gross or common. Vide Champerty.
CANAL. A trench dug for leading water in a particular direction, and confin- ing it.
2. Public canals are generally protected by the law which authorizes their being made. Various points have arisen under numerous laws authorizing the construction of canals, which have been decided in cases reported in 1 Yeates, 430; 1 Binn. 70; 1 Pennsyl. 462; 2 Pennsyl. 517; 7 Mass. 169; 1 Sumu. 46; 20 Johns. 103, 735; 2 Johns. 283; 7 John. Ch. 315; 1 Wend. 474; 5 Wend. 166; 8 Wend. 469; 4 Wend. 667; 6 Cowen, 698; 7 Cowen, 526 4 Hamm. 253; 5 Hamm. 141, 391; 6 Hamm. 126; 1 N. H. Rep. 339; See River.
CANCELLARIA CURIA. The name formerly given to the court of chancery.
CANCELLATION. Its general acceptation, is the act of crossing a writing; it is used sometimes to signify the manual operation of tearing or destroying the instrument itself. Hyde v. Hyde, 1 Eq. Cas. Abr. 409; Rob. on Wills, 367, n.
2. Cancelling a will, animo revocandi, is a revocation of it, and it is unnecessary to show a complete destruction or obliteration. 2 B. & B. 650; 3 B. & A. 489; 2 Bl. R. 1043; 2 Nott & M'Cord, 272; Whart. Dig. Wills, c.; 4 Mass. 462. When a duplicate has been cancelled, animo revocandi, it is the cancellation of both parts. 2 Lee, Ecc. R. 532.
3. But the mere act of cancelling a will is nothing, unless it be done animo revocandi, and evidence is admissible to show, quo animo, the testator cancelled it., 7 Johns. 394 2 Dall. 266; S. C. 2 Yeates, 170; 4 Serg. & Rawle, 297; cited 2 Dall. 267, n.; 3 Hen. & Munf. 502; Rob. on Wills, 365; Lovel, 178; Toll. on Ex'rs, Index, h. t.; 3 Stark. Ev. 1714; 1 Adams' Rep. 529 Mass. 307; 5 Conn. 262; 4 Wend. 474; 4 Wend. 585; 1 Harr. & M'H. 162; 4 Conn. 550; 8 Verm. 373; 1 N. H. Rep. 1; 4 N. H. Rep. 191; 2 Eccl. Rep. 23.
4. As to the effect of cancelling a deed, which has not been recorded, see 1 Adams' Rep. 1; Palm. 403; Latch. 226; Gilb. Law, Ev. 109, 110; 2 H . Bl. 263: 2 Johns. 87 1 Greenl. R. 78; 10 Mass. 403; 9 Pick. 105; 4 N. H. Rep. 191; Greenl. Ev. 265; 5 Conn. 262; 4 Conn. 450; 5 Conn. 86; 2 John. R. 84; 4 Yerg. 375; 6 Mass. 24; 11 Mass. 337; 2 Curt. Ecc. R. 458.
5. As to when a court of equity will order an agreement or other instrument to be cancelled and delivered up, see 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3917-22.
CANDIDATE. One who offers himself or is offered by others for an office.
CANON, eccl. law. This word is taken from the Greek, and signifies a rule or law. In ecelesiastical law, it is also used to designate an order of religious persons. Francis Duaren says, the reason why the ecclesiastics called the rules they established canons or rules, (canones id est regulas) and not laws, was modesty. They did not dare to call them (leges) laws, lest they should seem to arrogate to themselves the authority of princes and magistrates. De Sacris Ecclesiae Ministeriis, p. 2, in pref. See Law, Canon.
CANONIST. One well versed in canon or ecclesiastical law.
CANNON SHOT, war. The distance which a cannon will throw a ball. 2. The whole space of the sea, within cannon shot of the coast, is considered as making a part of the territory; and for that reason, a vessel taken under the cannon of a neutral fortress, is not a lawful prize. Vatt. b. 1, c. 23, s. 289, in finem Chitt. Law of Nat. 113; Mart. Law of Nat. b. 8, c. 6, s. 6; 3 Rob. Adm. Rep. 102, 336; 5 Id. 373; 3 Hagg. Adm. R. 257. This part of the sea being considered as part of the adjacent territory, (q. v.) it follows that magistrates can cause the orders of their governments to be executed there. Three miles is considered as the greatest distance that the force of gunpowder can carry a bomb or a ball. Azun. far. Law, part 2, c. 2, art. 2, 15; Bouch. Inst. n. 1848. The anonymous author of the poem, Della Natura, lib. 5, expresses this idea in the following lines: Tanto slavanza in mar questo dominio, Quant esser puo d'antemurale e guardia, Fin dove puo da terra in mar vibrandosi Correr di cavo bronzo acceso fulinine. Far as the sovereign can defend his sway, Extends his empire o'er the watery way; The shot sent thundering to the liquid plain, Assigns the limits of his just domain. Vide League.
CAPACITY. This word, in the law sense, denotes some ability, power, qualifi- cation, or competency of persons, natural, or artificial, for the performance of civil acts, depending on their state or condition, as defined or fixed by law; as, the capacity to devise, to bequeath, to grant or convey lands; to take; or to take. and hold lands to make a contract, and the like. 2 Com. Dig. 294; Dane's Abr. h. t.
2. The constitution requires that the president, senators, and representatives should have attained certain ages; and in the case of the senators and representatives, that out these they have no capacity to serve in these offices.
3. All laws which regulate the capacity of persons to contract, are considered personal laws; such are the laws which relate to minority and majority; to the powers of guardians or parents, or the disabilities of coverture. The law of the domicil generally governs in cases of this kind. Burge. on Sureties, 89.
CAPAX DOLI. Capable of committing crime. This is said of one who has sufficient mind and understanding to be made responsible for his actions. See, Discretion.
CAPE, English law. A judicial writ touching a plea of lands and tenements. The writs which bear this name are of two kinds, namely, cape magnum, or grand, cape, and cape parvum, or petit cape. The petit cape, is so called, not so much on account of the smallness of the writ, as of the letter. Fleta , lib. 6, c. 55, 40. For the difference between the form and the use of these writs, see 2 Wms. Saund. Rep. 45, c, d; and Fleta, ubi sup.
CAPERS. Vessels of war owned by private persons, and different from ordinary privateers (q. v.) only in size, being smaller. Bea. Lex. Mer. 230.
CAPIAS, practice. This word, the signification of which is " that you take," is applicable to many heads of practice. Several writs and processes, commanding the sheriff to take the person of the defendant, are known by the name of capias. For example: there are writs of capias ad respondendum, writs of capias ad computandum, writs of capias ad satisfaciendum, &c., each especially adapted to the purposes indicated by the words used for its designation. See 3 Bl. Com. 281; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2794.
CAPIAS AD AUDIENDUM JUDICIUM, practice. A writ issued in a case of misdemeanor, after the defendant has appeared and found guilty, and is not present when called. This writ is to bring him to judgment. 4 BI. Com. 368.
CAPIAS AD COMPUTANDUM, practice. A writ issued in the action of account render, upon the judgment quod computet, when the defendant refuses to appear, in his proper person, before the auditors, and enter into his account. According to the ancient practice, the defendant, after arrest upon this process, might be delivered on main-prize, or in default of finding mainpernors, he was committed to the Fleet prison, where the auditors attended upon him to hear and receive his account. As the object of this process is to compel the defendant to render an account, it does not appear to be within the scope of acts abolishing imprisonment for debt. For precedents, see Thesaurus Brevium, 38, 39, 40; 3 Leon. 149; 1 Lutw. 47, 51 Co. Ent. 46, 47; Rast. Ent. 14, b, 15.
CAPIAS AD RESPONDENDUM, practice. A writ commanding the sheriff, or other proper officer, to "take the body of the defendant and to keep the same to answer, ad respondendum, the plaintiff in a plea," &c. The amount of bail demanded ought to, be indorsed on the writ.
2. A defendant arrested upon this writ must be committed to prison, unless he give a bail bond (q. v.) to the sheriff. In some states, (as, until lately, in Pennsylvania,) it is the practice, when the defendant is liable to this process, to indorse on the writ, No bail required in which case he need only give the sheriff, in writing, an authority to the prothonotary to enter his appearance to the action, to be discharged from the arrest. If the writ has been served, and the defendant have not given bail, but remains in custody, it is returned C. C., cepi corpus; if he have given bail, it is returned C. C. B. B., cepi corpus, bail bond; if the defendant's appearance have been accepted, the return is, " C. C. and defendant's appearance accepted." According to the course of the practice at common law, the writ bears teste, in the name of the chief justice, or presiding judge of the court, on some day in term time, when the judge is supposed to be present, not being Sunday, and is made returnable on a regular return day. 1 Penna. Pr. 36; 1 Arch. Pr. 67.
CAPIAS AD SATISFACIENDUM, practice. A writ of execution issued upon a judgment in a personal action, for the recovery of money, directed to the sheriff or coroner, commanding him to take the defendant, and him safely keep, so that he may have his body in court on the return day, to satisfy, ad satisfaciendum, the plaintiff. This writ is tested on a general teste day, and returnable on a regular return day.
2. It lies after judgment in most instances in which the defendant was subject to a capias ad respondendum before, and plaintiffs are subject to it, when judgment has been given against them for costs. Members of congress and of the legislature, (eundo, morando, et redezzndo,) going to, remaining at, and returning from the places of sitting of congress, or of the legislature, are not liable to this process, on account of their public capacity; nor are ambassadors, (q. v.) and other public ministers, and their ,servants. Act of Congress of April 30, 1790, s. 25 and 26, Story's Laws United States, 88; 1 Dunl. Pr. 95, 96; Com. Dig. Ambassador, B; 4 Dall. 321. In Pennsylvania, women are not subject to this writ except in actions founded upon tort, or claims arising otherwise than ex contractu. 7 Reed's Laws of Pa. 150. In several of the United States, the use of this writ, as well as of the capias ad respondendum, has been prohibited in all actions instituted for the recovery of money due upon any contract, express or implied, or upon any judgment or decree, founded on any contract, or for the recovery of damages for the breach of any contract, with a few exceptions. See Arrest.
3. It is executed by arresting the body of the defendant, and keeping him in custody. Discharging him upon his giving security for the payment of the debt, or upon his promise to return into custody again before the return day, is an escape, although he do return; 13 Johns. R. 366 8 Johns. R. 98; and the sheriff is liable for the debt. In England, a payment to the sheriff or other officer having the ca. sa., is no payment to the plaintiff. Freem. 842 Lutw. 587; 2 Lev. 203; 1 Arch. Pr. 278. The law is different in Pennsylvania. 3 Serg. & Rawle, 467. The return made by the officer is either C. C. & C., cepi corpus et comittitur, if the defendant have been arrested and held in custody; or N. E. I., non est inventus, if the officer has not been able to find him. This writ is, in common language, called a ca. sa.
CAPIAS PRO FINE, practice, crim. law. The name of a writ which issues against a defendant who has been fined, and who does not discharge it according to the judgment. This writ commands the sheriff to arrest the defendant and commit him to prison, there to remain till he pay the fine, or be otherwise discharged according to law.
CAPIAS UTLAGATUM English practice. A capias utlagatum is general or special; the former against the person only, the latter against the person, lands and goods.
2. This writ issues upon the judgment of outlawry being returned by the sheriff upon the exigent, and it takes its name from the words of the mandatory part of the writ, which states the defendant being outlawed utlagatum, which word comes from the Saxon utlagh, Latinized utlagatus, and signifies bannitus, extra legem. Cowel.
3. The general writ of capias utlagatum commands the sheriff to take the defendant, so that he have him before the king on a general return day, wheresoever, &c., to do and receive what the court shall consider of him.
4. The special capias utlagatum, like the general writ, commands the sheriff to take the defendant. The defendant is discharged upon an attorney's undertaking, or upon giving bond to the sheriff, in the same manner as when the writ is general. But the special writ also commands the sheriff to inquire by a jury, of the defendant's goods and lands, to extend and appraise the same, and to take them in the king's hands and safely keep them, so that he may answer to the king for the value and issue's of the same. 2 Arch. Pr. 161. See Outlawry.
CAPIAS IN WITHERNAM, practice. A writ issued after a return of elongata or eloigned has been made to a writ of retorno habendo, commanding the sheriff to take so many of the distrainer's goods by way of reprisal, as will equal the goods mentioned in the retorno habendo. 2 Inst. 140; F. N. B. 68; and see form in 2 Sell. Pr. 169.
CAPIATUR, pro fine. The name of a writ which was issued to levy a fine due to the king. Bac. Ab. Fines and Amercements, in prin. See Judgment of Capiatur.
CAPITA, or PER CAPITA. By heads. An expression of frequent occurrence in laws regulating the distribution of the estates of persons dying intestate. When all the persons entitled to shares in the distribution are of the same degree of kindred to the deceased person, (e.g. when all are grandchildren,) and claim directly from him in their own right and not through an intermediate relation, they take per capita, that is, equal shares, or share and share alike. But when they are of different degrees of kindred, (e. g. some tho children, others the grandchildren or the great grandchildren of the, deceased,) those more remote take er stirpem or per stirpes, that is, they take respectively the shares their parents (or other relation standing in the same degree with them of the surviving kindred entitled) who are in the nearest degree of kindred to the intestate,) would have taken had they respectively survived the intestate. Reeves' Law of Descent, Introd. xxvii.; also 1 Rop. on Leg. 126, 130. See Per Capita; Per Stirpes; Stirpes;
CAPITAL, political economy, commerce. In political economy, it is that portion of the produce of a country, which may be made directly available either to support the human species or to the facilitating of production.
2. In commerce, as applied to individuals, it is those objects, whether consisting of money or other property, which a merchant, trader, or other person adventures in an undertaking, or which he contributes to the common stock of a partnership. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1458.
3. It signifies money put out at interest.
4. The fund of a trading company or corporation is also called capital, but in this sense the word stock is generally added to it; thus we say the capital stock of the Bank of North America.
CAPITAL CRIME. One for the punishment of which death is inflicted, which punishment is called capital punishment. Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
2. The subject of capital punishment has occupied the attention of enlightened men for a long time, particularly since the middle of the last century; and none deserves to be more carefully investigated. The right of punishing its members by society cannot be denied; but how far this right extends, by the laws of nature or of God, has been much disputed by theoretical writers, although it cannot be denied, that most nations, ancient and modern, have deemed capital punishment to be within the scope of the legitimate powers of government. Beccaria contends with zeal that the punishment of death ought not to be inflicted in times of peace, nor at other times, except in cases where the laws can be maintained in no other way. Bee. Chap. 28.
3. It is not within the plan of this work to examine the question, whether the punishment is allowed by the natural law. The principal arguments for and against it are here given.
4.- 1. The arguments used in favor of the abolition of capital punishment, are;
5. - 1st. That existence is a right which men hold from God, and which society in body can, no more than a member of that society, deprive them of, because society is governed by the immutable laws of humanity.
6. - 2d. That, even should the right be admitted, this is a restraint badly selected, which does not attain its end, death being less dreaded than either solitary confinement for life, or the performance of hard labor and disgrace for life.
7. - 3d. That the infliction of the punishment does not prevent crimes, any more thau, other less severe but longer punishments.
8. - 4th. That as a public example, this punishment is only a barbarous show, better calculated to accustom mankind to the contemplation of bloodshed, than to restrain them.
9. - 5th. That the law by taking life, when it is unnecessary for the safety of society, must act by some other motive this can be no other than revenge. To the extent the law punishes an individual beyond what is requisite for the preservation of society, and the restoration of the offender, is cruel and barbarous. The law) to prevent a barbarous act, commits one of the same kind,; it kills one of the members of society, to convince the others that killing is unlawful.
10. - 6th. That by depriving a man of life, society is deprived of the benefits which he is able to confer upon it; for, according to the vulgar phrase, a man hanged is good for nothing.
11. - 7th. That experience has proved that offences which were formerly punished with death, have not increased since the punishment has been changed to a milder one.
12. - 2. The arguments which have been urged on the other side, are,
13. - 1st. That all that humanity commands to legislators is, that they should inflict only necessary and useful punisliments; and that if they keep within these bounds, the law may permit an extreme remedy, even the punishment of death, when it is requisite for the safety of society.
14. - 2d. That, whatever be said to the contrary, this punishment is more repulsive than any other, as life is esteemed above all things, and death is considered as the greatest of evils, particularly when it is accompanied by infamy.
15. - 3d. That restrained, as this punishment ought to be, to the greatest crimes, it can never lose its efficacy as an example, nor harden the multitude by the frequency of executions.
16. - 4th. That unless this punishment be placed at the top of the scale of punishment, criminals will always kill, when they can, while committing an inferior crime, as the punishment will be increased only by a more protracted imprisonment, where they still will hope for a pardon or an escape.
17th. - 5th. The essays which have been made by two countries at least; Russia, under the reign of Elizabeth, and Tuscany, under the reign of Leopold, where the punishment of death was abolished, have proved unsuccessful, as that punishment has been restored in both.
18. Arguments on theological grounds have also been advanced on both sides. See Candlish's Contributions towards the Exposition of the Book of Genesis, pp. 203-7. Vide Beccaria on Crimes and Punishments; Voltaire, h. t.; Livingston's Report on a Plan of a Penal Code; Liv. Syst. Pen. Law, 22; Bentham on Legislation, part 3, c. 9; Report to the N. Y. Legislature; 18 Am. Jur. 334.
CAPITATION. A poll tax; an imposition which is yearly laid on each person according to his estate and ability.
2. The Constitution of the United States provides that "no capitation, or other direct tax, shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census, or enumeration, therein before directed to be taken." Art. 1, s. 9, n. 4. See 3 Dall. 171; 5 Wheat. 317.
CAPITE, descents. By the head. Distribution or succession per capita, is said to take place when every one of the kindred in equal degree, and not jure representationis, receive an equal part of an estate.
CAPITULARIES.The Capitularia or Capitularies, was a code of laws promulgated by Childebert, Clotaire, Carloman, Pepin, Charlemague, and other kings. It was so called from the small chapters or heads into which they were divided. The edition by Baluze, published in 1677, is said to be the best.
CAPITULATION, war. The treaty which determines the conditions under which a fortified place is abandoned to the commanding officer of the army which besieges it.
2. On surrender by capitulation, all the property of the inhabitants protected by the articles, is considered by the law of nations as neutral, and not subject to capture on the high seas, by the belligerent or its ally. 2 Dall.
CAPITULATION, civ.law. An agreement by which the prince and the people, or those who have the right of. the people, regulate the manner in which the government is to be administered. Wolff, 989.
CAPTAIN or SEA CAPTAIN, mar. law. The name given to the master or commander of a vessel. He is known in this country very generally by the name of master. (q. v.) He is also frequently denominated patron in foreign laws and books.
2. The captains in the navy of the United States, are officers appointed by government. Those who are employed in the mercantile service, have not strictly an official character. They are appointed or employed by the owners on the vessels they command.
3. It is proposed to consider the duty of the latter. Towards the owner of the vessel he is bound by his personal attention and care, to take all the necessary precautions for her safety; to, proceed on the voyage in which such vessel may be engaged, and to obey faithfully his instructions; and by all means in his power to promote the interest of his owner. But he is not required to violate good faith, nor employ fraud even with an enemy. 3 Cranch, 242.
4. Towards others, it is the policy of the law to hold him responsible for all losses or damages that may happen to the goods committed to his charge; whether they arise from negligence, ignorance, or wilful misconduct of himself or his mariners, or any other person on board the ship. As soon, therefore, as goods are put on board, they are in the master's charge, and he is bound to deliver them again in the same state in which they were shipped, and he is answerable for all losses or damages they may sustain, unless it proceed from au inherent defect in the article, or from some accident or misfortune which could not be prevented.
5. It may be laid down as a general rule, that the captain is responsible when any loss occurs in consequence of his doing what he ought not to do, unless he was forced by the act of God,. the enemies of the United States, or the perils of the sea.1 Marsh. Ins. 241; Pard. n. 658.
6. The rights of the captain are, to choose his crew as he is responsible for their acts, this seems but just, but a reasonable deference to the rights of the owner require that he should be consulted, as he, as well as the captain, is responsible for the acts of the crew. On board, the captain is invested with almost arbitrary power overthe crew, being responsible for the abuse of his authority. Ab. on Sbipp.162. He may repair the ship, and, if he is not in funds to pay the expenses of such repairs, he may borrow money, when abroad, on the credit of his owners or of the ship. Abb. on Sh. 127-8. In such cases, although contracting within the ordinary scope of his owers and duties, he is generally responsible as well as the owner. This is the established rule of the maritime law, introduced in favor of commerce it has been recognized and adopted by the commercial nations of, Europe, and is derived from the civil or Roman law. Abbott, Ship. 90; Story, Ag. 11 6 to 123, 294; Paley, Ag. by Lloyd, 244; 1 Liverm. Ag. 70; Poth. Ob. n. 82; Ersk. Inst. 3, 3, 43; Dig. 4, 9, 1; Poth. Pand. lib. 14, tit. 1; 3 Summ. R. 228. See Bell's Com. 505, 6th ed; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CAPTATION, French law. The act of one who succeeds in controlling the will of another, so as to become master of it. It is generally taken in a bad sense.
2. Captation takes place by those demonstrations of attachment and friendship, by those assiduous attentions, by those services and officious little presents which are usual among friends, and by all those means which ordinarily render us agreeable to others. When those attentions are unattended by deceit or fraud, they are perfectly fair, and the captation is lawful; but if, under the mask of friendship, fraud is the object, and means are used to deceive the person with whom you are connected, then the captation is fraudulent, and the acts procured by the captator are void. See Influence.
CAPTATOR, French law. The name which is sometimes given, to him who by flattery and artifice endeavors to surprise testators, and induce them to. give legacies or devices, or to make him some other gift. Diet. de Jur.
CAPTION, practice. That part of a legal instrument, as a 'Commission, indictment, &c., which shows where, when, and by what authority it was taken, found or executed. As to the forms and requisites of captions, see 1 Murph. 281; 8 Yerg. 514; 4 Iredell, 113; 6 Miss,. 469; 1 Scam. 456; 5 How. Mis. 20; 6 Blackf. 299; 1 Hawks, 354; 1 Brev. 169.
2. In the English practice, when an in ferior court in obedience to the writ of certiorari, returns an indictment into the K. B. , it is annexed to the caption, then called a schedule, and the caption concludes with stating, that " it is presented in manner and form as appears in a certain indictment thereto annexed, " and the caption and indictment are returned on separate parch ments. 1 Saund. 309, n. 2. Vide Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
3. Caption is another name for arrest.
CAPTIVE. By this term is understood one who has been taken; it is usually applied to prisoners of war. (q.v.) Although he bas lost his liberty, a captive does not by his captivity lose his civil rights.
CAPTOR, war. One who has talken property from an enemy; this term is also employed to designate one who has taken an enemy.
2. Formerly, goods taken in war were adjudged to belong to the captor; they are now considered to vest primarily, in the state or sovereign, and belong to the individual captors only to the extent that the municipal laws provide.
3. Captors are responsible to the owners of the property for all losses and damages, when the capture is tortious and without reasonable cause in the exercise of belligerent rights. But if the capture is originally justifiable, the captors will not be responsible, unless by subsequent misconduct they become trespassers ab initio. i Rob. R. 93, 96. See 2 Gall. 374; 1 Gall. 274; 1 Pet. Adm. Dee. 116; 1 Mason, R. 14.
CAPTURE, war. The taking of property by one belligerent from another.
2. To make a good capture of a ship, it must be subdued and taken by an enemy in open war, or by way of reprisals, or by a pirate, and with intent to deprive the owner of it.
3. Capture may be with intent to possess both ship and cargo, or only to seize the goods of the enemy, or contraband goods which are on board: The former is the capture of the ship in the proper sense of the word; the latter is only an arrest and detention, witbout any design to deprive the owner of it. Capture is deemed lawful, when made by a declared enemy, lawfully commissioned and according to the laws of war; and unlawful, when it is against the rules established by the law of nations. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 4.See, generally, Lee on Captures, passim; 1 Chitty's Com. Law, 377 to 512; 2 Woddes. 435 to 457; 2 Caines' C. Err 158; 7 Johns. R. 449; 3 Caines' R. 155; 11 Johns. R. 241; 13 Johns. R.161; 14 Johns. R. 227; 3 Wheat. 183; 4 Cranch, 436 Mass. 197; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CAPUT LUPINUM, Eng. law. Having the head of a wolf. An outlawed felon was said to have the head of a wolf, and might have been killed by any one legally. Now, such killing would be murder. 1. Hale, Pl. C. 497. The rules of the common law on this subject are rauch more severe in their consequences, than the doctrine of the civil law relating to civil death. See 1 Toull. Droit Civil, n. 280, and pp. 254-5, note 3.
CARAT, weights. A carat is a weight equal to three and one-sixth grains, in diamonds, and the like. Jac. L. Dict. See Weight.
CARCAN, French law. A French word, which is applied to an instrument of punishment somewhat resembling a pillory. It sometimes signifies the punishment itself. Biret Vocab.
CARDINAL, eccl. law. The title given to one of tho highest dignitaries of the court of Rome. Cardinals are next to the pope in dignity; he is elected by them and out of their body. There are cardinal bishops, cardinal priests, and cardinal deacons. See Fleury, Hist. Eccles. liv. xxxv. n. 17, Ii. n. 19 Thomassin, part ii. liv. i. oh. 53, part iv. liv. i. c. 79, 80 Loiseau, Traite des Ordres, c. 3, n. 31; Andre, Droit Canon, au mot.
CARDS, crim. law. Small square pasteboards, generally of a fine quality, on which are painted figures of various colors, and used for playing different games. The playing of cards for amusement is not forbidden, but gaming for money is unlawful. Vide Faro bank, and Gaming.
CARGO, mar. law. The entire load of a ship or other vessel. Abb. on Sh. Index, h. t.; 1 Dall. 197; Merl. Rep. h. t.; 2 Gill & John. 136. This term is usually applied to goods only, and does not include human beings. 1 Phill. Ins. 185; 4 Pick. 429. But in a more extensive and less technical sense, it includes persons; thus we say a cargo of emigrants. See 7 Mann. Gr. 729, 744.
CARNAL KNOWLEDGE, crim. law. This phrase is used to signify a sexual connexion; as, rape is the carnal knowledge of a woman, &c. See Rape.
CARNALLY KNEW, pleadings. This is a technical phrase, essential in an indictment to charge the defendant with the crime of rape; no other word or circumlocution will answer the same purpose as these word's. Vide Ravished, and Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 1; Com. Dig. Indictment, G 6; 1 Hale, 632; 3 Inst. 60; Co. Litt. 137; ) 1 Chit. Cr. Law, *243. It has been doubted whether these words were indispensible. 1 East, P. C. 448. But it would be unsafe to omit them.
CARRIERS, contracts. There are two kinds of carriers, namely, common carriers, (q. v.) who have been considered under another head; and private carriers. These latter are persons who, although they do not undertake to transport the goods of such as choose to employ them, yet agree to carry the goods of some particular person for hire, from one place to another.
2. In such case the carrier incurs no responsibility beyond that of any other ordinary bailee for hire, that is to say, the responsibility of ordinary diligence. 2 Bos. & Pull. 417; 4 Taunt. 787; Selw. N. P. 382 n.; 1 Wend. R. 272; 1 Hayw. R. 14; 2 Dana, R. 430; 6 Taunt. 577; Jones, Bailm. 121; Story on Bailm, 495. But in Gordon v. Hutchinson, 1 Watts & Serg. 285, it was holden that a Wagoner Who carries goods for hire, contracts,the responsibility of a common carrier, whether transportation be his principal and direct business, or only an occasional and incidental employment.
3. To bring a person within the description of a common carrier, he must exercise his business as a public employment; he must undertake to carry goods for persons generally; and he must hold himself out as ready to engage in the transportation of goods for hire, as a business; not as a casual occupation pro hac vice. 1 Salk. 249; 1 Bell's Com. 467; 1 Hayw. R. 14; 1 Wend. 272; 2, Dana, R. 430. See Bouv. Inst. Index, b. t.
CARRYING AWAY, crim. law. To complete the crime of larceny, the thief must not only feloniously tale the thing stolen, but carry it away. The slightest carrying away will be sufficient; thus to snatch a diamond from a lady's ear, which is instantly dropped among the curls of her hair. 1 Leach, 320. To remove sheets from a bed and carry them into an adjoining room. 1 Leach, 222 n. To take plate from a trunk, and lay it on the floor with intent to carry it away. Ib. And to remove a package from one part of a wagon to another, with a view to steal it; 1 Leach, 286; have respectively been holden to be felonies. 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 919. Vide 3 Inst. 108, 109 1 Hale, 507; Kel. 31 Ry. & Moody, 14 Bac. Ab. Felony, D 4 Bl. Com. 231 Hawk. c.32, s. 25. Where, however, there has not been a complete severance of the possession, it is not a complete carrying away. 2 East, P. C. 556; 1 Hale, 508; 2 Russ. on Cr. 96. Vide Invito Domino; Larceny; Robbery; Taking.
CART BOTE. An allowance to the tenant of wood, sufficient for carts and other instruments of husbandry.
CARTE BLANCHE. The signature of an individual or more, on a while. paper, with a sufficient space left above it to write a note or other writing.
2. In the course of business, it not unfrequently occurs that for the sake of convenience, signatures in blank are given with authority to fill them up.. These are binding upon the parties. But the blank must be filled up by the very person authorized. 6 Mart. L. R. 707. Vide Ch. on Bills, 702 Penna. R. 200. Vide Blank.
CARTEL,war. An agreement between two belligerent powers for the delivery of prisoners or deserters, and also a written challenge to a duel.
2. Cartel ship, is a ship commissioned in time of war, to exchange prisoners, or to carry any proposals between hostile powers; she must carry no cargo, ammunitions, or implements of war, except a single gun for signals. The conduct of ships of this description cannot be too narrowly watched. The service on which they are sent is so highly important to the interests of humanity, that it is peculiarly incumbent on all parties to take care that it should be conducted in such a manner as not to become a subject of jealousy and distrust between the two nations. 4 Rob. R. 357. Vide Merl. Rep. b. t.; Dane's Ab. c. 40, a. 6, 7; Pet. C. C. R. 106; 3 C. Rob. 141 C. Rob. 336; 1 Dods. R. 60.
CARTMEN. Persons who carry goods and merchandise in carts, either for great or short distances, for hire. 2. Cartmen who undertake to carry goods for hire as a common employment, are common carriers. Story on Bailm. 496; and see 2 Wend. 327 2 N. & M. 88; 1 Murph. 41 7; 2 Bailey, 421 2 Verm. 92; 1 M'Cord, 444; Bac. Ab. Carriers, A.
CASE practice. A contested question before a court of justicea suit or action a cause. 9 Wheat. 738.
CASE, remedies. This is the name of an action in very general use, which lies where a party sues for damages for any wrong or cause of complaint towhich covenant or trespass will not lie. Steph. Pl. 153 Wodd. 167 Ham. N. P. 1. Vide Writ of trespass on the case. In its most comprehensive signification, case includes assumpsit as well as an action in form ex delicto; but when simply mentioned, it is usually understood to mean an action in form ex delicto. 7 T. R. 36. It is a liberal action; Burr, 906, 1011 1 Bl. Rep. 199; bailable at common law. 2 Barr 927-8; founded on the justice and conscience of the Tiff's case, and is in the nature of a bill in equity 3 Burr, 1353, 1357 and the substance of a count in case is the damage assigned. 1 Bl. Rep. 200.
2. An action on the case lies to recover damages for torts not committed with force actual or implied, or having been occasioned by force, where the matter affected was not tangible, or where the injury was not immediate but consequential; 11 Mass. 59, 137 1 Yeates, 586; 6 S. & R. 348; 12 S. & R. 210 ; 18 John. 257 19 John. 381; 6 Call, 44; 2 Dana, 378 1 Marsh. 194; 2 H. & M. 423; Harper, 113; Coxe, 339; or where the interest in the property was only in reversion. 8 Pick. 235; 7 Conn. 3282 Green, 8 1 John. 511; 3 Hawks, 2462 Murph. 61; 2 N. H. Rep. 430. In these several cases trespass cannot be sustained. 4 T. 11. 489 7 T. R. 9. Case is also the proper remedy for a wrongful act done under legal process regularly issuing from a court of competent jurisdiction. 2 Conn. 700 11 Mass. 500 6 Greenl. 421; 1 Bailey, 441, 457; 9 Conn. 141; 2 Litt. 234; 3 Conn. 5373 Gill & John. 377. Vide Regular and irregular process.
3. It will be proper to consider, 1. in what cases the action of trespass on the case lies; 2. the pleadings 3. the evidence; 4. the judgment.
4. 1. This action lies for injuries, 1. to the absolute rights of persons 2. to the relative rights of persons; 3. to personal property; 4. to real property.
5. - 1. When the injury has been done to the absolute rights of persons by an act not immediate but consequential, as in the case of special damages Irising from a public nuisance Willes, 71 to 74 or where an incumbrance had been placed in a public street, and the plaintiff passing there received an injury; or for a malicious prosecution. See malicious prosecution.
6. - 2. For injuries to the relative rights, as for enticing away an infant child, per quod servitium amisit, 4 Litt. 25; for criminal conversation, seducing or harboring wives; debauching daughters, but in this case the daughter must live with her father as his servant, see Seduction; or enticing away or harboring apprentices or servants. 1 Chit. Pl. 137 2 Chit. Plead. 313, 319. When the seduction takes place in the husband's or father's house, he may, at his election, have trespass or case; 6 Munf. 587; Gilmer, 33but when the injury is done in the house of another, case is the proper remedy. 5 Greenl. 546.
7. - 3. When the injury to personal property is without force and. not immediate, but consequential, or when the plaintiff Is right to it is in reversion, as, where property is injured by a third person while in the hands of a hirer; 3 Camp. 187; 2 Murph. 62; 3 Hawks, 246, case is the proper remedy. 8 East, 693; Ld. Raym. 1399; Str. 634; 1 Chit. Pl. 138.
8. - 4. When the real property which has been injured is corporeal, and the injury is not immediate but consequential, as for example, putting a spout so near the plaintiff's land that the water runs upon it; 1 Chit. Pl. 126, 141; Str. 634; or where the plaintiff's property is only in reversion. When the injury has been done to, incorporeal rights, as for obstructing a private way, or disturbing a party in the use of a pew, or for injury to a franchise, as a ferry, and the like, case is the proper remedy. l Chit. Pl. 143.
9. - 2. The declaration in case, technically so called, differs from a declaration in trespass, chiefly in this, that in case, it must not, in general, state the injury to have been committed vi et armis; 3 Conn. 64; see 2 Ham. 169; 11 Mass. 57; Coxe, 339; yet after verdict, the words " with force and arms" will, be rejected as surplusage; Harp. 122; and it ought not to conclude contra pacem. Com. Dig. Action on the Case, C 3. The plea is usually the general issue, not guilty.
l0. - 3. Any matter may, in general, be given in evidence, under the plea of not guilty, except the statute of limitations. In cases of slander and a few other instances, however, this cannot be done. 1 Saund. 130, n. 1; Wilies, 20. When the plaintiff declares in case, with averments appropriate to that form of action and the evidence shows that the injury was trespass; or when he declares in trespass, and the evidence proves an injury for which case will lie, and not trespass, the defendant should be acquitted by the jury, or the plaintiff should be nonsuited. 5 Mass. 560; 16 Mass. 451; Coxe, 339; 3 John. 468.
11. - 4. The judgment is, that the plaintiff recover a sum of money, ascertained by a jury, for his damages sustained by the committing of the grievances complained of in the declaration, and costs.
12. In the civil law, an action was given in all cases of nominate contracts, which was always of the same name. But in innominate contracts, which had always the same consideration, but not the same name, there could be no action of the same denomination, but an action which arose from the fact, in factum, or an action with a form which arose from the particular circumstance, praescriptis verbis actio. Lec. Elem. 779. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CASE, STATED, practice. An agreement in writing, between a plaintiff and defendant, that the facts in dispute between them are as there agreed upon and mentioned, 3 Whart. 143.
2. The facts being thus ascertained, it is left for the court to decide for which party is the law. As no writ of error lies on a judgment rendered on a case stated, Dane's Ab. c. 137, art. 4, n. 7, it is usual in the agreement to insert a clause that the case stated shall be considered in the nature of special verdict.
3. In that case, a writ of error lies on the judgment which may be rendered upon it. And a writ of error will also lie on a judgment on a case stated, when the parties have agreed to it. 8 Serg. & Rawle, 529.
4. In another sense, by a case stated is understood a statement of all the facts of a case, together with the names of the witnesses, and, a detail of the documents which are to support them. In other words, it is a brief. (q. v.)
CASH, commerce. Money on hand, which a merchant, trader or other person has to do business with.
2. Cash price, in contracts, is the price of articles paid for in cash, in contradistinction to the credit price. Pard. n. 85; Chipm. Contr. 110. In common parlance, bank notes are considered as cash; but bills receivable are not.
CASH-BOOK, Commerce, accounts. One in which a merchant or trader enters an account of all the money, or paper moneys he receives or pays. An entry of the same thing ought to be made under the proper dates, in the journal. The object of the cash-book is to afford a constant facility to ascertain the true state of a man's cash. Pard. n. 87.
CASHIER. An officer of a moneyed institution, who is entitled by virtue of his office to take care of the cash or money of such institution.
2. The cashier of a bank is usually entrusted with all the funds of the bank, its notes, bills, and other choses in action, to be used from time to time for the ordinary and extraordinary exigencies of the bank. He usually receives directly, or tbrough subordinate officers, all moneys and notes of the bankdelivers up all discounted notes and other securities, when they have been paid draws checks to withdraw the funds of the bank where they have been deposited; and, as the executive officer of the bank, transacts much of the business of the institution. In general, the bank is bound by the acts of the cashier within the scope of his authority, expressed or implied. 1 Pet. R. 46, 70Wheat. R. 300, 361 5 Wheat. R. 326; 3 Mason's R. 505; 1 Breese, R. 45; 1 Monr. Rep. 179. But the bank is not bound by a declaration of the cashier, not within the scope of his authority; as when a note is about to be discountedby the bank, he tells a person that he will incur no risk nor responsibility by becoming an indorser upon such note. 6 Pet. R. 51; 8 Pet. R. 12.Vide 17 Mass. R. 1 Story on Ag. 114, 115; 3 Halst. R. 1; 12 Wheat. R. 183; 1 Watts & Serg. 161.
To CASHIER, punishment. To break; to deprive a military man of his office. Example: every officer who shall be convicted, before a general court martial, of leaving signed a false certificate relating to the absence of either officer or private soldier, or relative to his daily pay, shall be, cashiered. Articles of war, art. 14.
CASSATION, French law. A decision which emanates from the sovereign authority, and by which a sentence or judgment in the last resort is annulled., Merl. Rep. h. t. This jurisdiction is now given to the Cour de Cassation.
2. This court is composed of fifty-two judges, including four presidents, an attorney-general, and six substitutes, bearing the title of advocates general; a chief clerk, four subordinate clerks, and eight huissiers. Its jurisdiction extends to the examination and superintendence of the judgments and decrees of the inferior court, both in civil and criminal cases. It is divided into three sections, namely, the section des requetes, the section civile, and the section criminelle. Merl. Rep. mots Cour de Cassation.
CASSETUR BREVE, practice. That the writ be quashed. This is the name of a judgment sometime sentered against a plaintiff when he cannot prosecute his writ with effect, in consequence of some allegation on the defendant's part. The plaintiff, in order to put an end to any further proceeding in the action,enters on the roll cassetur breve, the effect of which is to quash his own writ,which exonerates him from the liability to any future costs, and allows him to sue out new process. A cassetur bill a may be entered with like effect. 3 Bl. Com. 340; and vide 5 T. R. 634; Gould's Plead. c. 5, 139; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2913-14. Vide To quash.
CASTIGATORY, punishments. An engine used to punishwomen who have been convicted of being common scolds it is sometimes called the trebucket, tumbrel, ducking stool, or cucking stool. This barbarous punishment has perhaps never been inflicted in the United States. 12 S. & It. 225. Vide Common Scold.
CASTING VOTE, legislation. The vote given by the president or speaker of a deliberate assembly; when the votes of the other members are equal on both sides, the casting vote then decides the question. Dane's Ab. h. t.
CASTRATION, crim. law. The act of gelding. When this act is maliciously performed upon a man, it is a mayhem, and punishable as such, although the sufferer consented to it.
2. By the ancient law of England this crime was punished by retaliation, membrum pro membro. 3 Inst. 118. It is punished in the United States generally by fine and imprisonment. The civil law punished it with death. Dig. 48, 8, 4, 2. For the French law, vide Code Penal, art. 316. 3. The consequences ofcastration, when complete, are impotence and sterility. 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 72.
CASUPROVISO, practice. A writ of entry given by the statute of Gloucester, c. 7, when a tenant in dower aliens in fee or for life. It might have been brought by the reversioner against the alienee. This, is perhaps an obsolete remedy, having yielded to the writ of ejectment. F. N. B. 205 Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
CASUAL. What happens fortuitously what is accidental as, the casual revenue's of the government, are those which are contingeut or uncertain.
CASUAL EJECTOR, pratice, ejectment. A person, supposed to come upon-land casually, (although usually by previous agreement,) who turns out the lessee of the person claiming the possession against the actual tenant or occupier of the land. 3 Bl. Com. 201, 202.
2. Originally, in order to try the right by ejectment, Several things were necessary to be made out before the court first, a title to the land, in question, upon which the owner was to make a formal entry; and being so in possession he executed a lease to some third person or lessee, leaving him in possession then the prior tenant or some other person, called the casual ejector, either by accident or by agreement beforehand, came upon the land and turned him out, and for this ouster or turning out, the action was brought. But these formalities are now dispensed with, and the trial relates merely to the title, the defendant being bound to acknowledge the lease, entry, and ouster. 3 Bl. Com. 202;.Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
CASUS FOEDORIS. When two nations have formed a treaty of alliance, in anticipation of a war or other difficulty with another, and it is required to determine the case in which the parties must act in consequence of the alliance, this is called the casus foederis, or case of alliance. Vattel, liv. 3, c. 6, 88.
CASUS FORTUITUS. A fortuitous case; an uncontrollable accident an act of God. See Act of God; Cas fortuit; Fortuitous event.
CASUS OMISSUS. An omitted case.
2. When a statute or an instrument of writing undertakes to foresee and to provide for certain contingencies, and through mistake, or some other cause, a case remains to be provided for, it is said to be a casus omissus.For example, when a statute provides for the descent of intestates estates, and omits a case, the estate descends as it did before the statute, whenever that, case occurs, although it appear to be within the general scope and intent of the statute. 2 Binn. R. 279.
3. When there has been a casus omissus in a statute, the subject is ruled by the common law: casus omissuset oblivioni datus dispositioni juris communis relinquitur. 5 Co. 38. Vide Dig. 38, 1, 44 and 55 Id. 38, 2, 10; Code, 6, 52, 21 and 30.
CATCHING BARGAIN, contracts, fraud. An agreement made with an heir expectant, for the purchase of his expectancy, at an inadequate price.
2. In such case, the heir is, in general, entitled to relief in equity, and way have the contract rescinded upon terms of redemption. 1 Vern. 167; 2 Cox, 80; 2 Cli. Ca. 136; 2 Vern., 121; 2 Freem. 111; 2 Vent. 329; 2 Rep. in Ch. 396; 1 P.Wms. 312; 3 PWms. 290, 293, n.; 1Cro. C. C. 7; 2 Atk. 133; 2 Swanst. 147, and the cases cited in the note; 1 Fonb.140 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 66 Id. 361 1 Vern. 320, n. It has been said that all persons dealing for a reversionary interest are subject to this rule, but it may be doubted whether the course of decisions authorizes so extensive a conclusion and whether, in order to constitute a title to relief, the reversioner must not combine the character of heir. 2 Swanst. 148, n. Vide 1 Ch. Pr. 112, 113, n., 458, 826, 838, 839. A mere hard bargain is not sufficient ground for relief.
3. The French law is in unison with these principles. An agreement, which has for its object the succession of aman yet alive, is generally void.Merl. Rep. mots Succession Future. Vide also Dig. 14,6, and Lesion.
CATCHPOLE, officer. A name formerly given to a sheriff's deputy, or to a constable, or other officer whose duty it is to arrest persons. He was a sort of serjeant. The word is not now in use as an official designation. Minshew ad verb.
CAUSA MATRIMONII PRAELOCUTI, Engl. law. An obsolete writ, which lies when a woman gives land to a man in fee simple, or for a less estate, to the intent that he should marry her and he refuses upon request. New. Nat. Bre. 455.
CAUSE, civ. law. This word has two meanings. 1. It signifies the delivery of the thing, or the accomplishment of the act which is the object of a convention. Datio vel factum, quibus ab una parte conventio, impleri caepta est. 6 Toull. n. 13, 166. 2. it is the consideration or motive formakinga contract. An obligation without a cause, or with a false or unlawful cause, has no effect; but an engagement is not the less valid, though the cause be not expressed. The cause is illicit, when it is forbidden by law, when it is contra bones mores, or public order. Dig. 2, 14, 7, 4; Civ. Code of Lo. a. 1887-1894 Code Civil, liv. 3, c. 2, s. 4, art. 1131-1133; Toull. liv. 3, tit. 3, c. 2, s. 4.
CAUSE, contra torts, crim. That which produces an effect.
2. In considering a contract, an injury, or a crime, the law for many purposes looks to the immediate, and not to any remote cause. Bac. Max. Reg. 1; Bac. Ab. Damages, E; Sid. 433; 2 Taunt. 314. If the cause be lawful, the party will be justified; if unlawful, he will be condemned. The following is an example in criminal law of an immediate and remote cause. If Peter, of malice prepense, should discharge a pistol at Paul, and miss him, and then cast away the pistol and fly and, being pursued by Paul, he turn round, and kill him with a dagger, the law considers the first as the impulsive cause, and Peter would be guilty of murder. But if Peter, with his dagger drawn, had fallen down, and Paul in his haste had fallen upon it and killed himself, the cause of Paul's death would have been too remote to charge Peter as the murderer. Id.
3. In cases of insurance, the general rule is that the immediate and not the remote cause of the loss is to be considered; causa proximo non remota s pedatur. This rule may, in some cases, apply to carriers. Story, Bailm. 515.
4. For the reach of contracts, the contractor is liable for the immediate effects of such breach, but not for any remote cause, as the failure of a party who was to receive money, and did not receive it, in consequence of which he was compelled to stop payment. 1 Brock. Cir. C. Rep. 103. See Remote; and also Domat, liv. 3, t. 5, s. 2, n. 4; Toull. liv. 3, n. 286; 6 Bing. R. 716; 6 Ves. 496; Pal. Ag. by Lloyd, 10; Story, Ag. 200; 3 Sumn. R. 38.
CAUSE, pleading.The reason; the motive.
2. In a replication de injuria, for example, the plaintiff alleges that the defendant of his own wrong, and without the cause by him in his plea alleged, did, &c. The word cause here means without the matter of excuse alleged, and though in the singular number, it puts in issue all the facts in the plea, which constitute but one cause. 8 Co. 67; 11 East, 451; 1 Chit. Pl. 585.
CAUSE, practice. A Contested question before a court of justice; it is a Suit or action. Causes are civil or criminal. Wood's Civ. Law, 302; Code, 2, 416. 20
CAUSE OF ACTION. By this phrase is understood the right to bring an action, which implies, that there is some person in existence who can assert, and also a person who can lawfully be sued; for example, where the payee of a bill was dead at the time when it fell due, it was held the cause of action did not accrue, and consequently the statute of limitations did not begin to run until letters of administration had been obtained by some one. 4 Bing. 686.
2. There is no cause of action till the claimant can legally sue, therefore the statute of limitations does not run from the making of a promise, if it were to perform something at a future time, but only from the expiration of that time, though, when the obligor promises to pay on demand, or generally, without specifying day, he may be sued immediately, and then the cause of action has accrued. 5 Bar. & Cr. 860; 8 Dowl. & R. 346.When a wrong has been committed, or a breach of duty has occurred, the cause of action has accrued, though the claimant may be ignorant of it. 3 Barn. & Ald. 288, 626 5 B. & C. 259; 4 C. & P. 127.
CAUTIO PRO EXPENSIS. Security for costs or expenses.
2. This term is used among the civilians, Nov. 112, c. 2, and generally on the continent of Europe. In nearly all the countries of Europe, a foreign plaintiff, whether resident there or not, is required to give caution pro expenses; that is, security for costs. In some states this requisition is modified, and, when such plaintiff has real estate, or a commercial or manufacturing establishent within the state, he is not required to give such caution. Faelix, Droit. Intern. Prive, n. 106.
CAUTION. A term of the Roman civil law, which is used in various senses. It signifies, sometimes, security, or security promised. Generally every writing is called cautio, a caution by which any object is provided for. Vicat, ad verb. In the common law a distinction is made between a contract and the security. The contract may be good and the security void. The contract may be divisible, and the security entire and indivisible. 2 Burr, 1082. The securities or cautions judicially required of the defendant, are, judicio sisti, to attend and appear during the pendency of the suit; de rato, to confirm the acts of his attorney or proctor; judicium solvi, to pay the sum adjudged against him. Coop. Just. 647; Hall's Admiralty Practice, 12; 2 Brown, Civ. Law, 356.
CAUTION, TURATORY, Scotch law. Juratory caution is that which a suspender swears is the best he can offer in order to obtain a suspension. Where the suspender cannot, from his low or suspected circumstances, procure unquestionable security, juratory caution is admitted. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4, 3, 6.
CAUTIONER, Scotch law, contracts. One who becomes bound as caution or surety for another, for the performance of any obligation or contract contained in a deed.
CAVEAT, practice. That hebeware. Caveat is the name of a notice given by a party having an interest, to some officer, not to do an act, till the party giving the notice shall have been heard; as, a caveat to the register of wills, or judge of probate, not to permit a will to be proved, or not to grant letters of administration, until the party shall have been heard. A caveat is also frequently made to prevent a patent for inventions being issued. 1 Bouv. Inst. 71, 534; 1 Burn's Ecc. Law, 19, 263; Bac. Abr. Executors and Administrators, E 8; 3 Bl. Com. 246; Proctor's Pract. 68; 3 Bin. Rep. 314; 1 Siderf. 371 Poph. 133; Godolph. Orph. Leg. 258; 2 Brownl. 119; 2 Fonbl. Eq. book 4, pt. 2, c. 1, 3; Ayl. Parer. 145 Nelson's Ab. h. t.; Dane's Ab. c. 223, a. 15, 2, and a. 8, 22. See 2 Chit. Pr. 502, note b, for a form.
CAVEAT EMPTOR. Let the purchaser take heed; that is, let him see to it, that the title he is buying is good. This is a rule of the common law, applicable to the sale and purchase of lands and other real estate. If the purchaser pay the consideration money, he cannot, as a general rule, recover it back after the deed has been executed; except in cases of fraud, or by force of some covenant in the deed which has been broken. The purchaser,if he fears a defect of title, has it in his power to protect himself by proper covenants, and if he fails to do so, the law provides for him no remedy. Cro. Jac. 197; 1 Salk. 211 Doug. 630, 654; 1 Serg. & R. 52, 53 , 445. This rule is discussed with ability in Rawle on Covenants for Title, p. 458, et seq. c. 13, and the leading authorities collected. See also 2 Kent, Com. Lect. 39, p. 478; 2 Bl. Com. 451; 1 Stor , Eq. 212 6 Ves. 678; 10 Ves. 505; 3 Cranch, 270; 2 Day, R. 128; Sugd. Vend. 221 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 954-5.
2. This rule has been severely assailed, as being the instrument of falsehood and fraud; but it is too well established to be disregarded. Coop., Just. 611, n. See 8 Watts, 308, 309.
CAVIL. Sophism, subtlety. Cavilis a captious argument, by which a conclusion evidently false, is drawn from a principle evidently true: Ea est natura cavillationis ut ab evidenter veris, per brevissimas mutationes disputatio, ad ea quce evidentur falsa sunt perducatur. Dig. 60, 16, 177 et 233; Id. 17, 65; Id. 33, 2, 88 .
CAESARIAN OPERATION, med. juris. An incision made through the parietes of the abdomen and uterus to extract the foetus. It is said that Julius Caesar was born in this manner. When the child is cut out after the death of the mother, his coming into being in this way confers on other persons none of the rights to which they would have been entitled if he had been born, in the usual course of nature, during her life. For example, his father would not be tenant by the curtesy; for to create that title, it ought to begin by the birth of issue arive, and be consummated by the death of the wife. 8 Co. Rep. 35; 2 Bl. Com. 128 Co. Litt. 29 b.; 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 264 Coop. Med. Jur. 7; 1 Fodere, Med. Leg. 334. The rule of the civil law on this subject will be found in Dig. lib. 50, t. 16, 1. 132 et 141; lib. 5, t. 2, 1. 6; lib. 28, t. 2, 1. 12.
C2ETERORUM. The name of a kind of administration, which, after an administration has been granted for a limited purpose, is granted for the rest of the estate. 1 Will. on Ex. 357; 2 Hagg. 62; 4 Hagg. Eccl. R. 382, 386; 4 Mann. & Gr. 398. For example, where a wife had a right to devise or bequeath certain stock, and she made a will of the same, but there were accumulations that did not pass, the husband might take out letters of administration caeterorum. 4 Mann. & Grang.398;1 Curteis, 286.
TO CEDE, civil law. To assign; to transfer; as, France ceded Louisiana to the United States.
CEDENT, civil law, Scotch law. An assignor. The term is usually applied to the assignor of a chose in action. Kames on Eq. 43.
CELEBRATION, contracts. This word is usually applied, in law, to the celebration of marriage, which is the solemn act by which a man and woman take each other for husband and wife, conformably to the rules prescribed by law. Diet. de Juris. h. t.
CELL. A small room in a prison. See Dungeon.
CENOTAPH. An empty tomb. Dig. 11, 7, 42.
CENSUS. An enumeration of the inhabitants of a country.
2. For the purpose of keeping the reeresentation of the several states in congress equal, the constitution provides, that " representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states, which may be included in this Union, according to their respective numbers; which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Idians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such a manner as they shall by law direct." Art. 1, s. 2; vide 1 Story, L. U. S., 73, 722, 751; 2 Id. 1134, 1139, 1169, 1194; 3 Id. 1776; 4 Sharsw. continuation, 2179.
CENT, money. A copper coin of the United States of the value of ten mills; ten of them are equal to a dime, and one hundred, to one dollar. Each cent is required to contain one hundred and sixty-eight grains. Act of January 18th, 1837, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story',s L. U. S. 2524.
CENTIME. The name of a French money; the one hundredth part of a franc.
CENTRAL. Relating to the centre, or placed in the centre; as, the central courts of the United States, are those located in the city of Washington, whose jurisdiction extends over the whole country. These are, first, the Senate of the United States, when organized to try impeachments; secondly, the Supreme Court of the United States.
2. The government of the United States is the central government.
CENTUMVIRI, civil law. the citizens of Rome were distributed into thirty-five tribes, and three persons out of each tribe were elected judges, who were called centumviri, although they were one hundred and five in number. They were distributed into four different tribunals, but in certain causes called centumvirales causas, the judgments of the four tribunals were necessary. Vicat,.ad verb.; 3 Bl. Com. 315.
CENTURY, civil law. One hundred. The Roman people were dividedinto centu ries. In England they were divided into hundreds. Vide Hundred. Century also means one hundred years.
CEPI. A Latin word signifying I have taken. Cepicorpus, I have taken the body; cepiand B. B., I have taken the body and discharged him on bail bond; cepi corpus et est in custodia, I have taken the body and it is in custody; cepi corpus, et est languidus, I have taken the body of, &c. and he is sick. These are some of the various returns made by the sheriff to a writ of capias.
CEPI CORPUS, practice. The return which the sheriff, or otherproper officer, makes when he has arrested a defendant by virtue of a capias. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2804. See Capias. F. N. B. 26.
CEPIT. Took. This is a technical word, which cannot be supplied by any other in an indictment for larceny. The charge against the defendant must be that he took the thing stolen with a felonious design. Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 1.
CEPIT ET ABDUXIT. He took and led away. These words are applied to cases of trespass or larceny, where the defendant took a living chattel, and led it away. It is used in contradistinction to took and carried away, cepit et asportavit. (q. v.)
CEPIT ET ASPORTAVIT. Took and carried away. (q. v.)
CEPIT IN ALIO LOCO, pleadings. He took in another place. This is a plea in replevin, by which the defendant alleges, that he took the thing replevied in another place than that mentioned in the plaintiff's declaration. 1 Chit. Pl. 490, 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3569 2 Chit. Pl. 558; Rast. 554, 555; Clift. 636 Willes, R. 475; Tidd's App. 686.
CERTAINTY, UNCERTAINTY, contracts. In matters of obligation, a thing is certain, when its essence, quality, and quantity, are described, distinctly set forth, Dig. 12, 1, 6. It is uncertain, when the description is not that of one individual object, but designates only the kind. Louis. Code, art. 3522, No. 8 5 Co. 121. Certainty is the mother of repose, and therefore the law aims at certainty. 1 Dick. 245. Act of the 27th of July, 1789, ii. 2, 1 Story's Laws, 6. His compensation for his servicer, shall not exceed two thousand dollars per annum. Gordon's Dig. art. 211.
2. If a contract be so vague in its terms, that its meaning cannot be certainly collected, and the statute of frauds preclude the admissibility of parol evidence to clear up the difficulty; 5 Barn. & Cr. 588; S. C. 12 Eng. Com. L. R. 827; or parol evidence cannot supply the defect, then neither at law, nor in equity, can effect be given to it. 1 Russ. & M. 116; 1 Ch. Pr. 123.
3. It is a maxim of law, that, that is certain which may be made certain; certum est quod certum reddi potest Co. Litt. 43; for example, when a man sells the oil he has in his store at so much a gallon, although there is uncertainty as to the quantity of oil, yet inasmuch as it can be ascertained, the maxim applies, and the sale is good. Vide generaly, Story, Eq. El. 240 to 256; Mitf. Pl. by Jeremy, 41; Coop. Eq. Pl. 5; Wigr. on Disc. 77.
CERTAINTY, pleading. By certainty is understood a clear and distinct statement of the facts which constitute the cause of action, or ground of defence, so that they may be understood by the party who is to answer them, by the jury who are to ascertain the truth of the allegations, and by the court who are to give the judgment. Cowp. 682; Co. Litt. 308; 2 Bos. & Pull. 267; 13 East, R. 107; Com. Dig. Pleader, C 17; Hob. 295. Certainty has been stated by Lord Coke, Co. Litt. 303, a, to be of three sorts namely, 1. certainty to a common intent 2. to a certain intent in general; and, 3. to a certain intent in every particular. In the case of Dovaston.v. Paine Buller, J. said he remembered to have heard Mr. Justice Ashton treat these distinctions as a jargon of words without meaning; 2 H. Bl. 530. They have, however, long been made, and ought not altogether to be departed from.
2. - 1. Certainty to a common intent is simply a rule of construction. It occurs when words are used which will bear a natural sense, and also an artificial one, or one to be made out by argument or inference. Upon the ground of this rule the natural sense of words is adopted, without addition. 2 H. Bl. 530.
3. - 2. Certainty to, a certain intent in general, is a greater degree of certainty than the last, and means what upon a fair and reasonable construction may be called certain, without recurring to possible facts which do not appear; 9 Johns. R. 317; and is what is required in declarations, replications, and indictments, in the charge or accusation, and in returns to writs of mandamus. See 1 Saund. 49, n. 1; 1 Dougl. 159; 2 Johns. Cas. 339; Cowp. 682; 2 Mass. R. 363 by some of which authorities, it would seem, certainty to a common intent is sufficient in a declaration.
4. - 3. The third degree of certainty, is that which precludes all argument, inference, or presumption against the party, pleading, and is that technical accuracy which is not liable to the most subtle and scrupulous objections, so that it is not merely a rule of construction, but of addition; for where this certainty is necessary, the party must not only state the facts of his case in the most precise way, but add to them such as show that they are not to be controverted, and, as it were, anticipate the case of his adversary. Lawes on Pl. 54, 55. See 1 Chitty on Pl. 235 to 241.
CERTIFICATE, practice. A writing made in any court, and properly authenticated, to give notice to another court of anything done therein; or it is a writing by which an officer or other person bears testimony that a fact has or has not taken place.
2. There are two kinds of certificates; those required by the law, and those which are merely voluntary. Of the first kind are certificates given to an insolvent of his discharge, and those given to aliens, that they have been naturalized. Voluntary certificates are those which are not required by law, but which are given of the mere motion of the party. The former are evidence of the facts therein mentioned, while the latter are not entitled to any credit, because the factscertified, may be proved in the usual way under the solemnity of an oath or affirmation. 2 Com. Dig. 306; Ayl. Parerg. 157; Greenl. Ev. 498.
CERTIFICATE, JUDGE'S, English practice. The judge who tries the cause is authorized by several statutes in certain cases to certify, so as to decide when the party or parties shall or shall not be entitled to costs. It is of great importance in many cases, that these certificates should be obtained at the time of trial. See 3 Camp. R. 316; 5 B. & A. 796; Tidd's Pr. 879; 3 Ch. Pr. 458, 486.
2. The Lord Chancellor often requires the opinion of the judges upon a question of law; to obtain this, a case is trained, containing the admissions on both sides, and upon these the legal question is stated; the case is then submitted to the judges, who, after hearing counsel, transmit to the chancellor their opinion. This opinion, signed by the judges of the court, is called their certificate. See 3 Bl. Com. 453.
CERTIFICATE, ATTORNEY'S, Practice, English law. By statute 37 Geo. III., c. 90, s. 26, 28, attorneys are required to deliver to the commissioners of stamp duties, a paper or note-in writing, containing the name and usual place of residence of such person, and thereupon, on paying certain duties, such person is entitled to a certificate attesting the payment of such duties, which must be renewed yearly. And by the 30th section, an attorney is liable to the penalty of fifty pounds for practising without.
CERTIFICATION or CERTIFICATE OF ASSISE. A term used in the old English law, applicable to a writ granted for the reexamination or re-trial of a matter passed by assise before justices. F. N. B. 181 3 Bl. Com. 389. The summary motion for a new trial has entirely superseded the use of this writ, which was one of the means devised by the judges to prevent a resort to the remedy by attaint for a wrong verdict.
CERTIORARI, practice. To be certified of; to be informed of. This is the name of a writ issued from a superior court directed to one of inferior jurisdiction, commanding the latter to certify and return to the former, the record in the particular case. Bac. Ab. h. t.; 4 Vin. Ab. 330; Nels. Ab. h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 3 Penna. R. 24. A certiorari differs from a writ of error. There is a distinction also between a hab. corp. and a certiorari. The certiorari removes the cause; the hab. corp. only supersedes the proceedings in below. 2 Lord Ray. 1102.
2. By the common law, a supreme court has power to review the proceedings of all inferior tribunals, and to pass upon their jurisdiction and decisions on questions of law. But in general, the determination of such inferior courts on questions of fact are conclusive, and cannot be reversed on certiorari, unless some statute confers the power on such supreme court. 6 Wend. 564; 10 Pick. 358; 4 Halst. 209. When any error has occurred in the proceedings of the court below, different from the course of the common law, in any stage of the cause, either civil or criminal cases, the writ of certiorari is the only remedy to correct such error, unless some other statutory remedy has been given. 5 Binn. 27; 1 Gill & John. 196; 2 Mass. R. 245; 11 Mass. R. 466; 2 Virg. Cas. 270; 3 Halst. 123; 3 Pick. 194 4 Hayw. 100; 2 Greenl. 165; 8 Greenl. 293. A certiorari, for example, is the correct process to remove the proceedings of a court of sessions, or of county commissioners in laying out highways. 2 Binn. 250 2 Mass. 249; 7 Mass. 158; 8 Pick. 440 13 Pick. 195; 1 Overt. 131; 2 Overt. 109; 2 Pen. 1038; 8 Verm. 271 3 Ham. 383; 2 Caines, 179.
3. Sometimes the writ of certiorari is used as auxiliary process, in order to obtain a full return to some other process. When, for example, the record of an inferior court is brought before a superior court by appeal, writ of error, or other lawful mode, and there is a manifest defect, or a suggestion of diminution, a certiorari is awarded requiring a perfect transcript and all papers. 3 Dall. R. 413; 3 John. R. 23; 7 Cranch, R. 288; 2 South. R. 270, 551; 1 Blackf. R. 32; 9 Wheat. R. 526; 7 Halst. R. 85; 3 Dev. R. 117; 1 Dev. & Bat. 382; 11 Mass. 414; 2 Munf. R. 229; 2 Cowen, R. 38. Vide Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CESSET EXECUTIO. The staying of an execution.
2. When a judgment has been entered, there is sometimes, by the agreement of the parties, a cesset executio for a period of time fixed upon and when the defendant enters security for the amount of the judgment, there is a cesset executio until the time allowed by law has expired.
CESSET PROCESSUS, practice. An entry made on the record that there be a stay of the procas or proceedings.
2. This is made in cases where the plaintiff has become insolvent after action brought. 2 Dougl. 627.
CESSAVIT, Eng. law. An obsolete writ, which could formerly have been sued out when the defendant had for two years ceased or neglected to perform such service or to pay such rent as he was bound to do by his tenure, and had not upon his lands sufficient goods or cbattels to be distrained. F. N. B. 208.
CESSIO BONORUM, civil law. The relinquishment which a debtor made of his property for the benefit of his creditors.
2. This exempted the debtor from imprisonment, not, however, without leaving an ignominious stain on his reputation. Dig. 2, 4, 25; Id. 48, 19, 1; Nov. 4, c. 3, and Nov. 135. By the latter Novel, an honest unfortunate debtor might be discharged, by simply affirming that he was insolvent, without having recourse to the benefit of cession. By the cession the creditors acquired title to all the property of the insolvent debtor.
3. The cession discharged the debtor only to the extent of the property ceded, and he remained responsible for the difference. Dom. Lois Civ. liv. 4, tit. 5., s. 1, n. 2. Vide, for the law of Louisiana, Code, art. 2166, et seq. 2 M. R. 112; 2 L. R. 354; 11 L. R. 531; 5 N. S. 299; 2 L. R. 39; 2 N. S. 108; 3 M. R. 232; 4 Wheat. 122; and Abandonment.
CESSION, contracts. Yielding up; release.
2. France ceded Louisiana to the United States, by the treaty of Paris, of April 30, 1803 Spain made a cession of East and West Florida, by the treaty of February 22, 1819. Cessions have been severally made of a part of their territory, by New York, Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut) South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia. Vide Gord. Dig. art. 2236 to 2250.
CESSION, civil law. The, act by which a party assigns or transfers property to a other; an assignment.
CESSION, eccl. law. When an ecclesiastic is created bishop, or when a parson takes another benefice, without dispensation, the first benefice becomes void by a legal cession, or surrender. Cowel, h. t.
CESTUI. He. This word is frequently used in composition as, cestui que trust, cestui que vie, &c.
CESTUI QUE TRUST, A barbarous phrase, to signify the beneficiary of an estate held in trust. He for whose benefit another person is enfeoffed or seised of land or tenements, or is possessed of personal property. The cestui que trust is entitled to receive the rents and profits of the land; he may direct such conveyances, consistent with the trust, deed or will, as he shall choose, and the trustee (q. v.) is bound to execute them: he may defend his title in the name of the trustee. 1 Cruise, Dig. tit. 12, c. 4, s. 4; vide Vin. Ab. Trust, U, W, X, and Y 1 Vern. 14; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.: 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 321, note 1; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CESTUI QUE VIE. He for whose life land is holden by another person; the latter is called tenant per auter vie, or tenant for another's life. Vide Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
CESTUI QUE USE. He to whose use land is granted to another person the latter is called the terre-tenant, having in himself the legal property and possession; yet not to his own use, but to dispose of it according to the directions of the cestui que use, and to suffer him to take the profits. Vide Bac. Read. on Stat. of Uses, 303, 309, 310. 335, 349; 7 Com. Dig. 593.
CHAFEWAX , Eng, law. An officer in chancery who fits the wax for sealing, to the writs, commissions and other. instruments then made to be issued out. He is probably so called because he warms (chaufe) the wax.
CHAFFERS. Anciently signified wares and merchandise; hence the word chaffering, which is yet used for buying and selling, or beating down the price of an article. The word is used in stat. 3 Ed. III. c. 4.
CHAIRMAN. The presiding officer of a committee; as, chairman of the committee of ways and means. The person selected to preside over a popular meeting, is also called a chairman or moderator.
CHALDRON. A measure of capacity, equal to fifty-eight and two-third cubic feet nearly. Vide Measure.
CHALLENGE. This word has several significations. 1. It is an exception or objection to a juror. 2. A call by one person upon another to a single combat, which is said to be a challenge to fight.
CHALLENGE, criminal law. A request by one person to another, to fight a duel.
2. It is a high offence at common law, and indictable, as tending to a breach of the peace. It may be in writing or verbally. Vide Hawk. P. C. b. 1, c. 63, s. 3; 6 East, R. 464; 8 East, R. 581; 1 Dana, R. 524; 1 South.. R. 40; 3 Wheel. Cr. C. 245 3 Rogers' Rec. 133; 2 M'Cord, R. 334 1 Hawks. R. 487; 1 Const. R. 107. He who carries a challenge is also punishable by indictment. In most of the states, this barbarous practice is punishable by special laws.
3. In most of the civilized nations challenging another to fight. is a crime, as calculated to destroy the public peace; and those who partake in the offence are generally liable to punishment. In Spain it is punished by loss of offices, rents, and horrors received from the king, and the delinquent is incapable to hold them in future. Aso & Man. Inst. B. 2, t. 19, c. 2, 6. See, generally, 6 J. J. @larsh. 120; 1 Munf. 468; 1 Russ. on Cr. 275; 6 J. J. Marsh. 1 19; Coust. Rep. 10 7; Joy on Chal. passim.
CHALLENGE, practice. An exception made to jurors who are to pass on a trial; to a judge; or to a sheriff.
2. It will be proper here to consider, 1. the several kinds of challenges; 2. by whom they are to be made; 3. the time and manner of making them.
3. - 1. The several kinds of challenges may be divided into those which are peremptory, and those which are for cause. 1. Peremptory challenges are those 'which are made without assigning any reason, and which the court must allow. The number of these which the prisoner was allowed at common law, in all cases of felony, was thirty-five, or one under three full juries. This is regulated by the local statutes of the different states, and the number except in capital cases, has been probably reduced.
4. - 2. Challenges for cause are to the array or to the polls. 1. A challenge to the array is made on account of some defect in making the return to the venire, and is at once an objection to all the jurors in the panel. It is either a principal challenge, that is, one founded on some manifest partiality, or error committed in selecting, depositing, drawing or summoning the jurors, by not pursuing the directions of the acts of the legislature; or a challenge for favor.
5. - 2. A challenge to the polls is objection made separately to each juror as he is about to be sworn. Challenges to the polls, like those to the array, are either principal or to the favor.
6. First, principal challenges may be made on various grounds: 1st. propter defectum, on account of some personal objection, as alienage, infancy, old age, or the want of those qualifications required by legislative enactment. 2d. Propter affectum, because of some presumed or actual partiality in the juryman who is made the subject of the objection; on this ground a juror may be objected to, if he is related to either within the ninth degree, or is so connected by affinity; this is supposed to bias the juror's mind, and is only a presumption of partiality. Coxe, 446; 6 Greenl. 307; 3 Day, 491. A juror who has conscientious scruples in finding a verdict in a capital case, may be challenged. 1 Bald. 78. Much stronger is the reason for this challenge, where the juryman has expressed his wishes as to the result of the trial, or his opinion of the guilt or innocence of the defendant. 4 Harg. St. Tr. 748; Hawk. b. 2, c. 43, s. 28; Bac. Ab. Juries, E 5. And the smallest degree of interest in the matter to be tried is a decisive objection against a juror. 1 Bay, 229; 8 S. & R. 444; 2 Tyler, 401. But see 5 Mass. 90. 3d. The third ground of principal challenge to the polls, is propter delictum, or the legal incompetency of the juror on the ground of infamy. The court, when satisfied from their own examination, decide as to the principal challenges to the polls, without any further investigation and there is no occasion for the appointment of triers. Co. Litt. 157, b; Bac. Ab. Juries, E 12; 8 Watts. R. 304.
7. - Secondly. Challenges to the poll for favor may be made, when, although the juror is not so evidently partial that his supposed bias will be sufficient to authorize. a principal challenge, yet there are reasonable grounds to suspect that he will act under some undue influence or prejudice. The causes for such cballenge are manifestly very numerous, and depend, on a variety of circumstances. The fact to be ascertained is, whether the juryman is altogether indifferent as he stands unsworn, because, even unconsciously to himself, be may be swayed to one side. The line whicb separates the causes for principal challenges, and for challenge to the favor, is not very distinctly marked. That the juror has acted as godfather to the child of the prosecutor or defendant, is cause for a principal cballenge; Co. Litt. 157, a; while the fact that the party and the juryman are fellow servants, and that the latter has been entertained at the house of the former, is only cause for challenge to the favor. Co. Litt. 147; Bac. Ab. Juries, E 5. Challenges to the favor are not decided upon by the court, but are settled by triers. (q. v.)
8. - 2. The challenges may be made by the government, or those who represent it, or by the defendant, in criminal cases; or they may be made by either party in civil cases.
9. - 3. As to the time of making the challenge, it is to be observed that it is a general rule, that no challenge can be made either to the array or to the polls, until a full jury have made their appearance, because if that should be the case, the issue will remain pro defectu juratorum; and on this account, the party who intends to challenge the array, may, under such a contingency, pray a tales to complete the number, and then object to the panel. The proper time, of challenging, is between the appearance and the swearing of the jurors. The order of making challenges is to the array first, and should not that be supported, then to the polls; challenging any one juror, waives the right of challenging the array. Co. Litt. 158, a; Bac. Ab. Juries, E 11. The proper manner of making the challenge, is to state all the objections against the jurors at one time; and the party will not be allowed to make a second objection to the same juror, when the first has been over-ruled. But when a juror has been challenged on one side, and found indifferent, he may still be challenged on the other. When the juror has been cliallenged for cause, and been pronounced impartial, he may still be challenged peremptorily. 6 T. R. 531; 4 Bl. Com. 356; Hawk. b. 2, c. 46, s. 10.
10. As to the mode of making the challenge, the rule is, that a challenge to the array must be in writing; but when it is only to a single individual, the words " I challenge him " are sufficient in a civil case, or on the part of the defendant, in a criminal case when the challenge is made for the prosecution, the attorney-general says, We challenge him." 4 Harg. St. Tr. 740 Tr. per Pais, 172; and see Cro. C. 105; 2 Lil. Entr. 472; 10 Wentw. 474; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 533 to 551.
11. Interest forms the only ground at common law for challenging a judge. It is no ground of challenge that he has given an opinion in the case before. 4 Bin. 349; 2 Bin. 454. By statute, there are in some states several other grounds of challenge. See Courts of the U. S., 633 64.
12. The sheriff may be challenged for favor as well as affinity. Co. Litt. 158, a; 10 Serg. &. R. 336-7. And the challenge need not be made to the court, but only to the prothonotary. Yet the Sheriff cannot be passed by in the direction of process without cause, as he is the proper officer to execute writs, except in case of partiality. Yet if process be directed to the coroner without cause, it is not void. He cannot dispute the authority of the court, but must execute it at his peril, and the misdirection is aided by thc statutes of amendment. 11 Serg. & R. 303.
CHAMBER. A room in a house.
2. It was formerly hold that no freehold estate could be had in a chamber, but it was afterwards ruled otherwise. When a chamber belongs to one person, and the rest of the house with the land is owned by another the two estates are considered as two separate but adjoining dwelling house's. Co. Litt. 48, b; Bro. Ab. Demand, 20; 4 Mass. 575; 6 N. H. Rep. 555; 9 Pick. R. 297; vide 3 Leon. 210; 3 Watts. R. 243.
3 . By chamber is also understood the place where an assembly is held; and, by the use of a figure, the assembly itself is called a chamber.
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. A society of the principal merchants and traders of a city, who meet to promote the general trade and commerce of the place. Some of these are incorporated, as in Philadelphia.
CHAMBERS, practice. When a judge decides some interlocutory matter, which has arisen in the course of the cause, out of court, he is said to make such decision at his chambers. The most usual applications at chambers take place in relation to taking bail, and staying proceedings on process.
CHAMPART, French law. By this name was formerly understood the grant of a piece of land by the owner to another, on condition that the latter would deliver to him a portion of the crops. IS Toull. n. 182.
CHAMPERTOR, crim. law. One who makes pleas or suits, or causes them to be moved, either directly or indirectly, and sues them at his proper costs, upon condition of having a part of the gain.
CHAMPERTY, crimes. A bargain with a plaintiff or defendant, campum partire, to divide the land or other matter sued for between them, if they prevail at law, the champertor undertaking to carry on the suit at his own expense. 1 Pick. 416; 1 Ham. 132; 5 Monr. 416; 4 Litt. 117; 5 John. Ch. R. 44; 7 Port. R. 488.
2. This offence differs from maintenance, in this, that in the latter the person assisting the suitor receives no benefit, while in the former he receives one half, or other portion, of the thing sued for. See Punishment; Fine; Imprisonment; 4 Bl. Com. 135.
3. This was an offence in the civil law. Poth. Pand. lib. 3, t. 1; App. n. 1, tom. 3, p. 104; 15 Ves. 139; 7 Bligh's R. 369; S. C. 20 E. C. L. R. 165; 5 Moore & P. 193; 6 Carr. & P. 749; S. C. 25 E. C. L. R. 631; 1 -Russ. Cr. 179 Hawk. P. C. b. 1 c. 84, s. 5.
4. To maintan a defendant may be champerty. Hawk. P. C. b. 1, c. 84, s. 8 3 Ham. 541; 6 Monr. 392; 8 Yerg. 484; 8 John. 479; 1 John. Ch. R. 444;, 7 Wend. 152; 3 Cowen, 624; 6 Coaven, 90.
CHAMPION. He who fights for another, or takes his place in a quarrel; it also includes him who fights his own battles. Bract. lib. 4, t. 2, c. 12.
CHANCE, accident. As the law punishes a crime only when there is an intention to commit it, it follows that when those acts are done in a lawful business or pursuit by mere chance or accident, which would have been criminal if there had been an intention, express or implied, to commit them, there is no crime. For example, if workmen were employed in blasting rocks in a retired field, and a person not knowing of the circumstance should enter the field, and be killed by a piece of the rock, there would be no guilt in the workmen. 1 East, P. C. 262 Poster, 262; 1 Hale's P. C. 472; 4 Bl. Com. 192. Vide Accident.
CHANCE-MEDLEY, criminal law. A sudden affray. This word is sometimes applied to any kind of homicide by misadventure, but in strictness it is applicable to such killing only as happens se defendendo. (q. v.) 4 Bl. Com. 184.
CHANCELLOR. An officer appointed to preside over a court of chancery, invested with various powers in the several states.
2. The office of chancellor is of Roman origin. He appears, at first, to have been a chief scribe or secretary, but he was afterwards invested with judicial power, and had superintendence over the other officers of the empire. From the Romans, the title and office passed to the church, and therefore every bishop of the catholic church has, to this day, his chancellor, the principal judge of his consistory. When the modern kingdoms of Europe were established upon the ruins of the empire, almost every state preserved its chancellor, with different jurisdictions and dignities, according to their different constitutions. In all he seems to have had a supervision of all charters, letters, and such other public instruments of the crown, as were authenticated in the most solemn manner; and when seals came into use, he had the custody of the public seal.
3. An officer bearing this title is to be found in most countries of Europe, and is generally invested with extensive authority. The title and office of chancellor came to us from England. Many of our state constitutions provide for the appointment of this officer, who is by them, and by the law of the several states, invested with power as they provide. Vide Encyclopedie, b. t.; Encycl.. Amer. h. t.; Dict. de Jur. h. t.; Merl. Rep. h. t.; 4 Vin. Ab. 374; Blake's Ch. Index, h. t.; Woodes. Lect. 95.
CHANCERY. The name of a court exercising jurisdiction at law, but mainly in equity.
2. It is not easy to determine how courts of equity originally obtained the jurisdiction they now exercise. Their authority, and the extent of it, have been subjects of much question, but time has firmly established them; and the limits of their jurisdiction seem to be in a great degree fixed and ascertained. 1 Story on Eq. ch. 2; Mitf. Pl. Introd.; Coop. Eq. Pl. Introd. See also Butler's Reminiscences, 38, 40; 3 Bl. Com. 435; 2 Bin. 135; 4 Bin. 50; 6 Bin. 162; 2 Serg. & R. 356; 9 Serg. & R. 315; for the necessity, origin and use of courts of chancery.
3. The judge of the court of chancery, often called a court of equity, bears the title of chancellor. The equity jurisdiction, in England, is vested, principally, in the high court of chancery. This court is distinct from courts of law. " American courts of equity are, in some instances, distinct from those of law, in others, the same tribunals exercise the jurisdiction both of courts of law and equity, though their forms of proceeding are different in their two capacities. The supreme court of the United States, and the circuit courts, are invested with general equity powers, and act either as court's of law or equity, according to the form of the process and the subject of adjudication. In some of the states, as New York, Virginia, and South Carolina, the equity court is a distinct tribunal, having its appropriate judge, or chancellor, and officers. In most of the states, the two jurisdictions centre in the same judicial officers, as in the courts of the United States; and the extent of equity jurisdiction and proceedings is very various in the different states, being very ample in Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina, and more restricted in Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Pennsylvania. But the salutary influence of these powers on the judicial administration generally, by the adaptation of cbancery forms and modes of proceeding to many cases in which a court of law affords but an imperfect remedy, or no remedy at all, is producing a gradual extension of them in those states where they have been, heretofore, very limited."
4. The jurisdiction of a court of equity differs essentially from that of a court of law. The remedies for wrongs, or for the enforcement of rights, may be distinguished into two classes those which are administered in courts of law, and those which are administered in courts of equity. The rights secured by the former are called legal; those secured by the latter are called equitable. The former are said to be rights and remedies at common law, because recognized and enforced in courts of common law. The latter are said to be rights and remedies in equity, because they are administered in courts of equity or chancery, or by proceedings in other courts analogous to those in courts of equity or chancery. Now, in England and America, courts of common law proceed by certain prescribed forms, and give a general judgment for or against the defendant. They entertain jurisdiction only in certain actions, and give remedies according to the particular exigency of such actions. But there are many cases in which a simple judgment for either party, without qualifications and conditions, and particular arrangements, will not. do entire justice, ex aequo et bono, to either party. Some modification of the rights of both parties is required; some restraints on one side or the other; and some peculiar adjustments, either present or future, temporary or perpetual. Now, in all these cases, courts of common law have no methods of proceeding, which can accomplish such objects. Their forms of actions and judgment are not adapted to them. The proper remedy cannot be found, or cannot be administered to the full extent of the relative rights of all parties. Such prescribed forms of actions are not confined to our law. They were known in the civil law; and the party could apply them only to their original purposes. In other cases, he had a special remedy. In such cases, where the courts of common law cannot grant the proper remedy or relief, the law of England and of the United States (in those states where equity is administered) authorizes an application to the courts of equity or chancery, which are not confined or limited in their modes of relief by such narrow regulations, but which grant relief to all parties, in cases where they have rights, ex aequo et bono, and modify and fashion that relief according to circumstances. The most general description of a court of equity is, that it has jurisdiction in cases where a plain, adequate and complete remedy cannot be had at law that is, in common law courts. The remedy must be plain; for, if it be doubtful and obscure at law, equity will assert a jurisdiction. So it must be adequate at law; for, if it fall short of what the party is entitled to, that founds a jurisdiction in equity. And it must be complete; that is, it must attain its full end at law it must reach the whole mischief and secure the whole right of the party, now and for the future otherwise equity will interpose, and give relief. The jurisdiction of a court of equity is sometimes concurrent with that of courts of, law and sometimes it is exclusive. It exercises concurrent jurisdiction in cases where the rights are purely of a legal nature, but where other and more efficient aid is required than a court of law can afford, to meet the difficulties of the case, and ensure full redress. In some of these cases courts of law formerly refused all redress but now will grant it. But the jurisdiction having been once justly acquired at a time when there was no such redress at law, it is not now relinquished. The most common exercise of concurrent jurisdiction is in cases of account, accident, dower, fraud, mistake, partnership, and partition. The remedy is here often more complete and effectual than it can be at law. In many cases falling under these heads, and especially in some cases of fraud, mistake and accident, courts of law cannot and do not afford any redress; in others they do, but not always in so perfect a manner. A court of equity also is assistant to the jurisdiction of courts of law, in many cases, where the latter have no like authority. It will remove legal impediments to the fair decisiou of a question depending at law. It will prevent a party from improperly setting up, at a trial, some title or claim, which would be inequitable. It will compel him to discover, on his own oath, facts which he knows are material to the rights of the other party, but which a court of law cannot compel the party to discover. It will perpetuate the testmony of witnesses to rights and titles, which are in danger of being lost, before the, matter can be tried. It will provide for the safety of property in dispute pending litigation. It will counteract and control, or set aside, fraudulent judgments. It will exercise, in many cases, an exclusive jurisdiction. This it does in all cases of morely equitable rights, that is, such rights as are not recognized in courts of law. Most cases of trust and confidence fall under this head. Its exclusive jurisdiction is also extensively exercised in granting special relief beyond the reach of the common law. It will grant injunctions to prevent waste, or irreparable injury, or to secure a settled right, or to prevent vexatious litigations, or to compel the restitution of title deeds; it will appoint receivers of property, where it is in danger of misapplication it will compel the surrender of securities improperly obtained; it will prohibit a party from leaving the country in order to avoid a suit it will restrain any undue exercise of a legal right, against conscience and equity; it will decree a specific performance of contracts respecting real estates; it will, in many cases, supply the imperfect execution of instruments, and reform and alter them according to the real intention of the parties; it will grant relief in cases of lost deeds or securities; and, in all cases in which its interference is asked, its general rule is, that he who asks equity must do equity. If a party, therefore, should ask to have a bond for a usurious debt given up, equity could not decree it, unless he could bring into court the money honestly due without usury. This is a very general and imperfect outline of the jurisdiction of a court of equity; in respect to which it has been justly remarked, that, in matters within its exclusive jurisdiction, where substantial justice entitles the party to relief, but the positive law is silent, it is impossible to define the boundaries of that jurisdiction, or to enumerate, with precision, its various principles." Ency. Am. art. Equity. Vide Fonb. Eq.; Story on Eq.; Madd. Ch. Pr.; 10 Amer. Jur. 227; Coop. Eq. Pl.; Redesd. Pl.; Newl. Cb. Practice; Beame's Pl. Eq.; Jeremy on Eq.; Encycl. Amer. article Equity, Court.
CHANGE. The exchange of money for money. The giving, for example, dollars for eagles, dimes for dollars, cents for dimes. This is a contract which always takes place in the same place. By change is also understood small money. Poth. Contr. de Change, n. 1.
CHANGE TICKET. The name given in Arkansas to a species of promissory notes issued for the purpose of making change in small transactions. Ark. Rev. Stat. cb. 24.
CHAPLAIN. A clergyman appointed to say prayers and perform divine service. Each house of congress usually appoints it own cbaplain.
CHAPMAN. One whose business is to buy and sell goods or other things. 2 Bl. Com. 476.
CHAPTER, eccl. law. A congregation of clergymen. Such an assembly is termed capitulum, which signifies a little head it being a kind of head, not only to govern the diocese in the vacation of the bishopric, but also for other purposes. Co. Litt. 103.
CHARACTER, evidence. The opinion generally entertained of a person derived from the common re 'port of the people who are acquainted with him. 3 Serg. & R. 336; 3 Mass. 192; 3 Esp. C. 236.
2. There are three classes of cases on which the moral character and conduct of a person in society may be used in proof before a jury, each resting upon particular and distinct grounds. Such evidence is admissible, 1st. To afford a presumption that a particular party has not been guilty of a criminal act. 2d. To affect the damages in particular cases, where their amount depends on the character and conduct of any individual; and, 3d. To impeach or confirm the veracity of a witness.
3. - 1. Where the guilt of an accused party is doubtful, and the character of the supposed agent is involved in the question, a presumption of innocence arises from his former conduct in society, as evidenced by his general character, since it is not probable that a person of known probity and humanity, would commit a dislionest or outrageous act in the particular instance. Such presumptions, however, are so remote from fact, and it is frequently so difficult to estimate a person's real character, that they20are entitled to little-weight, except in doubtful cases. Since the law considers a presumption of this nature to be admissible, it is in principle admissible 'Whenever a reasonable presumption arises from it, as to the fact in question; in practice it is admitted whenever the character of the party is involved in the issue. See 2 St. Tr. 1038 1 Coxes Rep. 424; 5 Serg. & R. 352 3 Bibb, R. 195; 2 Bibb, R. 286; 5 Day, R. 260; 5 Esp. C. 13; 3 Camp. C. 519; 1 Camp. C. 460; Str. R. 925. Tha. Cr. Cas. 230; 5 Port. 382.
4. - 2. In some instances evidence in disparagement of character is admissible, not in order to prove or disprove the commission of a particular fact, but with a view to damages. In actions for criminal conversation with the plaintiff's wife, evidence may be given of the wife's general bad character, for want of chastity, and even of particular acts of adultery committed by her, previous to her intercourse with the defendant. B. N. P. 27, 296; 12 Mod. 232; 3 Esp. C. 236. See 5 Munf. 10. In actions for slander and libel, when the defendant has not justified, evidence of the plaintiff's bad character has also been admitted. 3 Camp. C. 251; 1 M. & S. 284; 2 Esp. C. 720; 2 Nott & M'Cord, 511; 1 Nott & M'Cord, 268; and see 11 Johns. R. 38; 1 Root, R. 449; 1 Johns. R. 46; 6 Penna. St. Rep. 170. The ground of admitting such evidence is, that a person of disparaged fame is not entitled to the same measure of damages with one whose character is uublemished. When, however, the defendant justifies the slander, it seems to be doubtful whether the evidence of reports as to the conduct and character of the plaintiff can be received. See 1 M. & S. 286, n (a) 3 Mass. R. 553 1 Pick. R. 19. When evidence is admitted touching the general character of a party, it is manifest that it is to be confined to matters in reference to the nature of the, charge against him. 2 Wend. 352.
5. - 3. The party against whom a witness is called, may disprove the fact& stated by him, or may examine other witnesses as to his general character; but they will not be allowed to speak of particular facts or parts of his conduct. B. N. P. 296. For example, evidence of the general character of a prosecutrix for a rape, may be given, as that she was a street walker; but evidence of specific acts of criminality cannot be admitted. 3 Carr. & P. 589. The regular mode is to inquire whether the witness under examination has the means of knowing the former witness general character, and whether from such knowledge he would believe, him on his oath. 4 St. Tr. 693; 4 Esp. C. 102. In answer to such evidence against character, the other party may cross-examine the witness as to his means of knowledge, and the grounds of his opinion; or he may attack such witness general character, and by fresh evidence support the character of his own. 2 Stark. C. 151; Id. 241; St. Ev. pt. 4, 1753 to 1758; 1 Phil. Ev. 229. A party cannot give evidence to confirm the good character of a witness, unless his general character has been impugned by his antagonist. 9 Watts, R. 124. See, in general, as to character, Phil. Ev. Index, tit. Character; Stark. Ev. pl. 4, 364 Swift's Ev. 140 to 144 5 Ohio R. 227; Greenl. Ev. 54; 3 Hill, R. 178 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CHARGE, practice. The opinion expressed by the court to the jury, on the law arising out of a case before them.
2. It should contain a clear and explicit exposition of the law, when the points of the law in dispute arise out of the facts proved on the trial of the cause; 10 Pet. 657; but the court ought at no time to undertake to decide the facts, for these are to be decided by the jury. 4 Rawle's R. 195; 2 Penna. R. 27; 4 Rawle's R. 356 Id. 100; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 464; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 515; 8 Serg. & Rawle, 150. See 3 Cranch, 298; 6 Pet. 622 1 Gall. R. 53; 5 Cranch, 187; 2 Pet. 625; 9 Pet. 541.
CHARGE, contracts. An obligation entered into by the owner of an estate which makes the estate responsible for its performance. Vide 2 Ball & Beatty, 223; 8 Com. Dig. 306, Appendix, h. t. Any obligation binding upon him who enters into it, which may be removed or taken away by a discharge. T. de la Ley, h. t.
2. That particular kind of commission which one undertakes to perform for another, in keeping the custody of his goods, is called a charge.
CHARGE. wills, devises. An obligation which a testator imposes on his devisee; as, if the testator give Peter, Blackacre, and direct that he shall pay to John during his life an annuity of one hundred dollars, which shall be a charge" on said land; or if a legacy be and directed to be paid out of the real property. 1 Rop. Leg. 446. Vide 4 Vin. Ab. 449; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 309; 2 Id. 31; 1 Vern. 45, 411; 1 Swanst. 28; 4 East, R. 501; 4 Ves. jr. 815; Domat, Loix Civ. liv. 3, t. 1, s. 8, n.
CHARGE' DES AFFAIRES or CHARGE' D'AFFAIRES, internationat law. These phrases, the first of which is used in the acts of congress, are synonymous.
2. The officer who bear; this title is a diplomatic representative or minister of an inferior grade, to whose care are confided the affairs of his nation. He has not the title of minister, and is generally introduced and admitted through a verbal presentation of the minister, at his departure, or through letters of credence addressed to the minister of state of the court to which they are sent. He has the essential rights of a minister. Mart. Law of Nat. 206; 1 Kent, Com. 39, n.; 4 Dall. 321.
3. The president is authorized to allow to any, charge des affaires a sum not greater than at the rate of four thousand five hundred dollars per annum, as a compensation for his personal services and expenses. Act of May 1, 1810, 2 Story's Laws U. S. 1171.
CHARGER, Scotch law. He in whose favor a decree suspended is pronounced; vet a decree may be suspended before a charge is given on it. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4, 3, 7.
CHARGES. The term charges signifies the expenses which have been incurred in relation either to a transaction or to a suit; as the charges incurred for his benefit must be paid by a hirer; the defendant must pay the charges of a suit. The term charges, in relation to actions, includes something more than the costs, technically called.
CHARITY. In its widest sense it denotes all the good affections which men ought to bear towards each other; 1 Epistle to Cor. c. xiii.; in its most restricted and usual sense, it signifies relief to the poor. This species of charity is a mere moral duty, which cannot be enforced by the law. Kames on Eq. 17. But it is not employed in either of these senses in law; its signification is derived chiefly from the statute of 43 Eliz. c. 4. Those purposes are considered charitable which are enumerated in that act, or which by analogy are deemed within its spirit and intendment. 9 Ves. 405; 10 Ves, 541; 2 Vern. 387; Shelf. Mortm. 59. Lord Chancellor Camden describes a charity to be a gift to a general public use, which extends to the rich as well as to the poor. Ambl. 651; Boyle on Charities, 51; 2 Ves. sen. 52; Ambl. 713; 2 Ves. jr. 272; 6 Ves. 404; 3 Rawle, 170; 1 Penna. R. 49 2 Dana, 170; 2 Pet. 584; 3 Pet. 99, 498 9 Cow. 481; 1 Hawks, 96; 12 Mass. 537; 17 S. & R. 88; 7 Verm. 241; 5 Harr. & John. 392; 6 Harr. & John. 1; 9 Pet. 566; 6 Pet. 435; 9 C-ranch, 331; 4 Wheat. 1; 9 Wend. 394; 2 N. H. Rep. 21, 510; 9 Cow. 437; 7 John. Cb. R. 292; 3 Leigh. 450; 1 Dev. Eq. Rep. 276; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3976, et seq.
CHARRE OF LEAD, Eng. law, commerce. A quantity of lead consisting of thirty pigs, each pig containing six stones wanting two pounds, and every stone being twelve pounds. Jacob.
CHARTA. An ancient word which signified not only a charter or deed in writing, but any signal or token by which an estate was held.
CHARTA CHYROGRAPIHATA VEL COMMUNIS. Signifies an indenture. Shep. Touch. 50; Beames, Glanv. 197-8; Fleta, lib. 3, c. 14, 3. It was so called, because each party had a part.
CHARTA DE UNA PARTE. A deed of one part; a deed poll.
2. Formerly, this phrase was used to distinguish, a deed poll, which is an agreement made by one party only, that is, only one of the parties does any act which is binding upon him, from a deed inter partes. Co. Litt. 229. Vide Deed poll; Indenture; Inter partes.
CHARTER. A grant made by the sovereign either to the whole people or to a portion of them, securing to them the enjoyment of certain rights. Of the former kind is the late charter of France, which extended to the whole country; the charters which were granted to the different American colonies by the British government were charters of the latter species. 1 Story, Const. L. 161; 1 Bl. Com. 108 Encycl. Amer. Charte Constitutionelle.
2. A charter differs from a CONSTITUTION in this, that the former is granted by the sovereign, while the latter is established by the people themselves: both are the fundamental law of the land.
3. This term is susceptible of another signification. During the middle ages almost every document was called carta, charta, or chartula. In this sense the term is nearly synonymous with deed. Co. Litt. 6; 1 Co. 1; Moor. Cas. 687.
4. The act of the legislature creating a corporation, is called its charter. Vide 3 Bro. Civ. and Adm. Law, 188; Dane's Ab. h. t.
CHARTER, mar. contr. An agreement by which a vessel is hired by the owner to another; as A B chartered the ship Benjamin Franklin to C D.
CHARTER-LAND, Eng. law. Land formerly held by deed under certain rents and free services, and it differed in nothing from free socage land. It was also called bookland. 2 Bl. Com. 90.
CHARTER-PARTY, contracts. A contract of affreightment in writing, by which the owner of a ship or other vessel lets the whole, or a part of her, to a merchant or other person for the conveyance of goods, on a particular voyage, in consideration of the payment of freight. This term is derived from the fact, that the contract which bears this name, was formerly written on a card, and afterwards the card was cut into two parts from top to bottom, and one part was delivered to each of the parties, which was produced when required, and by this means counterfeits were prevented.
2. This instrument ought to contain, 1. the name and tonnage of the vessel; 2. the name of the captain; 3. the names of the letter to freight and the freighter; 4. the place and time agreed upon for the loading and discharge; 5. the price of the freight; 6. the demurrage or indemnity in case of delay; 7. such other conditions as the parties may agree upon. Abbott on Ship. pt. 3, c. 1, s. 1 to 6; Poth. h. t. n. 4; Pardessus, Dr. Coin. pt. 4, t. 4, c. 1, n. 708.
3. When a ship is chartered, this instrument serves to authenticate many of the facts on which the proof of her neutrality must rest, and should therefore be always found on board chartered ships. 1 Marsh. Ins. 407 . When the goods of several merchants unconnected with each other, are laden on board without may particular contract of affreightment with any individual for the entire ship; the vessel is called a general ship, (q. v.) because open to all merchauts. but where one Or more merchants contract for the ship exclusively, it is said to be a chartered ship. 3 Kent, Com. 158. Abbott, Ship. pt. 2, c. 2, S. 1 Harr. Dig. Ship and Shipping, iv.
CHARTERED SHIP. When a ship is hired or freighted by one or more merchants for a particular voyage or on time, it is called a chartered ship. It is freighted by a special contract of affreightment, executed between the owners, ship's husband, or master on the one hand, and the merchants on the other. It differs, from a general ship. (q. v.)
CHARTIS REDDENDIS, Eng. law. An ancient writ, now obsolete, which lays against one who had charters of feoffment entrusted to his keeping, and who refused to deliver them. Reg. Orig. 159. CHASE, Eng. law. The liberty of keeping beasts of chase, or royal gaine, on another man's ground as well as on one's own ground, protected even from the owner of the land, with a power of hunting them thereon. It differs from a park, because it may be on another's ground, and because it is not enclosed. 2 Bl. Com. 38.
CHASE, property. The act of acquiring possession of animals ferae naturae by force, cunning or address. The hunter acquires a right to such animals by occupancy, and they become his property. 4 Toull. n. 7. No man has a right to enter on the lands of another for the purpose of hunting, without his consent. Vide 14 East, R. 249 Poth. Tr. du Dr. de Propriete, part 1, c. 2, art. 2.
CHASTITY. That virtue which prevents the unlawful commerce of the sexes.
2. A woman may defend her chastity by killing her assailant. See Self-defence. And even the solicitation of her chastity is indictable in some of the states; 7 Conn. 267; though in England, and perhaps elsewhere, such act is not indictable. 2 Chit. Pr. 478. Words charging a woman with a violation of chastity are actionable in themselves. 2 Conn. 707.
CHATTELS, property. A term which includes all hinds of property, except the freehold or things which are parcel of it. It is a more extensive term than goods or effects. Debtors taken in execution, captives, apprentices, are accounted chattels. Godol. Orph. Leg. part 3, chap. 6, 1.
2. Chattels are personal or real. Personal, are such as belong immediately to the person of a man; chattels real, are such as either appertain not immediately to the person, but to something by way of dependency, as a box with the title deeds of lands; or such as are issuing out of some real estate, as a lease of lands, or term of years, which pass like personally to the executor of the owner. Co. Litt. 118; 1 Chit. Pr. 90; 8 Vin. Ab. 296; 11 Vin. Ab. 166; 14 Vin. Ab. 109; Bac. Ab. Baron, &c. C 2; 2 Kent, Com. 278; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Com. Dig. Biens, A; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CHEAT, criminal law, torts. A cheat is a deceitful practice, of a public nature, in defrauding another of a known right, by some artful device, contrary to the plain rules of common honesty. 1 Hawk. 343.
2. To constitute a cheat, the offence must be, lst. of a public nature for every species of fraud and dishonesty in transactions between individuals is not the subject-matter of a criminal charge at common law; it must be such as is calculated to defraud numbers, and to deceive the people in general. 2 East, P. C. 816; 7 John. R. 201; 14 John. R. 371; 1 Greenl. R. 387; 6 .Mass. R. 72; 9 Cowen, R. 588; 9 Wend. R. 187; 1 Yerg. R. 76; 1 Mass. 137. 2. The cheating must be done by false weights, false measures, false tokens, or the like, calculated to deceive numbers. 2 Burr, 1125; 1 W. Bl. R. 273; Holt, R. 354.
3. That the object of the defendant in defrauding the prosecutor was successful. If unsuccessful, it is a mere attempt. (q. v.) 2 Mass. 139. When two or more enter into an agreement to cheat, the offence is a conspiracy. (q. v.) To call a man a cheat is slanderous. Hetl. 167; 1 Roll's Ab. 53; 2 Lev. 62. Vide Illiterate; Token.
CHECK, contracts. A written order or request, addressed to a bank or persons carrying on the banking business, and drawn upon them by a party having money in their hands, requesting them to pay on presentment to a person therein named or to bearer, a named sum of money.
2. It is said that checks are uniformly payable to bearer Chit. on Bills, 411; but that is not so in practice in the United States. they are generally payable to bearer, but sometimes they are payable to order.
3. Cheeks are negotiable instruments, as bills of exchange; though, strictly speaking, they are due before payment has been demanded, i$n which respect they differ from promissory notes and bills of exchange payable on a particular day. 7 T. R. 430.
4. The differences between a common check and a bill of exchange, are, First, that a check may be taken after it is overdue, and still the holder is not subject to the equities wbich may exist between the drawer and the party 'from whom he receives it; in the case of bills of exchange, the holder is subject to such equity. 3 John. Cas. 5, 9; 9 B. & Cr. 388. Secondly, the drawer of a bill of exchange is liable only on the condition that it be presented in due time, and, if it be dishonored, that he has had notice; but such is not the case with a check, no delay will excuse the drawer of it, unless he has suffered some loss or injury on that account, and then only pro tanto. 3 Kent, Com. 104 n. 5th ed.; 8 John. Cas. 2; Story, Prom. Notes, 492.
5. There is a kind of check known by the name of memorandum cheeks; these are given in general with an understanding that they are not to be presented at the bank on which they are drawn for payment; and, as between the parties, they have no other effect than an IOU, or common due bill; but third persons who become the holders of them, for a valuable consideration, without notice, have all the rights which the holders of ordinary cheeks can lawfully claim. Story, Prom. Notes, 499.
6. Giving a creditor a cheek on a bank does not constitute payment of a debt. 1 Hall, 56, 78; 7 S. & R. 116; 2 Pick. 204; 4 John. 296. See 3 Rand. 481. But a tender was held good when made by a check contained in a letter, requesting a receipt in return, which the plaintiff sent back, demanding a larger sum, without objecting to the nature of the tender. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2436.
7. A cheek delivered by a testator in his lifetime to a person as a gift, and not presented till after his death, was considered as a part of his will, and allowed to be proved as such. 3 Curt. Ecc. R. 650. Vide, generally,4 John. R. 304; 7 John. R. 26; 2 Ves. jr. 111; Yelv. 4, b, note; 7 Serg. & Rawle, 116; 3 John. Cas. 5, 259; 6 Wend. R. 445; 2 N. & M. 251; 1 Blackf. R. 104; 1 Litt. R. 194; 2 Litt. R. 299; 6 Cowen, R. 484; 4 Har. & J. 276; 13 Wend. R. 133; 10 Wend. R. 304; 7 Har. & J. 381; 1 Hall, R. 78; 15 Mass. R. 74; 4 Yerg. R. 210; 9 S. & R. 125; 2 Story, R. 502; 4 Whart. R. 252.
CHECK BOOK, commerce. One kept by persons who have accounts in bank, in which are printed blank forms of cheeks, or orders upon the bank to pay money.
CHEMISTRY med. jur. The science which teaches the nature and property of all bodies by their analysis and combination. In considering cases of poison, the lawyer will find a knowledge of chemistry, even very limited in de ree, to be greatly useful. 2 Cbit. Pr. 42, n.
CHEVISANCE, contracts, torts. This is a French word, which signifies in that language, accord, agreement, compact. In the English statutes it is used to denote a bargain or contract in general. In a legal sense it is taken for an unlawful bargain or contract.
CHIEF, principal. One who is put above the rest; as, chief magistrate chief justice : it also signifies the best of a number of things. It is frequently used in composition.
CHIEF CLERK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE. This officer is appointed by the secretary of state; his duties are to attend to the business of the ofFice under the superintendence of the secretary; and when the secretary shall be removed from office, by the president, or in any other case of vacancy, shall, during such vacancy, have the charge and custody of all records, books and papers appertaining to such department,
CHIEF JUSTICE, officer. The president of a supreme court; as the chief justice of the United States, the chief justice of Pennsylvania, and the -like. Vide 15 Vin. Ab. 3.
CHIEF JUSTICIARY. An officer among the English, established soon after the conquest.
2. He had judicial power, and sat as a judge in the Curia Regis. (q. v.) In the absence of the king, he governed the kingdom. In the course of time, the power and distinction of this officer gradually diminished, until the reign of Henry III, when the office was abolished.
CHILD, CHILDREN, domestic relations. A child is the son or daughter in relation to the father or mother.
2. We will here consider the law, in general terms, as it relates to the condition, duties, and rights of children; and, afterwards, the extent which has been given to the word child or children by dispositions in wills and testaments.
3. - 1. Children born in lawful wedlock, or within a competent time afterwards, are presumed to be the issue of the father, and follow his condition; thoseborn out of lawful wedlock, follow the condition of the mother. The father is bound to maintain his children and to educate them, and to protect them from injuries. Childrenare, on their part, bound to maintain their fathers and mothers, when in need, and they are of ability so to do. Poth. Du Marriage, n. 384, 389. The father in general is entitled to the custody of minor children, but, under certain circumstances, the mother will be entitled to them, when the father and mother have separated. 5 Binn. 520. Children are liable to the reasonable correction of their parents. Vide Correction
4. - 2 The term children does not ordinarily and properly speaking comprehend grandchildren, or issue generally; yet sometimes that meaning is, affixed to it, in cases of necessity; 6 Co. 16; and it has been held to signify the same as issue, in cases where the testator, by using the terms children and issue indiscriminately, showed his intention to use the former term in the sense of issue, so as to entitle grandchildren, & c., to take under it. 1 Ves. sen. 196; Ambl. 555; 3 Ves. 258; Ambl. 661; 3 Ves. & Bea. 69. When legally construed, the term children is confined to legitimate children. 7 Ves. 458. The civil code of Louisiana, art. 2522, n. 14, enacts, that "under the, name of children are comprehended, not only children of the first degree, but the grandchildren, great-grand-children, and all other descendants in the direct line."
5. Children are divided into legitimate children, or those born in lawful wedlock; and natural or illegitimate children, who are born bastards. (q. v.) Vide Natural Children. Illegitimate children are incestuous bastards, or those which are not incestuous.
6. Posthumous children are those who are born after the death of their fathers. Domat, Lois Civ. liv. prel. t. 2, s. 1, 7 L. 3, 1, ff de inj. rupt.
7. In Pennsylvania, the will of their fathers, in, which no provision is made for them, is revoked, as far as regards them, by operation of law. 3 Binn. R. 498. See, as to the law of Virginia on this subject, 3 Munf. 20, and article In ventre sa mere. Vide, generally, 8 Vin. Ab. 318; 8 Com. Dig. 470; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; 2 Kent, Com. 172; 4 Kent, Com. 408, 9; 1 Rop. on Leg. 45 to 76; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 442 Id. 158; Natural children.
CHILDISHNESS. Weakness of intellect, such as that of a child.
2. When the childishness is so great that a man has lost his memory, or is incapable to plan a proper disposition of his property, he is unable to make a will. Swinb. part. 11, 1; 6 Co. 23. See 9 Conn. 102; 9 Phil. R. 57.
CHIMIN. This is a corruption of the French word chemin, a highway. It is used by old writers. Com. Dig. Chimin.
CHINESE INTEREST. Interest for money charged in China. In a case where a note was given in China, payable eighteen months after date, without, any stipulation respecting interest, the court allowed the Chinese interest of one per cent. per month, from the expiration of the eighteen months. 2 Watts & Serg. 227, 264.
CHIROGRAPH, conveyancing. Signifies a deed or public instrument in writing. Chirographs were anciently attested by the subscription and crosses of witnesses; afterwards, to prevent frauds and concealments, deeds of mutual covenant were made in a script and rescript, or in a part and counterpart; and in the middle, between the two copies, they drew the capital letters of the alphabet, and then tallied, or cut asunder in an indented manner, the sheet or skin of parchment, oneof which parts being delivered to each of the parties, were proved authentic by matching with and answering to one another. Deeds thus made were denominated syngrapha, by the canonists, because that word, instead of the letters of the alphabet, or the word chirographum, was used. 2 Bl. Com. 296. This method of preventing counterfeiting, or of detecting counterfeits, is now used by having some ornament or some word engraved or printed at one end of certificates of stocks, checks, and a variety of other instruments, which are bound up in a book, and after they are executed, are cut asunder through such ornament or word.
2. Chirograph is also the last part of, a fine of land, commonly called the foot of the fine. It is an instrument of writing beginning with these. words: " This is the final agreement," &c. It includes the whole matter, reciting the parties, day, year and place, and before Whom the fine was acknowledged and levied. Cruise, Dig. tit. 35, c. 2, s. 52. Vide Chambers' Diet. h. t.; Encyclopaedia Americana, Charter; Encyclopedie de D'Alembert, h. t.; Pothier, Pand. tom. xxii. p. 73.
CHIROGRAPHER. A word derived from the Greek, which signifies "a writing with a man's hand." A chirographer is an officer of the English court of C. P.who engrosses the fines, and delivers the indentures of them to the parties, &c.
CHIVALRY, ancient Eng. law. This word is derived from the French chevelier, a horseman. It is. the name of a tenure of land by knight's service. Chivalry was of two kinds: the first; which was regal, or held only of the king; or common, which was held of a common person. Co. Litt. h. t.
CHOICE. Preference either of a person or thing, to one of several other persons or things. Election. (q. v.)
CHOSE, property. This is a French word, signifying thing. In law, it is applied to personal property; as choses in possession, are such personal things of which one has possession; choses in action, are such as the owner has not the possession, but merely a right of action for their possession. 2 Bl. Com. 889, 397; 1 Chit. Pract. 99; 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 26, 59. Chitty defines choses in actions to be rights to receive or recover a debt, or money, or damages for breach of contract, or for a tort connected with contract, but which cannot be enforced without action, and therefore termed choses, or things in action. Com. Dig. Biens; Harr. Dig. Chose in ActionChitty's Eq. Dig. b. t. Vide 1 Ch. Pr. 140.
2. It is one of the qualities of a chose in action, that, at common law, it is not assignable. 2 John. 1; 15 Mass. 388; 1 Crancb, 367. But bills of exchange and promissory notes, though choses in action, may be assigned by indorsement, when payable to order, or by delivery when payable to bearer. See Bills of Exchange.
3. Bonds are assignable in Pennsylvania, and perhaps some other states, by virtue of statutory provisions.Inequity, however, all choses in action are assignable and the assignee has an equitable right to enforce the fulfilment of the obligation in the name of the assignor. 4 Mass. 511; 3 Day. 364; 1 Wheat. 236; 6 Pick. 316 9 ow. 34; 10 Mass. 316; 11 Mass. 157, n. 9 S. & R. 2441; 3 Yeates, 327; 1 Binn. 429; 5 Stew. & Port. 60; 4 Rand. 266; 7 Conn. 399; 2 Green, 510; Harp. 17; Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
4. Rights arising ex delicto are not assignable either at law or in equity.
CHRISTIANITY. The religion established by Jesus Christ.
2. Christianity has been judicially declared to be a part of the common law of Pennsylvania; 11 Serg. & Rawle, 394; 5 Binn. R.555; of New York, 8 Johns. R. 291; of Connecticut, 2 Swift's System, 321; of Massachusetts, Dane's Ab. vol. 7, c. 219, a. 2, 19. To write or speak contemptuously and maliciously against it, is an indictable offence. Vide Cooper on the Law of Libel, 59 and 114, et seq.; and generally, 1 Russ. on Cr. 217; 1 Hawk, c. 5; 1 Vent. 293; 3 Keb. 607; 1 Barn. & Cress. 26. S. C. 8 Eng. Com. Law R. 14; Barnard. 162; Fitzgib. 66; Roscoe, Cr. Ev. 524; 2 Str. 834; 3 Barn. & Ald. 161; S. C. 5 Eng. Com. Law R. 249 Jeff. Rep. Appx. See 1 Cro. Jac. 421 Vent. 293; 3 Keb. 607; Cooke on Def. 74; 2 How. S. C. 11-ep. 127, 197 to 201.
CHURCH. In a moral or spiritual sense this word signifies a society of persons who profess the Christian religion; and in a physical or material sense, the place where such. persons assemble. The term church is nomen collectivum; it comprehends the chancel, aisles, and body of the churcb. Ham. N. P. 204.
2. By the English law, the terms church or chapel, and church-yard, are expressly recognized as in themselves correct and technical descriptions of the building and place, even in criminal proceedings. 8 B. & C. *25; 1 Salk. 256; 11 Co. 25 b; 2 Esp. 5, 28.
3. It is not within the plan of this work to give an account of the different local regulations in the United States respecting churches. References are here given to enable the inquirer to ascertain what they are, where such regulations are known to exist. 2 Mass. 500; 3 Mass. 166; 8 Mass. 96; 9 Mass. 277; Id. 254; 10 Mass. 323; 15 Mass. 296 16 Mass. 488; 6 Mass. 401; 10 Pick. 172 4 Day, C. 361; 1 Root 3, 440; Kirby, 45; 2 Caines' Cas. 336; 10 John. 217; 6 John. 85; 7 John. 112; 8 John. 464; 9 John. 147; 4 Desaus. 578; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 510; 11 Serg. & Rawle, 35; Metc. & Perk. Dig. h. t.; 4 Whart. 531.
CHURCH-WARDEN. An officer whose duties are, as the name implies, to take care of, or guard the church.
2. These officers are created in some ecclesiastical corporations by the charter, and their rights and duties are definitely explained.In England, it is said, their principal duties are to take care of, 1. the church or building; 2. the utensils and furniture; 3. the church-yard; 4. - matters of good order concerning the church and church-yard; 5. the endowments of the church. Bac. Ab. h. t. By the common law, the capacity of church-wardens to hold property for the church, is limited to personal property. 9 Cranch, 43.
CINQUE PORTS, Eng. law. Literally, five ports. The name by which tho five ports of Hastings, Ramenhale, Hetha or Hethe, Dover, and Sandwich, are known. 2. These ports have peculiar charges and services imposed upon them, and were entitled to certain privileges and liberties. See Harg. L. Tr. 106-113.
CIPHER. An arithmetical character, used for numerical notation. Vide Figures, and 13 Vin. Ab. 210; 18 Eng. C. L. R. 95; 1 Ch. Cr. Law, 176.
2. By cipher is also understood a mode of secret writing. Public ministers and other public agents frequently use ciphers in their correspondence, and it is sometimes very useful so to correspond in times of war. A key is given to each minister before his departure, namely, the cipher for writing ciphers, (chiffre chiffrant,) and the cipher for deciphering (chiffre dechiffrant.) Besides these, it is usual to give him a common cipher, (chiffre banal,) -which is known to all the ministers of the same power, who occasionally use it in their correspondence with each other.
3. When it is suspected that, a cipher becomes known to the cabinet where the minister is residing, recourse is had to a preconcerted sign in order to annul, entirely or in part, what has been written in cipher, or rather to indicate that the contents are to be understood in an inverted or contrary sense. A cipher of reserve is also employed in extraordinary cases.
CIRCUIT COURT. The name of a court of the United States, which has both civil and criminal jurisdiction. In several of the states there are courts which bear this name. Vide Courts of the United States.
CIRCUITY OFACTION, practice, remedies. It is where a party, by bringing an action, gives an action to the defendant against him.
2. As, supposing the obligee of a bond covenanted that he would not sue on it; if he were to sue he would give an. action against himself to the defendant for a breach of his covenant. The courts prevent such circuitous actions, for it is a maxim of law, so to judge of contracts as to prevent a multiplicity of actions; and in the case just put, they would hold that the covenant not to sue operated as a release. 1 T. R. 441. It is a favorite object of courts of equity to prevent a multiplicity of actions. 4 Cowen, 682.
CIRCUITS. Certain divisions of the country, appointed for particular judges to visit for the trial of causes, or for the administration of justice. See 3 Bl. Com. 58; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2532.
CIRCULATING MEDIUM. By this term is understood whatever is used in making payments, as money, bank notes, or paper which passes from hand to hand in payment of goods, or debts.
CIRCUMDUCTION, Scotch law. A term applied to the time allowed for bringing proof of allegiance, which being elapsed, if either party sue for circumduction of the time of proving, it has the effect that no proof can afterwards be brought; and the cause must be determined as it stood when circumduction was obtained. Tech. Dict.
CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or private, permanent or transitory, clear and simple, or complicated; they are always accompanied by circumstances which more or less influence the mind in forming a judgment. And in some instances these circumstances assume the character of irresistible evidence; where, for example, a woman was found dead in a room, with every mark of having met with a violent death, the presence of another person at thescene of action was made manifest by the bloody mark of a left hand visible on her left arm. 14 How. St. Tr. 1324. These points ought to be carefully examined, in order to form a correct opinion. The first question ought to be, is the fact possible ? If so, are there any circumstances which render it impossible ? If the facts are impossible, the witness ought not to be credited. If, for example, a man should swear that he saw the deceased shoot himself with his own pistol, and upon an examination of the ball which killed him, it should be found too large to enter into the pistol, the witness ought not to be credited. 1 Stark. Ev. 505; or if one should swear that another had been guilty of an impossible crime.
3. Toullier mentions a case, which, were it not for the ingenuity of the counsel, would require an apology for its introducion here, on account of its length. The case was this: La Veuve Veron brought an action against M. de Morangies on some notes, which the defendant alleged were fraudulently obtained, for the purpose of recovering 300,000 francs, and the question was, whether the defendant had received the money. Dujonquai, the grandson of the plaintiff, pretended he had himself, alone and on foot, carried this sum in gold to the defendant, at his hotel at the upper end of the rue Saint Jacques, in thirteen trips, between half-past seven and about one o'clock, that is, in about five hours and a half, or, at most, six hours. The fact was improbable; Linquet, the counsel of the defendant, proved it was impossible; and this is his argument:
4. Dujonquai said that he had divided the sum in thirteen bags, each containing six hundred louis d'ors, and in twenty-three other bags, each containing two hundred. There remained twenty-five louis to complete the whole sum, which, Dujonquai said, he received from the defendant as a gratuity. At each of 'these trips, he says, he put a bag, containing two hundred louis, that is, about three pounds four ounces, in each of his coat pockets, which, being made in the fashion of those times, hung about the thighs, and in walking must have incommoded him and obstructed his speed; he took, besides, a bag containing six hundred louis in his arms; by this means his movements were impeded by a weight of near ten pounds.
5. The measured distance between the house where Dujonquai took the bags to the foot of the stairs of the defendant, "as five hundred and sixteen toises, which, multiplied by twenty-six, the thirteen trips going and returning, make thirteen thousand four hundred and sixteen toises, that is, more than five leagues and a half (near seventeen miles), of two thousand four hundred toises, which latter distance is considered sufficient for an hour's walk, of a good walker. Thus, if Dujonquai had been unimpeded by any obstacle, he would barely have had time to perform the task in five or six hours, even without taking any rest orrefreshment. However strikingly improbable this may have been, it was not physically impossible. But
6.- 1. Dujonquai, in going to the defendant's, had to descend sixty-three steps from his grandmother's, the plaintiff's chamber, and to ascend twenty-seven to that of the defendant, in the whole, ninety steps. In return ing, the ascent and descent were changed, but the steps were the same; so that by multiplying, by twenty-six, the number of trips going and returning, it would be seen tbere were two thousand three hundred and forty steps. Experience had proved that in ascending to the top of the tower of Notre Dame (a church in Paris), where there are three hundred and eighty-nine steps, it occupied from eight to nine minutes of time. It must then have taken an hour out of the five or six which had been employed in making the thirteen trips.
7.-2. Dujonquai had to go up the rue Saint Jacques, which is very steep; its ascent would necessarily decrease the speed of a man, burdened and encumberedwith the bags which he carried in his pockets and in his arms.
8.-3. This street, which is very public, is usually, particularly in the morning, encumbered by a multitude of persons going in every direction, so that a person going along must make an infinite number of deviations from a direct line; each by itself, is almost imperceptible, but at the end of five or six hours, they make a considerable sum, which may be estimated at a tenth part of the whole course in a straight line; this would make about half a league, to be added to the five and a half leagues, which is the distance in a direct line.
9. - 4. On the morning that Dujonquai made these trips, the daily and usual incumbrances of this street were increased by sixty or eighty workmen, who were employed in removing by hand and with machine, an enormous stone, intended for the church of Saint Genevieve, now the pantheon, and by the immense crowd which this attracted; this was a remarkable eircumstance, which, supposing that Dujonquai had not yielded to the temptation of stopping a few moments to see what was doing, must necessarily have impeded his way, and made him lose seven or eight minutes each trip, which, multiplied by twenty-six would make about two hours and a half.
10. - 5. The, witness was obliged to open and shut the doors at the defendant's house; it required time to take up the bags and place them in his pockets, to take them out and put them on the defendant's table, who, by an improbable supposition, counted the money in the intervals between the trips, and not in the presence of the witness. Dujonquai, too, must have taken receipts or acknowledgments at each trip, he must read them, and on arriving at home, deposited them in some place of safety all these distractions would necessarily occasion the loss of a few minutes. By adding these with scrupulous nicety, and by further adding the time employed in taking and depositing the bags, the opening and shutting of the doors, the reception of the receipts, the time occupied in reading and putting them away, the time consumed in several conversations, which he admitted he had with persons in the street; all these joined to the obstacles above mentioned, made it evident that it was physically impossible that Dujonquai should have carried the 300,000 francs to the house of the defendant, as he affirmed he had done. Toull. tom. 9, n. 241, p. 384. Vide, gencrally, 1 Stark. Ev. 502; 1 Phil. Ev. 116. See some curious cases of circumstantial evidence in Alis. Pr. Cr. Law, 313, 314; and 2 Theorie des Lois Criminelles, 147, n.; 3 Benth. Jud. Ev. 94, 223; Harvey's Meditations on the Night, note 35; 1 Taylor's Med. Jur. 372; 14 How. St. Tr. 1324; Theory of Presumptive Proof, passim; Best on Pres. SSSS 187, 188, 197. See Death; Presumption; Sonnambulism.
CIRCUMSTANDIBUS, persons, practice. Bystanders from whom jurors are to be selected when the panel has been exhausted. Vide Tales de circumstandibus.
CIRCUMVENTION, torts, Scotch law. Any act of fraud whereby a person is reduced to a deed by decreet. Tech. Dict. It has the same sense in the civil law. Dig. 50, 17, 49 et 155; Id. 12, 6, 6, 2; Id. 41, 2, 34. Vide Parphrasis.
CITATIO AD REASSUMENDAM CAUSAM, civil law. The name of a citation, which issued when a party died pending a suit, against the heir of the defendant, or when the plaintiff died, for the heir of the plaintiff. Our bill of revivor is probably borrowed from this proceeding.
CITATION, practice. A writ issued out of a court of competent, jurisdiction, commanding a person therein named to appear and do something therein mentioned, or to show cause why he should not, on a day named. Proct. Pr. h. t. In the ecclesiastical law, the citation is the beginning and foundation of the whole cause; it is said to have six requisites, namely.: the insertion of the name of the judge; of the promovert; of the impugnant; of the cause of suit; of the place; and of the time of appearance; to which may be added the affixing the seal of the court, and the name of the register or his deputy. 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 453-4; Ayl. Parer. xliii. 175; Hall's Adm. Pr. 5; Merl. Rep. h. t. By, citation is also understood the act by which a person is summoned, or cited.
CITATION OF AUTHORITIES. The production or reference to the text of acts of legislatures and of treatises, and decided cases, in order to support what is advanced.
2. Works are sometimes surcharged with useless and misplaced citations; when they are judiciously made, they assist the reader in his researches. Citations ought not to be made to prove what is not doubted; but when a controverted point is mooted, it is highly proper to cite the laws and cases, or other authorities in support of the controverted proposition.
3. The mode of citing statutes varies in the United States; the laws of the United States are generally cited by their date, as the act of Sept. 24, 1789, s. 35; or act of 1819, eh. 170, 3 Story's U. S. Laws, 1722. In Pennsylvania, acts of assembly are cited as follows: act of 14th of April, 1834; in Massachusetts, stat. of 1808, c. 92. Treatises and books of reports, are generally cited by the volume and page, as, 2 Powell on Morts. 600; 3 Binn. R. 60. Judge Story and some others, following the examples of the civilians, have written their works and numbered the paragraphs; these are cited as follows: Story's Bailm. 494; Gould on Pl. c. 5, 30. For other citaions the reader is referred to the article Abbreviations.
4. It is usual among the civilians on the continent of Europe, in imitation of those in the darker ages, in their references to the Institutes, the Code and the Pandects or Digest, to mention the number, not of the book, but of the law, and the first word of the title to which it belongs; and as there are more than a thousand of these, it is no easy task for one not thoroughly acquainted with those collections, to find the place to which reference is made. The American writers generally follow the natural mode of reference, by putting down the name of the collection, and then the number of the book, title, law, and section. For example, Inst. 4, 15, 2, signifies Institutes, book four, title fifteen, and section two; Dig. 41, 9, 1, 3, means Digest, book 41, title 9, law 1, section 3; Dig. pro dote, or ff pro dote, that is, section 3, law 1, of the book and title of the Digest or Pandects, entitled pro dote. It is proper to remark, that Dig. and ff are equivalent; the former signifies Digest, and the latter, which is a careless mode of writing the Greek letter it, the first letter of the word pavdectai, Pandects, and the Digest and Pandects are different names for one and the same thing. The Code is cited in the same way. The Novels are cited by their number, with tbat of the chapter and paragraph; for example, Nov. 185, 2, 4; for Novella Justiniani 185, capite 2, paragrapho 4. Novels are also quoted by the Collation, the title, chapter, and paragraph as follows: in Authentics, Collatione 1 titulo 1, cap. 281. The Authentics are quoted by their first words, after which is set down the title of the Code under which they are placed for example, Authentica cum testator, Codice ad legem fascidiam Sele Mackel. Man. Intro. 66. Modus Legendi Abbreviaturas passim in jure tam civili quam pontificii occurrentes, 1577.
CITIZEN, persons. One who, under the constitution and laws of the United States, has a right to vote for representatives in congress, and other public officers, and who is qualified to fill offices in the gift of the people. In a more extended sense, under the word citizen, are included all white persons born in the United States, and naturalized persons born out of the same, who have not lost their right as such. This includes men, women, and children.
2. Citizens are either native born or naturalized. Native citizens may fill any office; naturalized citizens may be elected or appointed to any office under the constitution of the United States, except the office of president and vice-president. The constitution provides, that " the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states." Art. 4, s. 2.
3. All natives are not citizens of the United States; the descendants of the aborigines, and those of African origin, are not entitled to the rights of citizens. Anterior to the adoption of the constitution of the United States, each state had the right to make citizens of such persons as it pleased. That constitution does not authorize any but white persons to become citizens of the United States; and it must therefore be presumed that no one is a citizen who is not white. 1 Litt. R. 334; 10 Conn. R. 340; 1 Meigs, R. 331.
4. A citizen of the United States, residing in any state of the Union, is a citizen of that state. 6 Pet. 761 Paine, 594;1 Brock. 391; 1 Paige, 183 Metc. & Perk. Dig. h. t.; vide 3 Story's Const. 1687 Bouv. Inst. Index, b. t.; 2 Kent, Com. 258; 4 Johns. Ch. R. 430; Vatt. B. 1, c. Id, 212; Poth. Des Personnes, tit. 2, s. 1. Vide Body Politic; Inhabitant.
CITY, government. A town incorporated by that name. Originally, this word did not signify a town, but a portion of mankind who lived under the same government: what the Romans called civitas, and, the Greeks polis; whence the word politeia, civitas seu reipublicae status et administratio. Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. 1. 1, t. 1, n. 202; Henrion de Pansey, Pouvoir Municipal, pp. 36, 37.
CIVIL. This word has various significations. 1. It is used in contradistinction to barbarous or savage, to indicate a state of society reduced to order and regular government; thus we speak of civil life, civil society, civil government, and civil liberty
2. It is sometimes used in contradistinction to criminal, to indicate the private rights and remedies of men, as members of the community, in contrast to those which are public and relate to the government; thus we speak of civil process and criminal process, civil jurisdiction and criminal jurisdiction.
3. It is also used in contradistinction to military or ecclesiastical, to natural or foreign; thus we speak of a civil station, as opposed to a military or ecclesiastical stationa civil death as opposed to a natural death; a civil warasopposed to a foreign war. Story on the Const. 789; 1 Bl. Coin. 6, 125, 251; Montesq. Sp. of Laws, B 1, c. 3; Ruth. Inst. B. 2, c. 2; Id. ch. 3Id. ch. 8, p. 359; Hein. Elem. Jurisp. Nat. B. 2, ch. 6.
CIVIL ACTION. In New York, actions are divided only into two kinds, namely, criminal and civil. A criminal action is prosecuted by the state, as a party, against a person charged with a public offence, for the punishment thereof. Every other action is a civil action. Code of Procedure, s. 4, 5, 6; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2638. In common parlance, however, writs of mandamus, certiorari, habeas corpus, &c., are not comprised by the expression, civil actions. 6 Bin. Rep. 9.
CIVIL COMMOTION. Lord Mansfield defines a civil commotion to be "an insurrection of the people for general purposes, though it may not amount to rebellion where there is an usurped power." 2 Marsh. lnsur. 793. In the printed proposals which are considered as making a part of the contract of insurance against fire, it is declared that the insurance company will not make good any loss happening by any civil commotion.
CIVIL DEATH, persons. The change of the state (q. v.) of a person who is declared civilly dead by judgment of a competent tribunal. In such case, the person against whom such sentence is pronounced is considered dead. 2 John. R. 218. See Gilb. Uses, 150; 2 Bulst. 188; Co. tit. 132; Jenk. Cent. 250; 1 Keble, 398; Prest. on Convey. 140. Vide Death, civil.
CIVIL LAW. The municipal code of the Romans is so called. It is a rule of action, adopted by mankind in a state of society. It denotes also the municipal law of the land. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 11. See Law, civil.
CIVIL LIST. The sum which is yearly paid by the state to its monarch, and the domains of which he is suffered to have the enjoyment.
CIVIL OBLIGATION, Civil law. One which binds in law, vinculum juris, and which may be enforeed in a court of justice. Poth. Obl. 173, and 191. See Obligation.
CIVIL OFFICER. The constitution of the United States, art. 2, s. 4, provides, that the president, vice-president, and civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. By this term areincluded all officers of the United States who hold their appointments under the national government, whether their duties are executive or judicial, in the highest or the lowest departments; of the government, with the exception of officers of the army and navy. Rawle on the Const. 213; 2 Story, Const. 790; a senator of the United States, it was decided, was not a civil officer, within the meaning of this clause in the constitution. Senate Journals, 10th January, 1799; 4 Tuck. Bl. Com. Appx. 57, 58; Rawle, Const. 213; Serg. on Const. Law, 376; Story, Const. 791.
CIVIL REMEDY, practice. This term is used in opposition to the remedy given by indictment in a criminal case, and signifies the remedy which the law gives to the party against the offender.
2. In cases of treason and felony, the law,, for wise purposes, suspends this remedy in order to promote the public interest, until the wrongdoer shall have been prosecuted for the public wrong. 1 Miles, Rep. 316-17; 12 East, 409; R. T. H. 359; 1 Hale's P. C. 546; 2 T. R. 751, 756; 17 Ves. 329; 4 Bl. Com. 363; Bac. Ab. Trepass, E 2; and Trover, D. This principle has been adopted in New Hampshire N. H. R. 239; but changed in New York by statutory provision; 2 Rev. Stat. 292, 2 and by decisions in Massachusetts, except perhaps in felonies punishable with death; 15 Mass. R. 333; in Ohio; 4 Ohio R. 377; in North Carolina; 1 Tayl. R. 58. By the common law, in cases of homicide, the civil remedy is merged in the felony. 1 Chit. Pr. 10. Vide art. Injuries; Merger.
CIVIL STATE. The union of individual men in civil society under a system of laws and a magistracy, or magistracies, charged with the administration of the laws. It is a fundamental law of the civil state, that no member of it shall undertake to redress or avenge any violation of his rights, by another person, but appeal to the constituted authorities for that purpose, in all cases in which is is possible for him to do so. Hence the citizens are justly considered as being under the safeguard of the law. 1 Toull. n. 201. Vide Self-defence.
CIVILIAN. A doctor, professor, or student of the civil law.
CIVILITER. Civilly; opposed to criminaliter or criminally.
2. When a person does an unlawful act injurious to another, whether with or without an intention to commit a tort, he is responsible civiliter. In order to make him liable criminaliter, he must have intended to do the wrong; for it is a maxim, actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea. 2 East, 104.
CIVILITER MORTUUS. Civilly dead; one who is considered as if he were naturally dead, go far as his rights are concerned.
CLAIM. A claim is a challenge of the ownership of a thing which a man has not in possession, and is wrongfully withheld by another. Plowd. 359; Wee i Dall.444; 12 S. & R. 179.
2. In Pennsylvania, the entry on of the demand of a mechanic or materialman for work done or material furnished in the erection of a building, in those counties to which the lien laws extend, is called a claim.
3. A continual c1aim is a claim made in a particular way, to preserve the' rights of a feoffee. See Continual claim.
4. Claim of conusance is defined to be an intervention by a third person, demanding jurisdiction of a cause against a plaintiff, who has chosen to commence his action out of the claimant's court. 2 Wils. 409; 1 Cit. Pb. 403; Vin. Ab. Conusance; Com. Dig. Courts, P; Bac. Ab. Courts, D 3; 3 Bl. Com. 298.
CLAIMANT. In the courts of admiralty, when the suit is in rem, the cause is entitled in the Dame of the libellant against the thing libelled, as A B v. Ten cases of calico and it preserves that title through the whole progress of the suit.When a person is authorized and admitted to defend the libel, he is called the claimant. The United States v. 1960 bags of coffee; 8 Cranch, R. 398; United States v. The Mars; 8 Cranch, R. 417; 30 hhds. of sugar, (Brentzon, claimant, v. Boyle. 9 Cranch, R. 191.
CLANDESTINE. That which is done in secret and contrary to law.
2.Generally a clandestine act in case of the limitation of actions will prevent the act from running. A clandestine marriage is one which has been contracted without the form which the law has prescribed for this important contract. Alis. Princ. 543
CLARENDON. The constitutions of Clarendon were certain statutes made in the reign of Henry H., of England, in a parliament holden at Clarendon, by which the king cheeked the power of the pope and his clergy. 4 Bl. Com. 415.
CLASS. The order according to which are arranged or distributed, or are supposed to be arranged or distributed, divers persons or things; thus we say, a class of legatees.
2. When a legacy is given to a class of individuals, all who answer the description at the time the will takes effect, are entitled; and though the expression be in the plural, yet if there be but one, he shall take the whole. 3 M'Cord, Ch. R. 440.
3. When a bond is given to a class of persons, it is good, and all composing that class are entitled to sue upon it; but if the obligor be a member of such class, the bond is void, because a man cannot be obligor and obligee at the same-time; as, if a bond be given to the justices of the county court, and at the time the obligor is himself one of said justices. 3 Dev. 284, 287,289; 4 Dev. 882.
4. When a charge is made against a class of society, a profession, an order or body of men, and cannot possibly import a personal application to private injury, no action lies; but if any one of the class have sustained special damages inconsequence of such charge, he may maintain an action. 17 Wend. 52, 23, 186. See 12 John. 475. When the charge is against one of a class, without designating which, no action lies; as, where three persons had been examined as witnesses, and the defendant said in addressing himself to them, " one of you three is perjured." 1 Roll. Ab. 81; Cro. Jac. 107; 16 Pick. 132.
CLAUSE, contracts. A particular disposition which makes part of a treaty; of an act of the legislature; of a deed, written agreement, or other written contract or will. When a clause is obscurely written, it ought to be construed in such a way as to agree with what precedes and what follows, if possible. Vide Dig. 50, 17, 77; Construction; Interpretation.
CLAUSUM FREGIT, torts, remedies. He broke the close. These words are used in a writ for an action of trespass to real estate, the defendant being summonedto answer quare clausum fregit, that is, why he broke the close of the plaintiff. 3 Bl. Com. 209.
2. Trespass quare clausum fregit lies for every unlawful intrusion into land, whether enclosed or not, though only grass may be trodden. 1 Dev. & Bat. 371. And to maintain this action there must be a possession in the plaintiff, and a right to that possession.9 Cowen 39; 4 Yeates, 418; 11 Conn. 60, 10 Conn. 225; 1 John. 511; 12 John. 1834 Watts, 377; 4 Bibb, 218; 15 Pick. 32; 6 Rand. 556; 2 Yeates, 210; 1 Har. & John. 295; 8 Mass. 411.
CLEARANCE, com. law. The name of a certificate given by the collector of a port, in which is stated the master or commander (naming him) of a ship or vessel named and described, bound for a port, named, and having on board goods described, has entered and cleared his ship or vessel according to law.
2. The Act of Congress of 2d March, 1790, section 93, directs, that the master of any vessel bound to a foreign place, shall deliver to the collector of the dis ot from which such vessel shall be about to depart, a manifest of all the cargo on board, and the value thereof, by him subscribed, and shall swear or affirm to the truth thereof; whereupon the collector shall grant a clearance for such vessel and her cargo; but without specifying the particulars thereof in such clearance, unless required by the master so to do. And if any vessel bound to any foreign place shall depart on her voyage to such foreign place, without delivering such a manifest and obtaining a clearance, the master shall forfeit and pay the sum of five hundred dollars for every such offence. Provided, anything to the contrary notwithstanding, the collectors and other officers of the customs shall pay due regard to the inspection laws of the states in which they respectively act, in such manner, that no vessel having on board goods liable to inspection, shall be cleared out, until the master or other person shall have produced such certificate, that all such goods have been duly inspected, as the laws of the respective states do or may require, to be produced to the collector or other officer of the customs. And provided, that receipts for the payment of all legal fees which shall have accrued on any vessel, shall, before any clearance is granted, be produced to the collector or other officer aforesaid .
3. According to Boulay-Paty, Dr. Com. tome 2, p. 19, the clearance is imperiously demanded for the safety of the vessel; for if a vessel should be found without it at sea, it may be legally taken and brought into some port for adjudication, on a charge of priacy. Vide Ship's papers.
CLEARING HOUSE, com. law. Among the English bankers, the clearing house is a place in Lombard street, in London, where the bankers of that city daily settle with each other the balances which they owe, or to which they are entitled. Desks are placed around the room, one of which is appropriated to each bankiug house, and they are: occupied in alphabetical order. Each clerk has a box or drawer along side of him, and the name of the house he represents is inscribed over his head. A clerk of each house comes in about half-past three o'clock in the afternoon, and brings the drafts or cheeks on the other bankers, which have been paid by his house that day, and deposits thein in their proper drawers. The clerk at the desk credits their accounts separately which they have against him, as found in the drawer. Balances are thus struck from all the accounts, and the claims transferred from one to another, until they are so wound up and cancelled, that each clerk has only to settle with two or three others, and the balances are immediately paid. When drafts are paid at so late an hour that they cannot be cleared that day, they are sent to the houses on which they are drawn, to be marked, that is, a memorandum is made on them, and they are to be cleared the next day. See Gilbert's Practical Treatise on Banking, pp. 16-20, Babbage on the Economy of Machines, n. 173, 174; Kelly's Cambist; Byles, on Bills, 106, 110; Pulling's Laws and Customs of London, 437.
CLEMENCY. The disposition to treat with leniency. See Mercy; Pardon.
CLEMENTINES, eccl. law. The name usually given to the collection of decretals or constitutious of Pope Clement V., which was made by order of John XXII. his successor, who published it in 1317. The death of Clement V., which happened in 1314, prevented him from publishing this collection, which is properly a compilation, as well of the epistles and constitutions of this pope, as of the decrees of the council of Vienna, over which he presided. The Clementines are divided in five books, in which the matter is distributed nearly upon the same plan as the Decretals of Gregory IX. VideLa Bibliotheque des auteurs ecclesiastiques, par Dupin.
CLERGY. All who are attached to the ecclesiastical ministry are called the clergy; a clergyman is therefore an ecclesiastical minister.
2. Clergymen were exempted by the emperor Constantine from all civil burdens. Baronius ad ann. 319, 30. Lord Coke says, 2 Inst. 3, ecclesiastical persons have more and greater liberties than other of the king's subjects, wherein to set down all, would take up a whole volume of itself.
3. In the United States the clergy is not established by law, but each congregation or church may choose its own clergyman.
CLERICAL ERROR. An error made by a clerk in transcribing or otherwise. This is always readily corrected by the court. 2. An error, for example, in the teste of a fi. fa.; 4 Yeates, 185, 205; or in the teste and return of a vend. exp.; 1 Dall. 197 or in writing Dowell forMcDowell. 1 Serg. & R. 120; 8 Rep. 162 a; 9 Serg. & R. 284, 5. An error is amendable where there is something to amend by, and this even in a criminal case. 2 Bin. 5-16; 5 Burr. 2667; 1 Bin. 367-9; Dougl. 377; Cowp. 408. For the party ought not to be harmed by the omission of the clerk; 3 Bin. 102; even of his signature, if he affixes the seal. 1 Serg. & R. 97.
CLERK, commerce, contract. A person in the employ of a merchant, who attends only to a part of his business, while the merchant himself superintends the whole. He differs from a factor in this, that the latter wholly supplies the place of his principal in respect to the property consigned to him. Pard. Dr. Com. n. 38, 1 Chit. Pract. 80; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1287.
CLERK, officer. A person employed in an office, public or private, for keeping records or accounts. His business is to write or register, in proper form, the transactions of the tribunal or body to which he belongs. Some clerks, however, have little or no writing to do in their offices, as, the clerk of the market, whose duties are confined chiefly to superintending the markets. In the English law, clerk also signifies a clergyman.
CLERK, eccl. law. Every individual, who is attached to the ecclesiastical state, and who has submitted to the ceremony of the tonsure, is a clerk.
CLIENT, practice. One who employs and retains an attorney or counsellor to manage or defend a suit or action in which he is a party, or to advise him about some legal matters.
2. The duties of the client towards his counsel are, 1st. to give him a written authority, 1 Ch. Pr. l9; 2. to disclose his case with perfect candor3. to offer spontaneously, advances of money to his attorney; 2 Ch. Pr. 27; 4. he should, at the end of the suit, promptly pay his attorney his fees. Ib. His rights are, 1. to be diligently served in the management of his business 2. to be informed of its progress and, 3. that his counsel shall not disclose what has been professionally confided to him. See Attorney at law; Confidential communication.
CLOSE. Signifies the interest in the soil, and not merely a close or enclosure in the common acceptation of the term. Doct. & Stud. 307 East, 207 2 Stra. 1004; 6 East, 1541 Burr. 133 1 Ch. R. 160.
2. In every case where one man has a right to exclude another from his land, the law encircles it, if not already enclosed, with an imaginary fence; and entitles him to a compensation in damages for the injury he sustains by the act of another passing through his boundary, denominating the injurious act a breach of the enclosure. Hamm. N. P. 151; Doct. & Stud. dial. 1, c. 8, p. 30; 2 Whart. 430.
3. An ejectment will not lie for a close. 11 Rep. 55; 1 Rolle's R. 55 Salk. 254 Cro. Eliz. 235; Adams on Eject. 24.
CLOSE ROLLS, or close writs, Eng. law. Writs containing, grants from the crown, to particular persons, and for particular purposes, and, not being intended for public inspection, are closed up and sealed on the outside, and for that reason called close writs ,in contradistinction. to grants relating to the public in general, which are left open and not sealed up, and are called letters patent. (q. v.) 2 Bl. Com. 346.
CLOSED DOORS. Signifies that something is done privately. The senate sits with closed doors on executive business.
2. In general the legislative business of the country is transacted openly. And the constitution and laws require that courts of justice shall be open to the public.
CLUB. An association of persons.It differs from a partnersbip in this, that the members of a club have no authority to bind each other further than they are authorized, either expressly or by implication, as each other's agents in the particular transaction; whereas in trading associations, or common partnerships, one partner may bind his co-partners, as each has a right of property in the whole. 2 Mees. & Welsb. 172; Colly, Partn. 31; Story, Partn. 144; Wordsworth on Joint Stock Companies, 154, et seq.; 6 W. & S. 67; 3, W. & S. 118.
CO. A prefix or particle in the nature of an inseparable proposition, signifying with or in conjunction. Con and the Latin cum are equivalent, as, co-executors, co-obligor. It is also used as an abbreviation for company as, John Smith & Co.
COADJUTOR, eccl. law. A fellow helper or assistant; particularly applied to the assistant of a bishop.
COAL NOTE, Eng. law. A species of promissory note authorized by the st. 3 Geo. H., c. 26, SSSS 7 and 8, which, having these words expressed therein, namely, " value received in coals," are to be protected and noted as inland bills of exchange.
COALITION, French law. By this word is understood an unlawful agreement among several persons, not to do a thing except on some conditions agreed upon.
2. The most usual coalitions are, 1st. those which take place among master workmen, to reduce, diminish or fix at a low rate the wages of journeymen and other workmen; 2d. those among workmen or journeymen, not to work except at a certain price. These offences are punished by fine and imprisonment. Dict. de Police, h. t. In our law this offence is known by the name of conspiracy. (q. v.)
CO-ADMINISTRATOR. One of several administrators. In general, they have, like executors, the power to act singly to the personal estate of the intestate. Vide Administrator.
CO-ASSIGNEE. One who is assignee with another.
2. In general, the rights and duties of co-assignees are equal.
CO-EXECUTOR. One who is executor of a will in company with another. In general each co-executor has the full power over the personal estate of the testator, that all the executors have jointly. Vide Joint Executors. But one cannot bring suit without joining with the others.
COAST. The margin of a country bounded by the sea. This term includes the natural appendages of the territory which rise out of the water, although they are not of sufficient firmness to be inhabited or fortified. Shoals perpetually covered with water are not, however, comprehended under the name of coast. The small islands, situate at the mouth of the Mississippi, composed of earth and trees drifted down by the river, which are not of consistency enough to support the purposes of life, and are uninhabited, though resorted to for shooting birds, were held to form a part of the coast. 5 Rob. Adm. R. 385. (c).
COCKET, commerce. In England the office at the custom house, where the goods to be exported are entered, is so called, also the custom house seal, or the parchment sealed and delivered by the officers of customs to merchants, as a warrant that their goods are customed. Crabbe's Tech. Dict.
COCKETTUM, commerce. In the English law this word signifies, 1. the custom- house seal; 2. the office at the custom where cockers are to be procured. Crabbe's Tech. Dict.
CODE, legislation. Signifies in general a collection of laws. It is a name given by way of eminence to a collection of such laws made by the legislature. Among the most noted may be mentioned the following:
CODES, Les Cing Codes; French law. The five codes.
2. These codes are, 1st. Code Civil, which is divided into three books; book 1, treats of persons, and of the enjoyment and privation of civil rights; book 2, of property and its different modifications; book 3, of the different ways of acquiring property. One of the most perspicuous and able, commentators on this code is Toullier, frequently citedin this work.
3. - 2d. Code de procedure civille, which is divided into two parts. Part 1, is divided into five books; 1. of justices of the. peace; 2. of inferior tribunals; 3. of royal courts; 4. of extraordinary means of proceeding; 5. of execution and judgment. Part 2, is divided into three books; 1. of tender and consignation; 2. of process in relation to the opening of a succession; 3. of arbitration.
4. - 3d. Code de Commerce, in four books; 1. of commerce in general; 2. of maritime comraerce; 3. of failures and bankruptcy; 4. of commercial jurisdiction. Pardessus is one of the ablest commentators on this code.
5. - 4th. Code d'Instructions Criminelle, in two books; 1. of judiciary police, and its officers; 2. of the administration of justice.
6.-5th. Code Penal, in four books; 1. of punishment in criminal and correctional cases, and their effects; 2. of the persons punishable, excusable or responsible, for their crimes or misdemeanors; 3. of crimes, misdemeanors, (delits,) and their punishment; 4. of contraventions of police, and their punishment. For the history of these codes, vide Merl. Rep. h. t.; Motifs, Rapports, Opinions et Discours sur les Codes; Encyclop. Amer. h. t.
7. Henrion de Pansey, late a president of the Court of Cassation, remarks in reference to these codes: "In the midst of the innovations of these later times, a system of uniformity has suddenly engrossed all minds, and we have had imposed upon us the same weights, the same measures, the same laws, civil, criminal, rural and commercial. These new codes, like everything which comes from the hand of man, have imperfections and obscurities. The administration of them is committed to nearly thirty sovereign courts and a multitude of petty tribunals, composed of only three judges, and yet are invested with the right of determining in the last resort, under many circumstances. Each tribunal, the natural interpreter of these laws, applies them according to its own view, and the new codes were scarcely in operation before this beautiful system of uniformity became nothing more than a vain theory. Authorite Judiciaire, c. 31, s. 10.
CODE HENRI. A digest of the laws of Hayti, enacted by Henri, king of Hayti. It is based upon the Code Napoleon, but not servilely copied. It is said to be judiciously adapted to the situation of Hayti. A collection of laws made by order of Henry III of France, is also known by the name of Code Henri.
CODE, JUSTINIAN, civil law. A collection of the constitutions of the emperors, from Adrian to Justinian; the greater part of those from Adrian to Constantine are mere rescripts; those from Constantine to Justinian are edicts or laws, properly speaking.
2. The code is divided into twelve books, which are subdivided into titles, in which the constitutions are collected under proper heads. They are placed in chronological order, but often disjointed. At the head of each constitution is placed the name of the emperor who is the author, and that of the person to whom it is addressed. The date is at the end. Several of these constitutions, which were formerly in the code were lost, it is supposed by the neglect of "copyists. Some of them have been restored by modern authors, among whom may be mentioned Charondas, Cugas, and Contius, who translated them from Greek, versions.
CODE, OF LOUISIANA. In 1822, Peter Derbigny, Edward Livingston, and Moreau Lislet, were selected by the legislature to revise and amend the civil code, and to add to it sucb laws still in force as were not included therein. They were authorized to add a system of commercial law, and a code of practice. The code they prepared having been adopted, was promulgated in 1824, under the title of the " Civil Code of the State of Louisiana."
2. The code is based on the Code Napoleon, with proper and judicious modifications, suitable for the state of Louisiana. It is composed of three books: 1. the first treats of persons; 2. the second of tbings, and of the different modifications of property; 3. and the third of the different modes of acquiring the property of tbings. It contains 3522 articles, numbered from the beginning, for the convenience of reference.
3. This code, it is said, contains many inaccurate definitions. The legislature modified and changed many of the provisions relating to the positive legislation, but adopted the definitions and abstract doctrines of the code without material alterations. From this circumstance, as well as from the inherent difficulty of the subject, the positive provisions of the code are often at variance with the theoretical part, which was intended to elucidate them. 13 L. R. 237.
4. This code went into operation on the 20th day of May,. 1825. 11 L. R. 60. It is in both the French and English languages; and in construing it, it is a rule that when the expressions used in the French text of the code are more comprehensive than those used in English, or vice versa, the more enlarged sense will be taken, as thus full effect will be given to both clauses. 2 N. S. 582.
CODE, NAPOLEON. The Code Civil of France, enacted into law during the reign of Napoleon, bore his name until the restoration of the Bourbons when it was deprived of that name, and it is now cited Code Civil.
CODE PAPIRIAN. The name of a collection of the Roman laws, promulgated by Romulus, Numa, and other kings who governed. Rome till the time of Tarquin, the Proud. It was so called in honor if Sextus Parrius, the compiler. Dig. 1, 2, 2.
CODE PRUSSIAN. Allgemeines Landrecht. This code is also known by the name of Codex Fredericianus, or Frederician code. It was compiled by order of Frederic H., by the minister of justice, Samuel V. Cocceji, who completed, a part of it before his death, in 1755. In 1780, the work was renewed under the superintendence of the minister Von Carmer, and prosecuted with unceasing activity and was published from 1784 to 1788, in six parts. The opinions of those who understood the subject were requested, and prizes offered on the best commentaries on it; and the whole was completed in June, 1791, under the title " General Prussian Code."
CODE THEODOSIAN. This code, which originated in the eastern empire, was adopted in the Western empire towards its decline. It is a collection of the legislation of the Christian emperors, from and including Constantine to Theodosius, the Younger; it is composed of sixteen books, the edicts, acts, rescripts, and ordinances of the two empires, that of the east and that of the west.
CO-DEFENDANT. One who is made defendant in an action with another person.
CODEX. Literally, a volume or roll. It is particularly applied to the volume of the civil law, collected by the emperor Justinian, from all pleas and answers of the ancient lawyers, which were in loose scrolls or sheets of parchment. These he compiled into a book which goes by the name of Codex.
CODICIL, devises. An addition or supplement to a will; it must be executed with the same solemnities. A codicil is a part of the will, the two instruments making but one will. 4 Bro. C. C. 55; 2 Ves. sen. 242 4 Ves. 610; 2 Ridgw. Irish P. C. 11, 43.
2. There may be several codicils to one will, and the whole will be taken as one: the codicil does not, consequently, revoke the will further than it is in opposition to some of its particular dispositions, unless there be express words of revocation. 8 Cowen, Rep. 56.,
3. Formerly, the difference between a will and a codicil consisted in this, that in the former an executor was named, while in the latter none was appointed. Swinb. part 1, s. 5, pl. 2; Godolph. Leg. part 1, c. 6, s. 2. This is the distinction of the civil law, and adopted by the canon law. Vide Williams on Wills, ch. 2; Rob. on Wills, 154, n. 388, 476; Lovelass on Wills, 185, 289 4 Kent, Com. 516; 1 Ves. jr. 407, 497; 3 Ves. jr. 110; 4 Ves. jr. 610; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 116, 140.
4. Codicils were chiefly intended to mitigate the strictness of the ancient Roman law, which required that a will should be attested by seven Roman citizens, omni exceptione majores. A legacy could be bequeathed, but the heir could not be appointed by codicil, though he might be made heir indirectly by way of fidei commissum.
5. Codicils owe their origin to the following circumstances. Lucius Lentulus, dying in Africa, left. codicils, confirmed by anticipation in a will of former date, and in those codicils requested the emperor Augustus, by way of fidei commissum, or trust, to do something therein expressed. The emperor carried this will into effect, and the daughter of Lentulus paid legacies which she would not otherwise have been legally bound to pay. Other persons made similar fidei-commissa, and then the emperor, by the advice of learned men whom he consulted, sanctioned the making of codicils, and thus they became clothed with legal authority. Just. 2, 25; Bowy. Com. 155, 156.
6. The form of devising by codicil is abolished in Louisiana; Code, 1563; and whether the disposition of the property be made by testament, under this title, or under that of institution of heir, of legacy, codicil, donation mortis causa, or under any other name indicating the last will, provided it be clothed with the forms required for the validity of a testament, it is, as far as form is concerned, to be considered a testament. Ib. Vide 1 Brown's Civil Law, 292; Domat, Lois Civ. liv. 4, t. 1, s. 1; Lecons Element, du Dr. Civ. Rom. tit. 25.
COERCION, criminal law, contracts. Constraint; compulsion; force.
2. It is positive or presumed. 1. Positive or direct coercion takes place when a man is by physical force compelled to do an act contrary to his will; for example, when a man falls into the hands of the enemies of his country, and they compel him, by a just fear of death, to fight against it.
3. - 2. It is presumed where a person is legally under subjection to another, and is induced, in consequence of such subjection, to do an act contrary to his win. A married woman, for example, is legally under the subjection of her husband, and if in his company she commit a crime or offence, not malum in se, (except the offence of keeping a bawdy-house, In which case she is considered by the policy of the law as a principal, she is presumed to act under this coercion.
4. As will (q. v.) is necessary to the commission of a crime, or the making of a contract, a person coerced into either, has no will on the, subject, and is not responsible. Vide Roscoe's Cr. Ev. 7 85, and the cases there cited; 2 Stark. Ev. 705, as to what will, amount to coercion in criminal cases.
CO-EXECUTOR. One who is executor with another.
2. In general, the rights and duties of co-executors are equal.
COGNATION, civil law. Signifies generally the kindred which exists between two persons who are united by ties of blood or family, or both.
2. Cognation is of -three kinds: natural, civil, or mixed. Natural cognation is that which is alone formed by ties of blood; such is the kindred of those who owe their origin to an illicit connexion, either in relation to their ascendants or collaterals.
3. Civil cognation is that which proceeds alone from the ties of families as the kindred between the adopted father and the adopted child.
4. Mixed cognation is that which unites at the same time the ties of blood and family, as that which exists between brothers, the issue of the same lawful marriage. 6; Dig. 38, 10.
COGNATI, cognates. This term occurs frequently in the Roman civil law, and denotes collateral heirs through females. It is not used in the civil law as it now prevails in France. In the common law it has no technical sense, but as a word of discourse in English it signifies, generally, allied by blood, related in origin, of the same family. See Vicat, ad verb.; also, Biret's Vocabulaire.
COGNISANCE, pleading. Where the defendant in an action of replevin (not being entitled to the distress or goods which are the subject of the replevin) acknowledges the taking of the distress, and insists that such taking was legal, not because he himself had a right to distrain on his own account, but because he made the distress by the command of another, who had a right to distrain on the goods which are the subject of the suit. Lawes on Pl. 35, 36; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3571.
COGNISANCE, practice. Sometimes signifies jurisdiction and juudicial power, an sometimes the hearing of a matter judicially. It is a term used in the acknowledgment of a fine. See Vaughan's Rep. 207.
COGNISANCE OF PLEAS, Eng. law. A privilege granted by the king to a city or town, to hold pleas within the same; and when any one is impleaded in the courts at Westminster, the owner of the franchise may demand cognisance of the plea. T. de la Ley.
COGNISEE. He to whom a fine of lands, &c. is acknowledged. See Cognisor.
COGNISOR, English law. One who passes or acknowledges,a fine of lands or tenements to another, in distinction from the cogzisee, to whom the fine of the lands, &c. is acknowledged.
COGNITIONIBUS ADMITTENDIS, English law, practice. A writ to a justice ,or other person, who has power to take a fine, and having taken the acknowledgment of a fine, delays to certify it in the court of common pleas, requiring him to do it. Crabbe's Tech. Dict.
COGNOMEN. A Latin word, which signifies a family name. The praenomen among the Romans distinguished the person, the nomen, the gens, or all the kindred descended from a remote common stock through males, while the cognomen denoted the particular family. The agnomen was added on account of some particular event, as a further distinction. Thus, in the designation Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Publius is the proenomen, Cornelius is the nomen, Scipio the cognomen, and Africanus the agnomen. Vicat. These several terms occur frequently in the Roman laws. See Cas. temp. Hardw. 286; 1 Tayl. 148. See Name; Surname.
COGNOVIT, contr. leading. A written confession of an action by a defendant, subscribed but not sealed, and authorizing the plaintiff to sign judgment and issue execution, usually for a sum named.
2. It is given after the action is brought to save expense.
3. It differs from a warrant of attorney, which is given before the commencement of any action, and is under seal. A cognovit actionem is an acknowledgment and confession of the plaintiff's cause of action against the defendant to be just and true. Vide 3 Ch. Pr. 664; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 8299.
COHABITATION. Living together.
2. The law presumes that husband and wife cohabit, even after a voluntary separation has taken place between them; but where there has been a divorce a mensa et thoro, or a sentence of separation, the presumption then arises that they have obeyed the sentence or decree, and do not live together.
3. A criminal cohabitation will not be presumed by the proof of a single act of criminal intercourse between a man and woman not married. 10 Mass. R. 153.
4. When a woman is proved to cohabit with a man and to assume his name with his consent, he will generally be responsible for her debts as if she had been his wife; 2 Esp. R. 637; 1 Campb. R. 245; this being presumptive evidence of marriage; B. N. P. 114; but this liability will continue only while they live together, unless she is actually his were. 4 Campb. R. 215.
5. In civil actions for criminal conversation with the plaintiff's wife, after the husband and wife have separated, the plaintiff will not in general be entitled to recover. 1 Esp. R. 16; S. C. 5 T. R. 357; Peake's Cas. 7, 39; sed vide 6 East, 248; 4 Esp. 39.
CO-HEIR. One of several men among whom an inheritance is to be divided.
CO-HEIRESS. A woman who inherits an estate in common with other women. A joint heiress.
COIF. A head-dress. In England there are certain serjeants at law, who are called serjeants of the coif, from the lawn coif they wear on their heads under their thin caps when they are admitted to that order.
COIN, commerce, contracts. A piece of gold, silver or other metal stamped by authority of the government, in order to determine its value, commonly called money. Co. Litt. 207; Rutherf. Inst. 123. For the different kinds of coins of the United States, see article Money. As to the value of foreign coins, see article Foreign Coins.
COLLATERAL, collateralis. From latus, a side; that which is sideways, and not direct.
COLLATERAL ASSURANCE, contracts. That which is made over and above the deed itself.
COLLATERAL FACTS evidence. Facts unconnected with the issue or matter in dispute.
2. As no fair and reasonable inference can be drawn from such facts, they are inadmissible in evidence, for at best they are useless, and may be mischievous, because they tend to distract the attention of the jury, and to mislead them. Stark. Ev. h. t.; 2 Bl. Rep. 1169; 1 Stark Ev. 40; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3087.
3. It is frequently difficult to ascertain a priori, whether a particular fact offered in evidence, will, or will not clearly appear to be material in the progress of the cause, and in such cases it is usual in practice for the court to give credit to the assertion of the counsel who tenders such evidence, that the facts will turn out to be material; but this is always within the sound discretion of the court. It is the duty of the counsel, however, to offer evidence, if possible, in such order that each part of it will appear to be pertinent and proper at the time it is offered; and it is expedient to do so, as this method tends to the success of a good cause.
4. When a witness is cross-examined as to collateral facts, the party cross-examining will be bound by the answer, and he cannot, in general, contradict him by another witness. Rosc. Ev. l39.
COLLATERAL ISSUE, practice, pleading. Where a criminal convict pleads any matter, allowed by law, in bar of execution; as pregnancy, a pardon, and the like.
COLLATERAL KINSMEN, descent, distribution. Those who descend from one and the same common ancestor, but not from one another; thus brothers and sisters are collateral to each other; the uncle and the nephew are collateral kinmen, and cousins are the same. The term collateral is used in opposition to the phrase lineal kinsmen. (q. v.)
COLLATERAL SECURITY, contracts. A separate obligation attached to another contract, to guaranty its performance. By this term is also meant the transfer of property or of other contracts to insure the performance of a principal engagement. The property or securities thus conveyed are also called collateral securities. 1 Pow. Mortg. 393; 2 Id. 666, n. 871; 3 Id. 944, 1001.
COLLATERAL WARRANTY, contracts, descent. Where the heir's title to the land neither was, nor could have been, derived from the warranting ancestor; and yet barred the heir from ever claiming the land, and also imposed upon him the same obligation of giving the warrantee other lands, in case of eviction, as if the warranty were lineal, provided the heir had assets. 4 Cruise, Real Prop. 436.
2. The doctrine of collateral warranty, is, according to Justice Story, one of the most unjust, oppressive and indefensible, in the whole range of the common law. 1 Sumn. R. 262.
3. By the statute of 4 & 5 Anne, c. 16, 21, all collateral warranties of any land to be made after a certain day, by any ancestor who has no estate of inheritance in possession in the same, were made void against the heir. This Statute has been reenacted in New. York; 4 Kent, Com. 460, 3d ed.; and in New Jersey. 3 Halst. R. 106. It has been adopted and is in force in Rhode Island; 1 Sumn. R. 235; and in Delaware. Harring. R. 50. In Kentucky and Virginia, it seems that collateral warranty binds the heir to the extent of assets descended. 1 Dana, R. 59. In Pennsylvania, collateral warranty of the ancestor, with sufficient real assets descending to the heirs, bars them from recovering the lands warranted. 4 Dall. R. 168; 2 Yeates, R. 509; 9 S. & R. 275. See 1 Sumn. 262; 3 Halst. 106; Harring. 50; 3 Rand. 549; 9 S. & R. 275; 4 Dall. 168; 2 Yeates, 509; 1 Dana, 50.
COLLATIO BONORUM, descent, distribution. Where a portion or money advanced to a son or daughter, is brought into botchpot, in order to have an equal distributive share of the ancestor's personal estate. The same rule obtains in the civil law. Civil Code of Louis. 1305; Diet. de Jur. mot Collation; Merlin Rep. mot Collation.
COLLATION, descents. A term used in the laws of Louisiana. Collation -of goods is the supposed or real return to the mass of the succession, which an heir makes of the property he received in advance of his share or otherwise, in order that such property may be divided, together with the other effects of the succession. Civil Code of Lo. art. 1305.
2. As the object of collation is to equalize the heirs, it follows that those things are excluded from collation, which the heir acquired by an onerous title from the ancestor, that is, where he gave a valuable consideration for them. And upon the same principle, if a co-heir claims no share of the estate, he is not bound to collate. Qui non vult hereditatem, non cogitur ad collationem. See Id. art. 1305 to 1367; And Hotchpot.
COLLATION, eccl. law. The act by which the bishop, who has the bestowing of a benefice, gives it to an incumbent. T. L.
COLLATION, practice. The comparison of a copy with its original, in order to ascertain its correctness and conformity; the report of the officer who made the comparison, is also called a collation.
COLLATION OF SEALS. Where, on the same label, one seal was set on the back or reverse of the other, this was said to be a collation of seals. Jacob. L. D. h. t.
COLLECTOR, officer. One appointed to receive taxes or other impositions; as collector of taxes; collector of militia fines, &c. A collector is also a person appointed by a private person to collect the credits due him. Metc. & Perk. Dig. h. t.
COLLECTORS OF THE CUSTUMS. Officers of the United States, appointed for the term of four years, but removable at the pleasure of the president. Act of May 15, 1820, sect. 1, 3 Story's U. S. Laws, 1790.
2. The duties of a collector of customs are described in general terms, as follows: " He shall receive all reports, manifests and documents, to be made or exhibited on the entry of any ship or vessel, according to the regulations of this act shall record in books, to be kept for the purpose, all manifests; shall receive the entries of all ships or vessels, and of the goods, wares and merchandise imported in them; shall, together with the naval officer, where there is one, or alone, where there is none, estimate the amount of duties payable thereupon, endorsing the said amounts upon the respective entries; shall receive all moneys paid for duties, and shall take bonds for securing the payment thereof; shall grant all permits for the unlading and delivery of goods; shall, with the approbation of the principal officer of the treasury department, employ proper persons as weighers, gaugers, measurers and inspectors, at the several ports within his district; and also, with the like approbation, provide, at the public expense, storehouses for the safe keeping of goods, and such scales, weights and measures, as may be necessary." Act of March 2,1799) s. 21, 1 Story, U. S. Laws, 590. Vide, for other duties of collectors, 1 Story, U. S. Laws, 592, 612, 620, 632, 659, and vol. 3, 1650, 1697, 1759, 1761, 1791, 1811, 1848, 1854; 10 Wheat. 246.
COLLEGE. A civil corporation, society or company, authorized by law, having in general a literary object. In some countries by college is understood the union of certain voters in *one body; such bodies are called electoral colleges; as, the college of electors or their deputies to the diet of Ratisbon; the college of cardinals. The term is used in the United States; as, the college of electors of president and vice-president, of the United States. Act of Congress of January 23, 1845.
COLLISION, maritime law. It takes place when two ships or other vessels run foul of each other, or when one runs foul of the other. In such cases there is almost. always a damage incurred.
2. There are four possibilities under which an accident of this sort may occur. 1. It may happen without blame being imputable to either party, as when the loss is occasioned by a storm, or any other vis major; in that case the loss must be borne by the party on whom it happens to light, the other not being responsible to him in, any degree.
3. - 2. Both parties may be to blame, as when there has been a want of due diligence or of skill on both sides; in such cases, the loss must be apportioned between them, as having been occasioned by the fault of both of them. 6 Whart. R. 311..
4. - 3. The suffering party may have been the cause of the injury, then he must bear the loss.
5. - 4. It may have been the fault of the ship which ran down the other; in this case the injured party would be entitled to an entire corapensation from the other. 2 Dodson's Rep. 83, 85; 3 Hagg. Adm. R. 320; 1 .How. S. C. R. 89. The same rule is applied to steamers.. Id. 414.
6. - 5. Another case has been put, namely, when there has been some fault or neglect, but on which side the blame lies, is uncertain. In this case, it does not appear to be settled whether the loss shall be apportioned or borne by the suffering party opinions on this subject are divided.
7. A collision between two ships on the high seas, whether it be the result of accident or negligence, is, in all cases, to be deemed a peril of the seas within the meaning of a policy of insurance. 2 Story, R. 176; 3 Sumn. R. 889. Vide, generally, Story, Bailm. 607 to 612; Marsh.. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 2; Wesk. Ins. art. Running Foul; Jacobsen's Sea Laws, B. 4, c. 1; 4 Taunt. 126; 2 Chit. Pr. 513, 535; Code de Com. art. 407; Boulay-Paty, Cours de Dr. Commercial, tit. 12, s. 6; Pard. n. 652 to 654; Pothier, Avaries, n. 155; 1 Emerig. Assur. ch. 12, 14.
COLLISTRIGIUM. The pillory.
COLLOCATION, French law. The act by which the creditors of an estate are arranged in the order in which they are to be paid according to law. The order in which the creditors-are placed, is also called collocation. Merl. Rep. h. t. Vide Marshalling Assets.
COLLOQUIM, pleading. A discourse a conversation or conference.
2. In actions of slander, it is generally true that an action does not lie for words, on account of, their being merely disgraceful to a person in his office, profession or trade; unless it be averred, that at the time of publishing the words, there was a colloquium concerning the office, profession or trade of the plaintiff.
3. In its technical sense, the term colloquium signifies an averment in a declaration that there was a conversation or discourse on the part of the defendant, which connects the slander with the office, profession or trade of the plaintiff; and this colloquium must extend to the whole of the prefatory matter to render the words actionable. 3 Bulst. 83. Vide Bac. Ab. Slander, S, n. 3; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Com. Dig. Action upon the case for Defamation, G 7, 8, &c.; Stark. on Sland. 290, et seq.
COLLUSION, fraud. An agreement between two or more persons, to defraud a person of his rights by the forms of law, or to obtain an object forbidden by law; as, for example, where the husband and wife collude to obtain a divorce for a cause not authorized by law. It is nearly synonymous with covin. (q. v.)
2. Collusion and fraud of every kind vitiate all acts which are infected with them, and render them void. Vide Shelf. on Mar. .& Div. 416, 450; 3 Hagg. Eccl. R. 130, 133; 2 Greenl. Ev. 51; Bousq. Dict. de Dr. mot Abordage.
COLONEL. An officer in the army, next below a brigadier general, bears this title.
COLONY. A union of citizens or subjects who have left their country to people another, and remain subject to the mother country. 3 W. C. C. R. 287. The country occupied by the colonists is also called a colony. A colony differs from a possession, or a dependency. (q. v.) For a history of the American colonies, the reader is referred to Story on the Constitution, book I.; 1 Kent, Com. 77 to 80; 1 Dane's Ab. Index, b. t.
COLOR, pleading. It is of two kinds, namely, express color, and implied color. 2. Express color. This is defined to be a feigned matter, pleaded by the defendant, in an action of trespass, from which the plaintiff seems to have a good cause of action, whereas he has in truth only an appearance or color of cause. The practice of giving express color in pleas, obtained in the mixed actions of assize, the writ of entry in the nature of assize, as well as in the personal action of trespass. Steph. on Plead. 230; Bac. Ab. Trespass, 14.
3. It is a general rule in pleading that no man shall be allowed to plead specially such plea as amounts to the general issue, or a total denial of the charges contained in the declaration, and must in such cases plead the general issue in terms, by which the whole question is referred to the jury; yet, if the defendant in an action of trespass, be desirous to refer the validity of his title to the court, rather than to the jury; he may in his plea stated his title specially, by expressly giving color of title to the plaintiff, or supposing him to have an appearance of title, had indeed in point of law, but of which the jury are not competent judges. 3 Bl. Com. 309. Suppose, for example, that the plaintiff wag in wrongful possession of the close, without any further appearance of title than the possession itself, at the time of the trespass alleged, and that the defendants, entered upon him in assertion of their title: but being unable to set forth this title in the pleading, in consequence of the objection that would arise for want of color, are driven to plead the general issue of not guilty. By this plea an issue is produced whether the defendants are-guilty or not of the trespass; but upon the trial of the issue, it will be found that the question turns entirely upon a construction of law. The defendants say they are not guilty of the trespasses, because they are not guilty of breaking the close of the plaintiff, as alleged in the declaration; and that they are not guilty of breaking the close of the plaintiff, because they themselves had the property in that close; and their title is. this, that the father of one of the defendants being seised of the close in fee, gave it in tail to his eldest son, remainder in tail to one of the defendants; the eldest son was disseised, but made continual claim till the death of the disseisor; after whose death, the descent being cast upon the heir, the disseisee entered upon the heir, and afterwards died, when the remainder took effect in the said defendant who demised to the other defendant . Now, this title involves a legal question; namely, whether continual claim will no preserve the right of entry in the disseisee, notwithstanding a descent cast on the heir of the disseisor. (See as to this point, Continual Claim.) The issue however is merely not guilty, and this is triable by jury; and the effect, therefore, would be, that a jury would have to decide this question of law, subject to the direction upon it, which they would receive from the court. But, let it be supposed that the defendants, in a view to the more satisfactory decision of the question, wish to bring it under the consideration of the court in bank, rather than have it referred to a jury. If they have any means of setting forth their title specially in the plea, the object will be attained; for then the plaintiff, if disposed to question the sufficiently of the title, may demur to the plea, and thus refer the question to the decision of the judges. But such plea if pleaded simply, according to the state of the fact, would be informal for want of color; and hence arises a difficulty.
4. The pleaders of former days, contrived to overcome this difficulty in the following singular manner. In such case as that supposed, the plea wanting implied color, they gave in lieu of it an express one, by inserting a fictitious allegation of some colorable title in the plaintiff, which they, at the same time avoided by the preferable title of the defendant. S Step . Pl. 225 Brown's Entr. 343, for a form of the plea. Plowd. Rep. 22 b.
5. Formerly various suggestions of apparent right, might be adopted according to the fancy of the pleader; and though the same latitude is, perhaps, still available, yet, in practice, it is unusual to resort to any except certain known fictions, which long usage has applied to the particular case for example, in trespass to land, the color universally given is that of a defective charter of the demise. See, in general, 2 Saund. 410; 10 Co. 88; Cro. Eliz. 76; 1 East, 215; Doct. Pl. 17; Doct. & Stud. lib. 2, c. 53; Bac. Abr. Pleas, I 8; Trespass, I 4; 1 Chit. Pl. 500 Steph. on Pl. 220.
6. Implied color. That in pleading which admits by implication, an apparent right in the opposite party, and avoids it by pleading some new matter by which that apparent right is defeated. Steph. Pl. 225.
7. It is a rule that every pleading by way of confession and avoidance, must give color; that is, it must admit an apparent right in the opposite party, and rely, therefore, on some new matter by which that apparent right is defeated. For example, where the defendant pleads a release to an action for breach of covenant, the tendency of the plea is to admit an apparent right in the plaintiff, namely, that the defendant did, as alleged in the declaration, execute the deed and break the covenant therein contained, and would therefore, prima facie, be liable on that ground; but shows new matter not before disclosed, by which that apparent right is done away, namely, that the plaintiff executed to him a release. Again, if the plaintiff reply that Such release was obtained by duress, in his, replication, he impliedly admits that the defendant has, prima facie, a good defence, namely, that such release was executed as alleged in the plea; and that the defefadant therefore would be discharged; but relies on new matter by which the plea is avoided, namely, that the release was obtained by duress. The plea, in this case, therefore, gives color to the declaration, and the replication, to the plea. But let it be supposed that the plaintiff has replied, that the release was executed by him, but to another person, and not to the defendant; this would be an informal replication wanting color; because, if the release were not to the defendant there would not exist even an apparent defence, requiring the allegation of new matter to avoid it, and the plea might be sufficiently answered by a traverse, denying that the deed stated in the plea is the deed of the plaintiff. See Steph. Pl. 220; 1 Chit. Pl. 498; Lawes, Civ. Pl. 126; Arch. Pl. 211; Doct. Pl. 17; 4 Vin. Abr. 552; Bac. Abr. Pleas, &e. I 8; Com. Dig. Pleader, 3 M 40, 3-M 41. See an example of giving color in pleading in the Roman law, Inst. lib. 4, tit 14, De replicantionibus.
COLOR OR OFFICE, criminal law. A wrong committed by an officer under the pretended authority of his office; in some cases the act amounts to a misdemeanor, and the party may then be indicted. In other cases, the remedy to redress the wrong is by an action.
COLT. An animal of the horse species, whether male or female, not more than four years old. Russ. & Ry. 416.
COMBAT, Eng. law. The form of a forcible encounter between two or more persons or bodies of men; an engagement or battle. A duel.
COMBINATION. A union of different things. A patent may be taken out for a new combination of existing machinery, or machines. See 2 Mason, 112; and Composition of matter.
2. By combination is understood, in a bad sense, a union of men for the purpose of violating the law.
COMBUSTIO DOMORUM. Burning of houses; arson. Vide 4 Bl. Com. 372.
COMES, pleading. In a plea, the defendant says, " And the said C D, by E F, his attorney, comes, and defends, &c. The word comes, venit, expresses the appearance of the defendant , in court. It is taken from the style of the entry of the proceedings on the record, and formed no part of the viva voce pleading. It is, accordingly, not considered as, in strictness, constituting a part of the Plea. 1 Chit. Pl. 411; Steph. Pl. 432.
COMES, offices. A Count. An officer during the middle ages, who possessed civil and military authority. Sav. Dr. Rom. Moy. age, n. 80.
2. Vice-comes, the Latin name for sheriff, was originally the lieutenant of the comes.
COMITATUS. A county. Most of the states are divided into counties; some, as Louisiana, are divided into parishes.
COMITES. Persons who are attached to a public minister, are so called. As to their privileges, see 1 Dall. 117; Baldw. 240; and Ambassador.
COMITY. Courtesy; a disposition to accomodate.
2. Courts of justice in one state will, out of comity, enforce the laws of another state, when by such enforcement they will not violate their laws or inflict. an injury on some one of their own citizens; as, for example, the discharge of a debtor under the insolvent laws of one state, will be respected in another state, where there is a reciprocity in this respect.
3. It is a general rule that the municipal laws of a country do not extend beyond its limits, and cannot be enforced in another, except on the principle of comity. But when those laws clash and interfere with the rights of citizens, or the laws of the countries where the parties to the contract seek to enforce it, as one or the other must give way, those prevailing where the relief is sought must have the preference. 2 Mart. Lo. Rep. N. S. 93; S. C. 2 Harr. Cond. Lo. Rep. 606, 609; 2 B. & C. 448, 471; 6 Binn. 353; 5 Crancb, 299; 2 Mass. 84; 6 Mass. 358; 7 Mart. Lo. R. 318. See Conflict of Laws; Lex loci contractus.
COMMAND. This word has several meanings. 1. It signifies an order; an apprentice is bound to obey the lawful command of his master; a constable may command rioters to keep the peace. 2. He who commands another to do an unlawful act, is accessary to it. 3 Inst. 51, 57; 2 Inst. 182; 1 Hayw.
3. Command is also equivalent to deputation or voluntary substitution; as, when a master employs one to do a thing, he is said to have Commanded him to do it; and he is responsible accordingly. Story Ag. 454, note.
COMMENCEMENT OF A SUIT OR ACTION. The suit is considered as commenced from the issuing of the writ; 3 Bl. Com. 273, 285; 7 T. R. 4; 1 Wils. 147; 18 John. 14; Dunl. Pr. 120; 2 Phil. Ev. 95; 7 Verm. R. 426; 6 Monr. R. 560; Peck's R. 276; 1 Pick. R. 202; Id. 227; 2 N. H. Rep. 36; 4 Cowen, R. 158; 8 Cowen, 203; 3 John. Cas. 133; 2 John. R. 342; 3 John. R. 42; 15 John. R. 42; 17 John. R. 65; 11 John. R. 473; and if the teste or date of the writ be fictitious, the true time of its issuing may be a and proved, whenever the purposes of justice require it; as in cases of a plea of tender or of the statute of limitations. Bac. Ab. Tender D; 1 Stra. 638; Peake's Ev. 259; 2 Saund. 1, n. 1. In Connecticut, the service of, the writ is the commencement of the action. 1 Root, R. 487; 4 Conn. 149; 6 Conn. R. 30; 9 Conn. R. 530; 7 Conn. R. 558; 21 Pick. R. 241; 2 C. & M. 408, 492 1 Sim. R. 393. Vide Lis Pendens.
COMENDAM, eccles. law. When a benefice or church living is void or vacant, it is commended to the. care of some sufficient clerk to be supplied, until it can be supplied with a pastor. He to whom the church is thus commended is said to hold in commendam, and he is entitled to the profits of the living. Rob. 144; Latch, 236.
2. In Louisiana, there is a species of limited partnership called a partnership in commendam. It is formed by a contract, by which one person or partnership agrees to furnish another person or partnership a certain amount, either in property or money, to be employed by the person or partnership to whom it is furnished, in his or their own name or firm, on condition of receiving a share in the profits, in the proportion determined by the contract, and of being liable to losses and expenses, to the amount furnished, and no more. Civ. Code of Lo. 2810. A similar partnership exists in France. Code de Comm. 26, 33; Sirey, tom. 12, part 2, p. 25. He who makes this contract is called in respect to those to whom he makes the advance of capital, a partner in commendam. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2811.
COMMENDATARY. A person who holds a church living or presentment in commendam.
COMMENDATION. The act of recommending, praising. A merchant who merely commends goods he offers for sale, does not by that act warrant them, unless there is some fraud: simplex commendatio non obligat.
COMMENDATORS, eccl. law. Secular persons upon whom ecclesiastical benefices are bestowed, because they were commended and instructed to their oversight: they are merely trustees.
COMMERCE, trade, contracts. The exchange of commodities for commodities; considered in a legal point of view, it consists in the various agreements which have for their object to facilitate the exchange of the products of the earth or industry of man, with an intent to realize a profit. Pard. Dr. Coin. n. 1. In a narrower sense, commerce signifies any reciprocal agreements between two persons, by which one delivers to the other a thing, which the latter accepts, and for which he pays a consideration; if the consideration be money, it is called a sale; if any other thing than money, it is called exchange or barter. Domat, Dr. Pub. liv. 1, tit. 7, s. 1, n. 2. Congress have power by the constitution to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes. 1 Kent. 431; Story on Corst. 1052, et seq. The sense in which the word commerce is used in the constitution seems not only to include traffic, but intercourse and navigation. Story, 1057; 9 Wheat. 190, 191, 215, 229; 1 Tuck. Bl. App. 249 to 252. Vide 17 John. R. 488; 4 John. Ch. R. 150; 6 John. Ch. R. 300; 1 Halst. R. 285; Id. 236; 3 Cowen R. 713; 12 Wheat. R. 419; 1 Brock. R. 423; 11 Pet. R. 102; 6 Cowen, R. 169; 3 Dana, R. 274; 6 Pet. R. 515; 13 S. & R. 205.
COMMISSARIATE. The whole body of officers who act in the department of the commissary, are called the, commissariate.
COMMISSARY. An officer whose principal duties are to supply the army witli provisions.
2. The Act of April 14, 1818, s. 6, requires that the president, by and with the consent of the senate, shall appoint a commissary general with the rank, pay, and emoluments of colonel of ordnance, and as many assistants, to be taken from the sub-alterns of the line, as the service may require. The commissary general and his assistants shall perform such duties, in the purchasing and issuing of rations to the armies of the United States, as the president may direct. The duties of these officers are further detailed in the subsequent sections of this act,, and in the Act of March 2, 1821.
COMMISSION, contracts, civ. law. When one undertakes, without reward, to do something for another in respect to a thing bailed. This term is frequently used synonymously with mandate. (q. v.) Ruth. Inst. 105; Halifax, Analysis of the Civil Law, 70. If the service the party undertakes to perform for another is the custody of his goods, this particular sort of, commission is called a charge.
2. In a commission, the obligation on his part who undertakes it, is to transact the business without wages, or any other reward, and to use the same care and diligence in it, as if it were his own.
3. By commission is also understood an act performed, opposed to omission, which is the want of performance of such an act; is, when a nuisance is created by an act of commission, it may be abated without notice; but when it arises from omission, notice to remove it must be given before it is abated. 1 Chit. Pr. 711. Vide dbatement of Nuisances; Branches; Trees.
COMMISSION, office. Persons authorized to act in a certain matter; as, such a matter was submitted, to the commission; there were several meetings before the commission. 4 B. & Cr. 850; 10 E. C. L. R. 459.
COMMISSION, crim. law. The act of perpetrating an offence. There are crimes of commission and crimes of omission.
COMMISSION, government. Letters-patent granted by the government, under the public seal, to a person appointed to an office, giving him authority to perform the duties of his office. The commission is not the appointment, but only evidence of it; and as soon as it is signed and sealed, vests the office in the appointee. 1 Cranch, 137; 2 N. & M. 357; 1 M'Cord, 233, 238. See Pet. C. C. R. 194; 2 Summ. 299; 8 Conn. 109; 1 Penn. 297; 2 Const. Rep. 696; 2 Tyler, 235.
COMMISSION, practice. An instrument issued by a court of, justice, or other competent tribunal, to authorize a person to take depositions, or do any other act by authority of such court, or tribunal, is called a commission. For a form of a commission to take.depositions, see Gresley, Eq. Ev. 72.
COMMISSION OF LUNACY, A writ issued out of chancery, or such court as may have jurisdiction of the case directed to a proper officer, to inquire whether a person named therein is a lunatic or not. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 382, et seq.
COMMISSION MERCHANT. One employed to sell goods for another on commission; a factor. He is sometimes called. a consignee, (q. v.) and the goods he receives are a consignment. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1013.
COMMISSION OF REB ELLION, chan. prac. The name of a writ issuing out of chancery, generally directed to four special commissioners, named by the plaintiff, commanding them to attach the defendant wheresoever he may be found within the state, as a rebel and contemner of the law, so as to have him in chancery on a certain day therein named. This writ may be issued after an attachment with proclamation, and a return of non est inventus. Blake's Ch. Pr. 102; Newl. Ch. Pr. 14.
COMMISSIONER, officer. One who has a lawful commission to execute a public office. In a more restricted sense it is one who is authorized to execute. a particular duty, as, commissioner of the revenue, canal commissioner. The term when used in this latter sense is not applied, for example, to a judge. There are commissioners, too, who have no regular commissions and derive their author from the elections held by the people. County commissioners, in Pennsylvania, are officers of the latter kind.
COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS. The name of an officer of the United States whose duties are detailed in the act to promote the useful arts, &c., which will be found under the article Patent.
COMMISSIONERS OF BAIL, practice. Officers appointed by some courts to take recognizances of bail in civil cases.
COMMISSIONERS OF SEWERS, Eng. law. Officers whose duty it is to repair sea banks aud walls, survey rivers, public streams, ditches, &c.
COMMISSlONS, contracts, practice. An allowance of compensation to an agent, factor, executor, trustee or other person who manages the affairs of others, for his services in performing the same.
2. The right of agents, factors or other contractors to commissions, may either be the subjeot of a special contract, or rest upon the quantum meruit. 9 C. & P. 559; 38 E. C. L. R. 227; 3 Smith's R. 440; 7 C. & P. 584; 32 E. C. L. R. 641; Sugd. Vend. Index, tit. Auctioneer
3. This compensation is usually the allowance of a certain, per centage upon the actual amount or value of the business done. When there is a usage of trade at the particular place, or in the particular business in which the agent is engaged, the amount of commissions allowed to auctioneers, brokers and factors, is regulated by such usage. 3 Chit. Com. Law, 221; Smith on Mere. Law, 54; Story, Ag. 326; 3 Camp. R. 412; 4 Camp. R. 96; 2 Stark. 225, 294.
4. The commission of an agent is either ordinary or del credere. (q. v.) The latter is an increase of the ordinary commission, in consideration of the responsibility which the agent undertakes, by making himself answerable for the solvency of those with whom he contracts. Liverm. Agency, 3, et seq.; Paley, Agency, 88, et seq.
5. In Pennsylvania, the amount missions allowed to executors and trustees is generally fixed at five per centum on the sum received and paid out, but this is varied according to circumstances. 1 9 S. & R. 209, 223; 4 Whart. 98; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 241. In England, no commissions are allowed to executors or trustees. 1 Vern. R. 316, n. and the cases there: cited. 4 Ves. 72, n.
TO COMMIT. To send a person to prison by virtue of a warrant or other lawful writ, for the commission of a crime, offence or misdemeanor, or for a contempt, or non-payment of a debt.
COMMITMENT, criminal law, practice. The warrant. or order by which a court or magistrate directs a ministerial officer to take a person to prison. The commitment is either for further hearing, (q. v.) or it is final.
2. The formal requisites of the commitment are, 1st. that it be in writing, under hand, and seal, and show the authority of the magistrate, and the time and place of making it. 3 Har. & McHen. 113; Charl. 280; 3 Crancb, R. 448; see Harp. R. 313. In this case it is said a seal is not indispensable.
3. - 2d. It must be made in the name of the United States, or of the commonwealth, or people, as required by the constitution of the United States or, of the several states.
4. - 3d. It should be directed to the keeper of the prison, and not generally to carry the party to prison. 2 Str. 934; 1 Ld. Raym. 424.
5. - 4th. The prisoner should be described by his name and surname, or the name he gives as his.
6. - 5th. The commitment ought to state that the party has been charged on oath. 3 Cranch, R.448. But see 2 Virg. Cas. 504; 2 Bail. R. 290.
7. - 6th. The particular crime charged against the prisoner should be mentioned with convenient certainty. 3 Cranch, R. 449; 11 St. Tr. 304. 318; Hawk. B. 2, c. 16, s. 16 Chit. Cr. Law, 110.
8. - 7th. The commitment should point out the place of imprisonment, and not merely direct that the party be taken to prison. 2 Str. 934; 1 Ld. Ray. 424.
9. - 8th. In a final commitment, the command to the keeper of the prison should be to keep the prisoner "until he shall be discharged by due course of law," when the offence is not bailable; when it is bailable the gaoler should be, directed to keep the prisoner in his " said custody for want of sureties, or until he shall be discharged by due course of law." When the commitment is not final, it is usual to commit the prisoner " for further hearing." The commitment is also called a mittimus. (q. v.)
10. The act of sending a person to prison charged with the commission of a crime by virtue of such a warrant is also called a commitment. Vide, generally, 4 Vin. Ab. 576; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 4 Cranch, R. 129; 4 Dall. R. 412; 1 Ashm. R. 248; 1 Cowen, R. 144; 3 Conn. R. 502; Wright, R. 691; 2 Virg. Cas. 276; Hardin, R. 249; 4 Mass. R. 497; 14 John. R. 371 2 Virg. Cas. 594; 1 Tyler, R. 444; U. S. Dig. h. t.
COMMITTEE, practice. When a person has been found non compos, the law requires that a guardian should be appointed to take care of his person and estate; this guardian is called the committee.
2. It is usual to select the committee from the next of kin; Shelf. on Lun. 137; and in case of the lunacy of the husband or wife, the one who is of sound mind is entitled, unless under very special circumstances, to be the committee of the other. Id. 140. This is the committee of the person. For committee of the estate, the heir at law is most favored. Relations are referred to strangers, but the latter may be appointed. Id. 144.
3. It is the duty of the committee of the person, to take care of the lunatic; and the committee of the estate is bound to administer the estate faithfully, and to account for his administration. He cannot in general, make contracts in relation to the estate of the lunatic, or bind it, without a Special order of the court or authority that appointed him. Id. 179; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 389-91.
COMMITTEE, legislation. One or more members of a legislative body to whom is specially referred some matter before that body, in order that they may investigate and examine into it and report to those who delegated this authority to them.
COMMITTITUR PIECE, Eng. law. An instrument in writing, on paper or parchment, which charges a person already in prison, in execution at the suit of, the person who arrested him.
COMMlXTION, civil law. This term is used to signify the act by which goods are mixed together.
2. The matters which are mixed are dry or liquid. In the commixtion of the former, the matter retains its substance and individuality; in the latter, the substances no longer remain distinct. The commixtion of liquids is called confusion, (q. v.) and that of solids, a mixture. Lec. Elem. du Dr. Rom. 370, 371; Story, Bailm. 40; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 506.
COMMODATE, contracts. A term used in the Scotch law, which is synonymous to the Latin commodatum, or loan for use. Ersk. Inst. B. 3, t. 1, 20; 1 Bell's Com. 225; Ersk. Pr. Laws of Scotl. B. 3, t. 1, 9.
2. Judge Story regrets this term has not been adopted and naturalized, as mandate has been from mandatum. Story, Com. 221. Ayliffe, in his Pandects, has gone further, and terms the bailor the commodant, and the bailee the commodatory, thus avoiding those circumlocutions, which, in the common phraseology of our law, have become almost indispensable. Ayl. Pand. B. 4, t. 16, p. 517. Browne, in his Civil Law, vol. 1, 352, calls the property loaned "commodated property." See Borrower; Loan for use; Lender.
COMMODATUM. A contract, by which one of the parties binds himself to return to the other certain personal chattels which the latter delivers to him, to be used by him, without reward; loan -for use. Vide Loan for use.
COMMON. or right of common, English law. An encorporeal hereditament, which consists in a profit which a man has in the lands of another. 12 S. & R. 32; 10 Wend. R. 647; 11 John. R. 498; 2 Bouv. Inst. 1640, et seq.
2. Common is of four sorts; of pasture, piscary, turbary and estovers. Finch's Law, 157; Co. Litt. 122; 2 Inst. 86; 2 Bl. Com. 32.
3. - 1. Common of pasture is a right of feeding one's beasts on another's land, and is either appendant, appurtenant, or in gross.
4. Common appendant is of common right, and it may be claimed in pleading as appendant, without laying a prescription. Hargr. note to 2 Inst. 122, a note.
5. Rights of common appurtenant to the claimant's land are altogether independent of the tenure, and do not arise from any absolute necessity; but may be annexed to lands in other lordships, or extended to other beasts besides. such as are generally commonable.
6. Common in gross, or at large, is such as is neither appendant nor appurtenant to land, but is annexed to a man's person. All these species of pasturable common, may be and usually are limited to number and time; but there are also commons without stint, which last all the year. 2 Bl. Com. 34.
7. - 2. Common of piscary is the liberty of fishing in another man's water. lb. See Fishery.
8. - 3. Common of turbary is the liberty of digging turf in another man's ground. Ib.
9.-4. Common of estovers is the liberty of taking necessary wood-for the use or furniture of a house or farm from another man's estate. Ib.; 10 Wend. R. 639. See Estovers.
10. The right of common is little known in the United States, yet there are some regulations to be found in relation to this subject. The constitution of Illinois provides for the continuance of certain commons in that state. Const. art. 8, s. 8.
11. All unappropriated lands on the Chesapeake Bay, on the Shore of the sea, or of any river or creek, and the bed of any river or creek, in the eastern parts of the commonwealth, ungranted and used as common, it is declared by statute in Virginia, shall remain so, and not be subject to grant. 1 Virg. Rev. C. 142.
12. In most of the cities and towns in the United States, there are considerable tracts of land appropriated to public use. These commons were generally laid out with the cities or towns where they are found, either by the original proprietors or by the early inhabitants. Vide 2 Pick. Rep. 475; 12 S. & R. 32; 2 Dane's. Ab. 610; 14 Mass. R. 440; 6 Verm. 355. See, in general, Vin. Abr. Common; Bac. Abr. Common; Com. Dig. Common; Stark. Ev. part 4, p. 383; Cruise on Real Property, h. t.; Metc. & Perk. Dig. Common, and Common lands and General fields.
COMMON APPENDANT, Eng. law. A right attached to arable land, and is an incident of tenure, and supposed to have originated by grant of the lord or owner of a manor or waste, in consideration of certain rents or services, or other value, to a freeholder or copyholder of plough land, and at the same time either expressly or by implication, and as of common right and necessity common appendant over his other wastes and commons. Co. Litt. 122 a; Willis, 222.
COMMON APPURTENANT, Eng. law. A right granted by deed, by the owner of waste or other land, to another person, owner of other land, to have his cattle, or a particular description of cattle; levant and couchant upon the land, at certain seasons of the year, or at all times of the year. An uninterrupted usage for twenty years, is evidence of a grant. 15 East, 116.
COMMON ASSURANCES. Title by deeds are so called, because, it is said, every man ' s estate is assured to him; these deed's or instruments operate either as conveyances or as charges.
2.- 1. Deeds of conveyance are, first, at common law, and include feoffments, gifts, grants, leases, exchanges, partition's, releases, confirmations, surrenders, assignments, and defeasances; secondly, deeds of conveyance under the statute of uses, as covenants to stand seised to uses, bargains and sale, lease and release, deeds to lead or declare uses, and deeds of appointment and revocation.
3. - 2. Deeds which do not convoy, but only charge or discharge lands, are obligations, recognizances, and defeasances. Vide Assurance; Deed.
COMMON BAIL. The formal entry of fictitious sureties in the proper office of the court, which is called filing common bail to the action. See Bail.
COMMON BAR, pleading. A plea to compel the plaintiff to assign the particular place where the trespass has been Committed. Steph. Pl. 256. It i's sometime's called a blank bar. (q. v.)
COMMON BENCH, bancus communis. The court of common pleas was anciently called common bench, because the pleas and controversies there determined were between common persons. See Bench.
COMMON CARRIER, contracts. One who undertakes for hire or reward to transport the goods of any who may choose to employ him, from place to place. 1 Pick. 50, 53; 1 Salk. 249, 250; Story, Bailm. 495 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1020.
2. Common carriers are generally of two descriptions, namely, carriers by land and carriers by water. Of the former description are the proprietors of stage coaches, stage wagons or expresses, which ply between different places, and' carry goods for hire; and truckmen, teamsters, cartmen, and porters, who undertake to carry goods for hire, as a common employment, from one part of a town or city to another, are also considered as common carriers. Carriers by water are the masters and owners of ships and steamboats engaged in the transportation of goods for persons generally, for hire and lightermen, hoymen, barge-owners, ferrymen, canal boatmen, and others employed in like manner, are so considered.
3. By the common law, a common carrier is generally liable for all losses which may occur to property entrusted to his charge in the course of business, unless he can prove the loss happened in consequence of the act of God, or of the enemies of the United States, or by the act of the owner of the property. 8 S. & R. 533; 6 John. R. 160; 11 John. R. 107; 4 N. H. Rep. 304; Harp. R. 469; Peck. R. 270; 7 Yerg. R. 340; 3 Munf. R. 239; 1 Conn. R. 487; 1 Dev. & Bat. 273; 2 Bail. Rep. 157.
4. It was attempted to relax the rigor of the common law in relation to carriers by water, in 6 Cowen, 266; but that case seems to be at variance with other decisions. 2 Kent,. Com. 471, 472; 10 Johns. 1; 11 Johns. 107.
5. In respect to carriers by land, the rule of the common law seems every where admitted in its full rigor in the states governed by the jurisprudence of the common law. Louisiana follows the doctrine of the civil law in her code. Proprietors of stage coaches or wagons, whose employment is solely% to carry passengers, as hackney coachmen, are not deemed common carriers; but if the proprietors of such vehicles for passengers, also carry goods for hire, they are, in respect of such goods, to be deemed common carriers. Bac. Ab. Carriers, A; 2 Show. Rep. 128 1 Salk. 282 Com. Rep. 25; 1 Pick. 50 5 Rawle, 1 79. The like reasoning applies to packet ships and steam-boats, which ply between different ports, and are accustomed to carry merchandise as well as passengers. 2 Watts. R. 443; 5 Day's Rep. 415; 1 Conn. R. 54; 4 Greenl. R. 411; 5 Yerg. R. 427; 4 Har. & J. 291; 2 Verm. R. 92; 2 Binn. Rep. 74; 1 Bay, Rep. 99; 10 John. R. 1; 11 Pick. R. 41; 8 Stew. and Port. 135; 4 Stew. & Port. 382; 3 Misso. R. 264; 2 Nott. & M. 88. But see 6 Cowen, R. 266. The rule which makes acommon carrier responsible for the loss of goods, does not extend to the carriage of persons; a carrier of slaves is, therefore, answerable only for want of care and skill. 2 Pet. S. C. R. 150. 4 M'Cord, R. 223; 4 Port. R. 238.
6. A common carrier of goods is in all cases entitled to demand the price of carriage before he receives the goods, and, if not paid, he may refuse to take charge of them; if, however, he take charge of them without the hire being paid, he may afterwards recover it. The compensation which becomes due for the carriage of goods by sea, is commonly called freight (q.v.); and see also, Abb. on Sh. part 3, c. 7. The carrier is also entitled to a lien on the goods for his hire, which, however, he may waive; but if once waived, the right cannot be resumed. 2 Kent, Com. 497. The consignor or shipper is commonly bound to the carrier for the hire or freight of goods. 1 T. R. 659. But whenever the consignee engages to pay it, he also becomes responsible. It is usual in bills of lading to state, that the goods are to be delivered to the consignee or to his assigns, he or they paying freight, in which case the consignee and his assigns, by accepting the goods, impliedly become bound to pay the freight, and the fact that the consignor is also liable to pay it, will not, in such case, make any difference. Abbott on Sh. part 3, o. 7, 4.
7. What is said above, relates to common carriers of goods. The duties, liabilities, and rights of carriers of passengers, are now to be considered. These are divided into carriers of passengers on land, and carriers of passengers on water.
8. First, of carriers of passengers on land. The duties of such carriers are, 1st. those which arise on the commencement of the journey. 1. To carry passengers whenever they offer themselves and are ready to pay for their transportation. They have no more right to refuse a passenger, if they have sufficient room and accommodation, than an innkeeper has to refuse a guest. 3 Brod. & Bing. 54; 9 Price's R. 408; 6 Moore, R. 141; 2 Chit. R. 1; 4 Esp. R. 460; 1 Bell's Com. 462; Story, Bailm. 591.
9. - 2. To provide coaches reasonably strong and sufficient for the journey, with suitable horses, trappings and equipments.
10. - 3. To provide careful drivers of reasonable skill and. good habits for the journey; and to employ horses which are steady and not vicious, or likely to endanger the safety of the passengers.
11. - 4. Not to overload the coach either with passengers or luggage.
12. - 5. To receive and take care of the usual luggage allowed to every passenger on the journey. 6 Hill, N. Y. Rep. 586.
13. - 2d. Their duties on the progress of the journey. 1. To stop at the usual places, and allow the..Usual intervals for the refreshment of the passengers. 5 Petersd. Ab. Carriers, p. 48, note.
14. - 2. To use all the ordinary precautions for the safety of passengers on the road.
15. - 3d. Their duties on the termination of the journey. 1. To carry the passengers to the end of the journey.
16. - 2. To put them down at the usual place of stopping, unless there has been a special contract to the contrary, and then to put them down at the place agreed upon. 1 Esp. R. 27. ,
17. The liabilities of such carriers. They are bound to use extraordinary care and diligence to carry safely those whom they take in their coaches. 2 Esp. R. 533; 2 Camp. R. 79; Peake's R. 80. But, not being insurers, they are not responsible for accidents, when all reasonable skill and diligence have been used.
18. The rights of such carriers. 1. To demand and receive their fare at the time the passenger takes his seat. 2. They have a lien on the baggage of the passenger for his fare or passage money, but not on the person of the passenger nor the clothes he has on. Abb. on Sh. part 3, c. 3, 11; 2 Campb. R. 631.
19. Second, carriers of passengers by water. By the act of Congress of 2d March, 1819, 3 Story's Laws U. S. 1722, it is enacted, 1. that no master of a vessel bound to or from the United States shall take more than two passengers for every five tons of the ship's custom-house measurement. 2. That the quantity of water and provisions, which shall be taken on board and secured under deck, by every Ship bound from the United States to any port on the continent of Europe, shall be sixty gallons of water, one hundred pounds of salted provisions, one gallon of vinegar, and one hundred pounds of wholesome ship bread for each passenger, besides the stores of the crew. The tonnage here mentioned, is the measurement of the custom-house; and in estimating the number of passengers in a vessel, no deduction is to be made for children or persons not paying, but the crew is not to be included. Gilp. R. 334.
20. The act of Congress of February 22, 1847, section 1, provides: " That if the master of any vessel, owned in whole or in part by a citizen of the United States of America, or by a citizen of any foreign country, shall take on board such vessel, at any foreign port or place, a greater number of passengers than in the following proportion to the space occupied by them and appropriated for their use, and unoccupied by stores or other goods, not being the personal luggage of such passengers, that is to say, on the lower deck or platform one passenger for every fourteen clear superficial feet of deck, if such vessel is not to pass within the tropics during such voyage; but if such vessel is to pass within the tropics during such voyage, then one passenger for every twenty such clear superficial feet of deck, and on the orlop deck (if any) one passenger for every thirty such superficial feet in all cases, with intent to bring such passengers to the United States of America, and shall leave such port or, place with the same, and bring the same, or any number thereof, within the jurisdiction of the United States aforesaid, or if any such master of a vessel shall take on board of his vessel at any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States aforesaid, any greater number of passengers than the proportions aforesaid admit, with intent to carry the same to any foreign port or place, every such master shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof before any circuit or district court of the United States aforesaid, shall, for each passenger taken on board beyond the above proportions, be fined in the sum of fifty dollars, and may also be imprisoned for any term not exceeding one year: Provided, That this act shall not be construed to permit any ship or vessel to carry more than two passengers to five tons of such ship or vessel."
21. Children under one year of age not to be computed in counting the passengers, and those over one year and under eight, are to be counted as two cbildren for one passenger, Sect. 4. But this section is repealed so far as authorizes shippers to estimate two children of eight years of age and under as one passenger by the act of March 2, 1847, s. 2.
22. In New York, statutory regulations have been made in relation to their canal navigation. Vide 6 Cowen's R. 698. As to the conduct of carrier vessels on the ocean, Vide Story, Bailm. 607 et seq; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 2. And see, generally, 1 Vin. Ab. 219; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 1 Com. Dig. 423; Petersd. Ab. h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 2 Kent, Com. 464; 16 East, 247, note; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
23. In Louisiana carriers and watermen are subject, with respect to the safe-keeping and preservation of the tbings entrusted to them, to the same obligations and duties, as are imposed on tavern keepers; Civ. Code, art. 2722; that is, they are responsible for the effects which are brought, though they were not delivered into their personal care; provided, however, they were delivered to a servant or person in their employment; art. 2937. They are responsible if any of the effects be stolen or damaged, either by their servants or agents, or even by strangers; art. 2938; but they are not responsible for what is stolen b force of arms or with exterior breaking open of doors, or by any other extraordinary violence; art. 2939. For the authorities on the subject ofCommon carriers in the civil law, the reader is referred to Dig. 4, 9, 1 to 7; Poth. Pand. lib. 4, t. 9; Domat liv. 1, t. 16, S. 1 and 2; Pard. art. 537 to 555; Code Civil, art. 1782, 1786, 1952; Moreau & Carlton, Partidas 5, t. 8, 1. 26; Ersk. Inst. B. 2, t. 1, 28; 1 Bell's Com. 465; Abb. on Sh. part 3, c. 3, 3, note (1); 1 Voet, ad Pand. lib. 4, t. 9; Merl. Rep. mots Voiture, Voiturier; Dict. de Police, Voiture.
COMMON COUNCIL. In many cities the charter provides for their government, in imitation of the national and state governments. There are two branches of the legislative assembly; the less numerous, called the select, the other, the common council.
2. In English law, the common council of the whole realm means the parliament. Fleta, lib. 2, cap. 13.
COMMON COUNTS. Certain general counts, not founded on any special contract, which are introduced in a declaration, for the purpose of preventing a defeat of a just right by the accidental variance of the evidence. These are in an action of assumpsit; counts founded on express or implied promises to pay money in consideration of a precedent debt, and are of four descriptions: 1. The indebitatus assumpsit; 2. The quantum meruit; 3 . The quantum valebant; and, 4. The account stated.
COMMON FISHERY. A fishery to which all persons have a right, such as the cod fisheries off Newfoundland. A common fishery is different from a common of fishery, which is the right to fish in another's pond, pool, or river. See Fishery.
COMMON HIGHWAY. By this term is meant a road to be used by the community at large for any purpose of transit or traffic. Hamm. N. P. 239. See Highway.
COMMON INFORMER. One who, without being specially required by law, or by virtue of his office, gives information of crimes, offences or misdemeanors, which have been committed, in order to prosecute the offenders; a prosecutor. Vide Informer; Prosecutor.
COMMON INTENT, construction. The natural sense given to words.
2. It is a rule that when words are used which will bear a natural sense and an artificial one, or one to be made out by argument and inference, the natural sense shall prevail; it. is simply a rule of construction and not of addition common intent cannot add to a sentence words which have been omitted. 2 H. Black. 530. In pleading, certainty is required, but certainty to a common intent is sufficient; that is, what upon a reasonable construction may be called certain, without recurring to possible facts. Co. Litt. 203, a; Dougl. 163. See Certainty.
COMMON LAW. That which derives its force and authority from the universal consent and immemorial practice of the people. See Law, common.
COMMON NUISANCE. One which affects the public in general, and not merely some particular person. 1 Hawk. P. C. 197. See Nuisance.
COMMON PLEAS. The name of a court having jurisdiction generally of civil actions. For a historical account of the origin of this court in England, see Boote's Suit at Law, 1 to 10. Vide Common Bench and Bench.
2. By common pleas, is also understood, such pleas or actions as are brought by private persons against private persons; or by the government, when the cause of action is of a civil nature. In England, whence we derived this phrase, common pleas are so called to distinguish them from pleas of the crown. (q. v.)
COMMON RECOVERY. A judgment recovered in a fictitious suit, brought against the tenant of the freehold, in consequence of a default made by the person who is last vouched to warranty in the suit., A common recovery is a kind of conveyance. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2088, 2092-3. Vide Recovery.
COMMON SCOLD, Crim. law, communes rixatrix. A woman, who, in consequence of her boisterous, disorderly and quarrelsome tongue, is a public nuisance to the neighborhood.
2. Such a woman may be indicted, and on conviction, punished. At common law, the punishment was by being placed in a certain engine of correction called the trebucket or cocking stool.
3. This punisbment has been abolished in Pennsylvania, where the offence may be punished by fine and imprisonment.12 Serg. & Rawle, 220; vide 1 Russ. on Cr. 802 Hawk. B. 2, c. 25, s. 59 1 T. R. 756 4 Rogers' Rec. 90; Roscoe on Cr. Ev. 665.
COMMON SEAL, A seal used by a corporation. See Corporation.
COMMON SENSE , med. jur. When a person possesses those perceptions, associations and judgments, in relation to persons and things, which agree with those of the generality of mankind, he is said to possess common sense. On the contrary, when a particular individual differs from the generality of persons in these respects, he is said not to have common sense, or not to be in his senses. 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 334.
COMMON, TENANTS IN. Tenants in common are such as hold an estate, real or personal, by several distinct titles, but by a unity of possession. Vide Tenant in common; Estate in common.
COMMON TRAVERSE. This kind of traverse differs from those called technical traverses principally in this, that it is preceded by no inducement general or special; it is taken without an absque hoc, or any similar words, and is simply a direct denial of the adverse allegations, in common language, and always concludes to the country. It can be used properly only when an inducement is not requisite; that is, when the party traversing has no need to allege any new matter. 1 Saund. 103 b. ii. 1.
2. This traverse derives its name, it is presumed, from the fact that common language is used, and that it is more informal than other traverses.
COMMON VOUCHEE. In common recoveries, the person who vouched to warranty. In this fictitious proceeding, the crier of the court usually performs the office of a common vouchee. 2 Bl. Com. 358; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2093.
COMMONALTY, Eng. law. This word signifies, 1st. the common people of England, as contradistinguished from the king and the nobles; 2d. the body of a society as the masters, wardens, and commonalty of such a society.
COMMONER. One who is entitled with others to the use of a common.
COMMONS, Eng. law. Those subjects of the English nation who are not noblemen. They are represented in parliament in the house of commons.
COMMONWEALTH, government. A commonwealth is properly a free state, or republic, having a popular or representative government. The term has been, applied to the government of Great Britain. It is not applicable to absolute governments. The states composing the United States are, properly, so many commonwealths.
2. It is a settled principle, that no sovereign power is amenable to answer suits, either in its own courts or in those of a foreign country, unless by its own consent. 4 Yeates, 494.
COMMORANCY, persons. An abiding dwelling, or continuing as an inhabitant in any place. It consists, properly, in sleeping usually in one place.,
COMMORANT. One residing or inhabiting a particular place. Barnes, 162.
COMMORIENTES. This Latin word signifies those wbo die at the same time, as, for example, by shipwreck.
2. When several persons die by the same accident, and there is no evidence as to who survived, the presumption of law is, they all died at the same time. 2 Phillim. R. 261 Fearne on Rem. iv.; 5 B. & Adol. 91; Cro. Eliz. 503; Bac. Ab. Execution, D; 1 Mer. R. 308. See Death; Survivor.
COMMUNICATION, contracts. Information; consultation; conference.
2. In order to make a contract, it is essential there should be an agreement; a bare communication or conference will not, therefore, amount to a contract; nor can evidence of such communication be received in order to take from, contradict, or alter a written agreement. 1 Dall. 426; 4 Dall. 340; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 609. Vide Pour-parler; Wbarton's Dig. Evid. R.
COMMUNINGS, Scotch law. This term is used to express the negotiations which have taken place before making a contract, in relation thereto. See Pourparler.
2. It is a general rule, that such communings or conversations, and the propositions then made, are no part of the contract for no parol evidence will be allowed to be given to contradict, alter, or vary a written instrument. 1 Serg. & R. 464 Id. 27; Add. R. 361; 2 Dall. R. 172 1 Binn. 616; 1 Yeates, R. 140; 12 John. R. 77; 20 John. R. 49; 3 Conn. R. 9; 11 Mass. R. 30; 13 Mass. R. 443; 1 Bibb's R. 271; 4 Bibb's R. 473; 3 Marsh. (Kty.) R. 333; Bunb. 175; 1 M. & S. 21; 1 Esp. C. 58; 3 Campb. R. 57.
COMMUNIO BONORUM, civil law. Common goods.
2. When a person has the management of common property, owned by himself and others, not as partners, he is bound to account for the profits, and is entitled to be reimbursed for the expenses which he has sustained by virtue of the quasi-contract which is created by his act, called communio bonorum. Vicat; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 907, note.
COMMUNITY. This word has several meanings; when used in common parlance it signifies the body of the people.
2. In the civil law, by community is understood corporations, or bodies politic. Dig. 3, 4.
3. In the French law, which has been adopted in this respect in Louisiana, Civ. Code, art. 2371, community is a species of partnership, which a man and woman contract when they are lawfully married to each other. It consists of the profits of all, the effects of which the husband has the administration and enjoyment, either of right or in fact; of the produce of the reciprocal industry and labor of both husband and wife, and of the estates which they may acquire during the marriage, either by donations made jointly to them, or by purchase, or in any other similar way, even although the purchase he made in the name of one of the two, and not of both; because in that case the period of time when the purchase is made is alone attended to, and not the person who made the purchase. 10 L. R. 146; Id. 172, 181; 1 N. S. 325; 4 N. S. 212. The debts contracted during the marriage enter into the community, and must be acquitted out of the common fund; but not the debts contracted before the marriage.
4. The community is either, first, conventional, or that which is formed by an express agreement in the contract of marriage itself; by this contract the legal community may be modified, as to the proportions which each shall take, or as to the things which shall compose it; Civ. Code of L. art. 2393; second, legal, which takes place when the parties make no agreement on this subject in the contract of marriage; when it is regulated by the law of the domicil they had at the time of marriage.
5. The effects which compose the community of gains, are divided *into two equal portions between the heirs, at the dissolution of the marriage. Civ. Code of L. art. 2375. See Poth. h. t.; Toull. h. t.; Civ. Code of Lo. tit. 6, c. 2, s. 4.
6. In another sense, community is the right which all men have, according to the laws of nature, to use all things. Wolff, Inst. 186.
COMMUTATION, punishments. The change of a punishment to which a person has been condemned into a less severe one. This can be granted only by the executive authority in which the pardoning power resides.
COMMUTATIVE CONTRACT, civil law. One in which each of the contracting parties gives and, receives an equivalent. The contract of sale is of this kind. The seller gives the thing sold, and receives the price, which is the equivalent. The buyer gives the price and receives the thing sold, which is the equivalent.
2. These contracts are usually distributed into four classes, namely; Do ut des; Facio ut facias; Facio ut des; Do ut facias. Poth. Obl. n. 13. See' Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1761.
COMMUTATIVE JUSTICE. That virtue whose object is, to render to every one what belongs to him, as nearly as may be, or that which governs contracts.
2. The word commutative is derived from commutare, which signifies to exchange. Lepage, El. du Dr. ch. 1, art. 3, 3. See Justice.
TO COMMUTE. To substitute one punishment in the place of another. For example, if a man be sentenced to be hung, the executive may, in some states, commute his punishment to that of imprisonment.
COMPACT, contracts. In its more general sense, it signifies an agreement. In its strict sense, it imports a contract between parties, which creates obligations and rights capable of being enforeed, and contemplated as such between the parties, in their distinct and independent characters. Story, Const. B. 3, c. 3; Rutherf. Inst. B. 2, c. 6, 1. 2. The constitution of the United States declares that " no state shall, without the consent of congress, enter into agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power." See 11 Pet: 1; 8 Wheat. 1 Bald. R. 60; 11 Pet. 185.
COMPANION, dom. rel. By 5 Edw. III., st. 5, c. 2, 1, it is declared to be high treason in any one who " doth compass or imagine the death of our lord the king, or our lady his companion," &c. See 2 Inst. 8, 9; 1 H. H. P. C. 124.
COMPANIONS, French law. This is a general term, comprehending all persons who compose the crew of a ship or vessel. Poth. Mar. Contr. n. 163.
COMPANY. An association of a number of individuals for the purpose of carrying on some legitimate business.
2. This term is not synonymous with partnership, though every such unincorporated compass is a partnership.
3. Usage has reserved this term to associations whose members are in greater number, their capital more considerable, and their enterprizes greater, either on account of their risk or importance.
4. When these companies are authorized by the government, they are known by the name of corporations. (q. v.)
5. Sometimes the word is used to represent those members of a partnership whose names do not appear in the name of the firm; as, A.B & Company. Vide, 12 Toull. n, 97; Mortimer on Commerce, 128. Vide Club; Corporation; Firm; Parties to actions; Partnership.
COMPARISON OF HANDWRITING, evidence. It is a general rule that comparison of hands is not admissible; but to this there are some exceptions. In some instances, when the antiquity of the writing makes it impossible for any living witness to swear that he ever saw the party write, comparison of handwriting, with documents known to be in his handwriting, has been admitted. For the general principle, see Skin. 579, 639; 6 Mod. 167; 1 Lord Ray. 39, 40; Holt. 291; 4 T. R. 497; 1 Esp. N. P. C. 14, 351; Peake's Evid. 69; 7 East, R. 282; B. N. P. 236; Anthon's N. P. 98, n.; 8 Price, 653; 11 Mass. R. 309 2 Greenl. R. 33 2 Johns. Cas. 211 1 Esp. 351; 1 Root, 307; Swift's Ev. 29; 1 Whart. Dig 245; 5 Binn. R. 349; Addison's R. 33; 2 M'Cord, 518; 1 Tyler, R. 4 6 Whart. R. 284; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3129-30. Vide Diploma.
TO COMPASS. To imagine; to contrive.
2. In England, to compass the death of the king is high treason. Bract. 1. 3, c. 2 Britt. c. 8; Mirror, c. 1, s. 4.
COMPATIBILITY. In speaking of public offices it is meant by this term to convey the idea that two of them may be held by the same person at the same time. It is the opposite of incompatibility. (q. v.)
COMPENSATIO CRIMINIS. The compensation or set-off of one crime against another; for example, in questions of divorce, where one party claims the divorce on the ground of adultery of his or her companion, the latter may show that the complainant has been guilty of the same offence, and having himself violated the contract, he cannot complain of its violation on the other side. This principle is incorporated in the codes of most civilized nations. 1 Ought. Ord. per tit. 214; 1 Hagg. Consist. R. 144; 1 Hagg. Eccl. R. 714; 2 Paige, 108; 2 Dev. & Batt. 64. See Condonation.
COMPENSATION, chancery practice. The performance of tbat which a court of chancery orders to be done on relieving a party who has broken a condition, which is to place the opposite party in no worse situation than if the condition had not been broken.
2. Courts of equity will not relieve from the consequences of a broken condition, unless compensation can be made to the opposite party. Fonb. c. 6; s. 51 n. (k) Newl. Contr: 251, et. seq.
3. When a simple mistake, not a fraud, affects a contract, but does not change its essence, a court of equity will enforce it, upon making compensation for the error, The principle upon wbich courts of equity act," says Lord Chancellor Eldon, "is by all the authorities brought to the true standard, that though the party had not a title at law, because he had not strictly complied with the terms so as to entitle him to an action, (as to time for instance,) yet if the time, though introduced, as some time must be fixed, where something is to be done on one side, as a consideration for something to be done on the other, is not the essence of the contract; a material object, to which they looked in the first conception of it, even though the lapse of time has not arisen from accident, a court of equity will compel the execution of the contract upon this ground, that one party is ready to perform, and that the other ma, have performance in substance if he will permit it." 13 Ves. 287. See 10 Ves. 505; 13 Ves. 73, 81, 426; 6 Ves. 675; 1 Cox, 59.
COMPENSATION, contracts. A reward for services rendered.
COMPENSATION, contracts, civil law. When two persons are equally indebted to each other, there takes place a compensation between them, which extinguishes both debts. Compensation is, therefore, a reciprocal liberation between two persons who are creditors and debtors to each other, which liberation takes place instead of payment, and prevents a circuity. Or it may be more briefly defined as follows; compensatio est debiti et crediti intter se contributio.
2. Compeasation takes places, of course, by the more operation of law, even unknown to the debtors the two debts are reciprocally extinguished, as soon as they exist simultaneously, to the, amount of their respective sums. Compensation takes place only between two debts, having equally for their object a sum of money, or a certain quantity of consumable things of one and the same kind, and which are equally liquidated and demandable. Compensation takes place, whatever be the cause of either of the debts, except in case, 1st. of a demand of restitution of a tbing of which the owner has been unjustly deprived; 2d. of a demand of restitution of a deposit and a loan for use; 3d. of a debt which has for its cause, aliments declared not liable to seizure. Civil Code of. Louis. 2203 to 2208. Compensation is of three kinds: 1. legal or by operation of law; 2. compensation by way of exception; and, 3. by reconvention. 8 L. R. 158; Dig. lib. 16, t. 2; Code, lib. 4, t. 31; Inst. lib. 4, t' 6, s. 30; Poth. Obl. partie. 3eme, ch. 4eme, n. 623; Burge on Sur., Book 2, c. 6, p. 181.
3. Compensation very nearly resembles the set-off (q. v.) of the common law. The principal difference is this, that a set-off, to have any effect, must be pleaded; whereas compensation is effectual without any such plea, only the balance is a debt. .2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1407.
COMPENSATION, crim. law; Compeusatio crimiuura, or recrimination (q. v.)
2. In cases of suits for divorce on the ground of adultery, a compensation of the crime hinders its being granted; that is, if the defendant proves that the party has also committed adultery, the defendant is absolved as to the matters charged in the libel of the plaintiff. Ought. tit. 214, Pl. 1; Clarke's Prax. tit. 115; Shelf. on Mar. & Div. 439; 1 Hagg. Cons. R. 148. See Condonation; Divorce.
COMPENSATION, remedies. The damages recovered for an injury, or the violation of a contract.. See Damages.
COMPERUIT AD DIEM, pleading. He appeared at the day. This is the name of a plea in bar to an action of debt on a bail-bond. The usual replication to this plea is nul tiel record: that there is not any such record of appearance of the said. For forms of this plea, vide 5 Wentw. 470; Lil. Entr. 114; 2 Chit. Pl. 527.
2. When the issue is joined on this plea, the trial is by the record. Vide 1 Taunt. 23; Tidd, 239. And see, generally, Com. Dig. Pleader, 2 W. 31; 7 B. & C. 478.
COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. Prima facie every person offered is a competent witness, and must be received, unless Lis incompetency (q. v.) appears. 9 State Tr. 652.
3. There is a difference between competency and credibility. A witness may be competent, and, on examination, his story may be so contradictory and improbable that he may not be believed; on the contrary he may be incompetent, and yet be perfectly credible if he were examined.
4. The court are the sole judges of the competency of a witness, and may, for the purpose of deciding whether the witness is or is not competent, ascertain all the facts necessary to form a judgment. Vide 8 Watts, R. 227; and articles Credibility; Incompetency; Interest; Witness.
5. In the French law, by competency is understood the right in a court to exercise jurisdiction in a particular case; as, where the, law gives jurisdiction to the court when a thousand francs shall be in dispute, the court is competent if, the sum demanded is a thousand francs or upwards, although the plaintiff may ultimately recover less.
COMPETENT WITNESS. One who is legally qualified to be heard to testify in a cause. In Kentucky, Michigan, and Missouri, a will must be attested, for the purpose of passing lands, by competent witnesses; but if wbolly written by the testator, in Kentucky, it need not be so attested. See Attesting witness; Credible witness; Disinterested witness; Respectable witness; and Witness.
COMPETITORS, French law. Persons who compete or aspire to the same office, rank or employment. As an English word in common use, it has a much wider application. Ferriere, Dict. de Dr. h. t.
COMPILATION. A literary production, composed of the works of others, and arranged in some methodical manner.
2. When a compilation requires in its execution taste, learning, discrimination and intellectual labor, it 'is an object of copyright; as, for example, Bacon's Abridgment. Curt. on Copyr. 186.
COMPLAINANT. One who makes a complaint. A plaintiff in a suit in chancery is so called.
COMPLAINT, crim. law. The allegation made to a proper officer, that some person, whether known or unknown, has been guilty of a designated offence, with an offer to prove the fact, and a request that the offender may be punished.
2. To have a legal effect, the complaint must be supported by such evidence as shows that an offence has been committed, and renders it certain or probable that it was committed by the person named or described in the complaint.
COMPOS MENTIS. Of sound mind. See non compos mentis.
COMPOSITION, contracts. An agreement, made upon a sufficient consideration, between a debtor and creditor, by which the creditor accepts part of the debt due to him in satisfaction of the whole. Montagu on Compos. 1; 3 Co. 118; Co. Litt. 212, b; 4 Mod. 88; 1 Str. 426; 2 T. R. 24, 26; 2 Chit. R. 541, 564; 5 D. & R. 56 3 B. & C. 242; 1 R. & M. 188; 1 B. & A. 103, 440; 3 Moore's R. 11; 6 T. R. 263; 1 D. & R. 493; 2 Campb. R. 283; 2 M. & S. 120; 1 N. R. 124; Harr. Dig. Deed VIII.
2. In England, compositions were formerly allowed for crimes and misdemeanors, even for murder. But these compositions are no longer allowed, and even a qui tam action cannot be lawfully compounded. Bac. Ab. Actions qui tam, See 2 John. 405; 9 John. 251; 10 John. 118; 11 John. 474; 6 N. H.-Rep. 200.
COMPOSITION OF MATTER. In describing the subjects of patents, the Act of Congress of July 4, 1836, sect. 6, uses the words "composition of matter;" these words are usually applied to mixtures and chemical compositions, and in these cases it is enough that the compound is new. Both the composition and the mode of compounding may be considered as included in the invention, when the compound is new.
COMPOUND INTEREST. Interest allowed upon interest; for example, when a sum of money due for interest, is added to the principal, and then bears interest. This is not, in general, allowed. See Interest for money.
COMPOUNDER, in Louisiana. He who makes a composition. An amicable compounder is one who has undertaken by the agreement of the parties to compound or settle differences. between them. Code of Pract. of Lo. art. 444.
COMPOUNDING A FELONY, The act of a party immediately aggrieved, who agrees with a thief or other felon that he will not prosecute him, on condition that he return to him the goods stolen, or who takes a reward not to prosecute. This is an offence punishable by fine and imprisonment. The mere retaking by the owner of stolen goods is no offence, unless the offender is not to be prosecuted. Hale, P. C. 546 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 4.
COMPROMISE, contracts. An agreement between two or more persons, who, to avoid a lawsuit, amicably settle their differences, on such terms as they can agree upon. Vide Com. Dig. App. tit. Compromise.
2. It will be proper to consider, 1. by whom the compromise must be made; 2. its form; 3. the subject of the compromise; 4. its effects.
3. It must be made by a person having a right and capacity to enter into the contract, and carry out his part of it, or by one having lawful authority from such person.
4. The compromise may be by parol or in writing, and the writing may be under seal or not: though as a general rule a partner cannot bind his copartner by deed, unless expressly authorized, yet it would seem that a compromise with the principal is an act which a partner may do in behalf of his copartners, and that, though under seal, it would conclude the firm. 2 Swanst. 539.
5. The compromise may relate to a civil claim, either as a matter of contract, or for a tort, but it must be of something uncertain; for if the debt be certain and undisputed, a payment of a part will not, of itself, discharge the whole. A claim connected with a criminal charge cannot be compromised. 1 Chit. Pr. 17. See Nev. & Man. 275.
6. The compromise puts an end to the suit, if it be proceeding, and bars any Suit which may afterwards be instituted. It has the effect of res judicata. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 798-9.
7. In the civil law, a compromise is an agreement between two or more persons, who, wishing to settle their disputes, refer the matter, in controversy to arbitrators, who are so called because those who choose them give them full powers to arbitrate and decide what shall appear just and reasonable, to put an end -to the differences of which they are made the judges. 1 Domat, Lois Civ. lib. h. t. 14. Vide Submission; Ch. Pr. Index, h. t.
COMPROMISSARIUS, civil law. A name sometimes given to an arbitrator; because the parties to the submission usually agree to fulfil his award as a compromise.
COMPTROLLERS. There are officers who bear this name, in the treasury depart ment of the United States.
2. There are two comptrollers. It is the duty of the first to examine all accounts settled by the first and fifth auditors, and certify the balances arising thereon to the register; to countersign all warrants drawn by the secretary.of the treasury, other than those drawn on the requisitions of the sec retaries of the war and navy departments, which shall be warranted by law; to report to the secretary the official forms to be issued in the different offices for collecting the public revenues, and the manner and form of stating the accounts of the several persons employed therein; and to superintend the preservation of the public accounts, subject to his revision; and to provide for the payment of all moneys which may be collected. Act of March 3, 1817, sect. 8; Act of Sept. 2, 1789, s. 2 Act of March 7, 1822 .
3. To superintend the recovery of all debts due to the United States; to direct suits and legal proceedings, and to take such measures as may be authorized by the laws, to enforce prompt payment of all such debt; Act of March 3, 1817, sect. 10; Act of Sept. 2, 1789, s. 2; to lay before congress annually, during the first week of their session, a list of such officers as shall have failed in that year to make the settlement required by law; and a statement of the accounts in the treasury, war, and navy departments, which may have remained more than three years unsettled, or on which balauces appear to have been due more than three years prior to the thirteenth day of September, then last past; together with a statement of the causes which have prevented a settlement of the accounts, or the recovery of the balances due to the United States. Act of March 3, 1809, sect. 2.
4. Besides these, this officer is required to perform minor duties, which the plan of this work forbids to be enumerated here.
5. His salary is three thousand five hundred dollars per annum. Act of Feb. 20, 1804, s. 1.
6. The duties of the second comptroller are to examine all accounts settled by the second, third and fourth auditors, and certify the balances arising -thereon to the secretary of the department in which the expenditure has been incurred; to counter-sign all the warrants drawn by the secretary of the treasury upon the requisition of the secretaries of the war and navy departments, which shall be warranted by law; to report to the said secretaries the official forms to be issued in the different offices for disbursing public money in those departments, and the manner and form of keeping and stating the accounts of the persons employed therein, and to superintend the preservation of public accounts subject to his revision. His salary is three thousand dollars per annum. Act of March 3, 1817, s. 9 and 15; Act of May 7, 1822.
7. A similar officer exists in several of the states, whose official title is comptroller of the public accounts, auditor general, or other title descriptive of the duties of the office.
COMPULSION. The forcible inducement to au act.
2. Compulsion may be lawful or unlawful. 1. When a man is compelled by lawful authority to do that which be ought to do, that compulsion does not affect the validity of theact; as for example, when a court of competent jurisdiction compels a party to execute a deed, under the pain of attachment for contempt, the grantor cannot object to it on the ground of compulsion. 2. But if the court compelled a party to do an act forbidden by law, or not having jurisdiction over the parties or the subject-matter, the act done by such compulsion would be void. Bowy. Mod. C. L. 305.
3. Compulsion is never presumed. Coercion. (q. v.)
COMPURGATOR. Formerly, when a person was accused of a crime, or sued in a civil action, he might purge himself upon oath of the accusation made against him, whenever the proof was not the most clear and positive; and if upon his oath he declared himself innocent, he was absolved.
2. This usage, so eminently calculated to encourage perjury by impunity, was soon found to be dangerous to the public safety. To remove this evil the laws were changed, by requiring that the oath should be administered with the greatest solemnity; but the form was soon disregarded, for the mind became. easily familiarized to those ceremonies which at first imposed on the imagination, and those who cared not to violate the truth did not hesitate to treat the form with contempt. In order to give a greater weight to the oath of the accused, the law was again altered so as to require that the accused should appear before the judge with a certain number of his neighbors, relations or friends, who should swear that they believed the accused had sworn truly. This new species of witnesses were called compurgators.
3. The number of compurgators varied according to the nature of the charge and other circumstances. Encyclopedie, h. t.. Vide Du Cange, Gloss. voc. Juramentum; Spelman's Gloss. voc. Assarth; Merl. Rep. mot Conjurateurs.
4. By the English law, when a party was sued in debt or simple contract, detinue, and perhaps some other forms of action, the defendant might wage his law, by producing eleven compurgators who would swear they believed him on his oath, by which he discharged himself from the action in certain cases. Vide 3 Bl. Com. 341-848; Barr. on the Stat. 344; 2 Inst. 25; Terms de la Ley; Mansel on Demurrer, 130, 131 Wager of Law.
COMPUTATION counting, calculation. It is a reckoning or ascertaining the number of any thing.
2. It is sometimes used in the common law for the true reckoning or account of time. Time is computed in two ways; first, naturally, counting years, days and hours; and secondly, civilly, that is, that when the last part of the time has once commenced, it is considered as accomplished. Savig. Dr. Rom. 182. See Infant; Fraction. For the computation of a year, see Com. Dig. Ann; of a mouth, Com. Dig. Temps. A; 1 John. Cas. 100 15 John. R. 120; 2 Mass. 170, n.; 4 Mass. 460; 4 Dall. 144; 3 S. & R. 169; of a day, vide Day.; and 3, Burr 1434; 11 Mass. 204; 2 Browne, 18; Dig. 3, 4, 5; Salk. 625; 3 Wils. 274.
3. It is a general rule that when an act is to be done within a certain time, one day is to be taken inclusively, and one exclusively. Vide Lofft, 276; Dougl. 463; 2 Chit. Pr. 69; 3 Id. 108, 9; 3 T. R. 623; 2 Campb. R. 294; 4 Man. and Ryl. 300, n. (b) 5 Bingh. R. 339; S. C. 15, E. C. L. R. 462; 3 East, R. 407; Hob. 139; 4 Moore, R. 465; Har. Dig. Time, computation of; 3 T. R. 623; 5 T. R. 283; 2 Marsh. R. 41; 22 E. C. L. R. 270; 13 , E, C. L. R. 238; 24 E. C. L. R. 53; 4 Wasb. C. C. R. 232; 1 Ma-son, 176; 1 Pet. 60; 4 Pet. 349; 9 Cranch, 104; 9 Wheat. 581. Vide Day; Hour; Month; Year.
CONCEALMENT, contracts. The unlawful suppression of any fact or circumstance, by one of the partis to a contract, from the other, which in justice ought to be made known. 1 Bro. Ch. R. 420; 1 Fonbl. Eq. B. 1, c. 3, 4, note (n); 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 207.
2. Fraud occurs when one person substantially misrepresents or conceals a material fact peculiarly within his own knowledge, in consequence of which a delusion exists; or uses a device naturally calculated to lull the suspicions of a careful man, and induce him to forego inquiry into a matter upon which the other party has information, although such information be not exclusively within his reach. 2 Bl. Com. 451; 3 Id. 166; Sugd. Vend. 1 to 10; 1 Com. Contr. 38; 3 B. & C. 623; 5 D. & R. 490; 2 Wheat. 183; 11 Id. 59; 1 Pet. Sup. C. R. 15, 16. The party is not bound, however, to disclose patent defects. Sugd. Vend. 2.
3. A distinction has been made between the concealment of latent defects in real and personal property. For example, the concealment by an agent that a nuisance existed in connexion with a house the owner had to hire, did not render the lease void. 6 IV. & M. 358. 1 Smith, 400. The rule with regard to personalty is different. 3 Camp. 508; 3 T. R. 759.
4. In insurances, where fairness is so essential to, the contract, a concealment which is only the effect of accident, negligence, inadvertence, or mistake, if material, is equally fatal to the contract as if it were intentional and fraudulent. 1 Bl. R. 594; 3 Burr. 1909. The insured is required to disclose all the circumstances within his own knowledge only, which increase the risk. He is not, however, bound to disclose general circumstances which apply to all policies of a particular description, notwithstanding they may greatly increase the risk. Under this rule, it has been decided that a policy is void, which was obtaineed by the concealment by the assured of the fact that he had heard that a vessel like his was taken. 2 P. Wms. 170. And in a case where the assured had information of "a violent storm" about eleven hours after his vessel had sailed, and had stated only that "there had been blowing weather and severe storms on the coast after the vessel had sailed" but without any reference to the particular storm it was decided that this was a concealment, which vitiated the policy. 2 Caines R. 57. Vide 1 Marsh. Ins: 468; Park, Ins. 276; 14 East, R. 494; 1 John. R. 522; 2 Cowen, 56; 1 Caines, 276; 3 Wash. C. C. Rep. 138; 2 Gallis. 353; 12 John. 128.
5. Fraudulent concealment avoids the contract. See, generally, Verpl. on Contr. passim; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 9; 1 Bell's Com. B. 2, pt. 3, c. 15 s. 3, 1; 1 M. & S. 517; 2 Marsh. R. 336.
CONCESSI, conveyancing. This is a Latin word, signifying, I have granted. It was frequently used when deeds and other conveyances were written in Latin.. It is a word of general extent, and is said to amount to a grant, feoffment, lease, release, and the like. 2 Saund. 96; Co. Lift. 301, 302; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 5 Whart. R. 278.
2. It has been held that this word in a feoffment or fine implies no -warranty. Co. Lit. 384 Noke's Case, 4 Rep. 80; Vaughan's Argument in Hayes v. Bickoxsteth, Vaughan, 126; Butler"s Note, Co. Lit. 3 84. But see 1 Freem. 339, 414.
CONCESSION. A grant. This word is frequently used in this sense when applied to grants made by the French and Spanish governments in Louisiana.
CONCESSIMUS. A Latin word, which signifies, we have granted. This word creates a covenant in law, for the breach of which the grantors may be jointly sued. It imports no warranty of a freehold, but as in case of a lease for years. Spencer's Case, 5 Co. Rep. 16 Brown v. Heywood, 3 Keble, Rep. 617 Bac. Ab. Covenant, B. See Bac. Ab. officers, &c. E.
CONCESSOR. A grantor; one who makes a concession to another.
CONCILIUM. A day allowed to a defendant to make his defence; an imparlance, 4 Bl. Com. 356, n.; 3 T. R. 530.
CONCILIUM REGIS. The name of a tribunal which existed in England during the times of Edward I. and Edward H., composed of the judges and sages of the law. To them were referred cases of great difficulty. Co. Litt. 804.
CONCLAVE. An assembly of cardinals for the purpose of electing a pope; the place where the assembly is held is also called a conclave. It derives this name from the fact that all the windows and doors are looked, with the exception of a single panel, which admits a gloomy light.
CONCLUSION, practice. Making the last argument or address to the court or jury. The party on whom the onus probandi is cast, in general has the conclusion.
CONCLUSION, remedies. An estoppel; a bar; the act of a man by which he has confessed a matter or thing which he can no longer deny; as, for example, the sheriff is concluded by his return to a writ, and therefore, if upon a capias he return cepi corpus, he cannot afterwards show that he did not arrest the defendant, but is concluded by his return. Vide Plowd. 276, b; 3 Tho. Co. Litt. 600.
CONCLUSION TO THE COUNTRY, pleading. The tender of. an issue to be tried by a jury is called the conclusion to the country.
2. This conclusion is in the following words, when the issue is tendered by the defendant: " And of this the said C D puts himself upon the country." When it is tendered by the plaintiff, the formula is as follows: " And this the said A B prays may be inquired of by the country." It held, however, that there is no material difference between these two modes of expression, and that, if ponit se, be substituted for petit quod inquiratur, or vice versa, the mistake is unimportant. 10 Mod. 166.
3. When there is an affirmative on one side, and a negative on the other, or vice versa, the conclusion should be to the country. T. Raym. 98; Carth. 87; 2 Saund. 189; 2 Burr. 1022. So it is, though the affirmative and negative be not in express words, but only tantamount thereto. Co. Litt. 126, a; Yelv. 137; 1 Saund. 103; 1 Chit. Pl. 592; Com. Dig. Pleader, E 32.
CONCLUSIVE. What puts an end to a thing. A conclusive presumption of law, is one which cannot be contradicted even by direct and positive proof. Take, for example, the presumption that an infant is incapable of judging whether it is or is not against his interest; When infancy is pleaded and proved, the plaintiff cannot show that the defendant was within one day of being of age when the contract was made, and perfectly competent to make a contract. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3061.
CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE. That which cannot be contradicted by any other evidence,; for example, a record, unless impeached for fraud, is conclusive evidence between the parties. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3061-62.
CONCLUSUM, intern. law. The form of an acceptance or conclusion of a treaty; as, the treaty was ratified purely and simply by a conclusum. It is the name of a decree of the Germanic diet, or of the aulic council.
CONCORD, estates, conveyances, practice. An agreement or supposed agreement between the parties in levying a fine of lands, in which the deforciant (or he who keeps the other out of possession,) acknowledges that the lands in question, are the right of the complainant;. and from the acknowledgment or recognition of right thus made, the party who levies the fine is called the cognisor, and the person to whom it is levied, the cognisee. 2 Bl. Com. 350; Cruise, Dig. tit. 35, c. 2, s. 33; Com. Dig. Fine, E 9.
CONCORDATE. A convention; a pact; an agreement. The term is generally confined to the agreements made between independent government's; and, most usually applied to those between the pope and some prince.
CONCUBINAGE. This term has two different significations; sometimes it means a species of marriage which took place among the ancients, and which is yet in use in some countries. In this country it means the act or practice of cobabiting as man and woman, in sexual commerce, without the authority of law, or a legal marriage. Vide 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 80; Merl. Rep. b. t.; Dig. 32, 49, 4; Id. 7, 1, 1; Code, 5, 27, 12.
CONCUBINE. A woman who cohabits with a man as his wife, without being married.
TO CONCUR. In Louisiana, to concur, signifies, to claim a part, of the estate of an insolvent along with other claimants; 6 N. S. 460; as " the wife concurs with her husband's creditors, and claims a privilege over them."
CONCURRENCE, French law. The equality of rights, or privilege which several persons-have over the same thing; as, for example, the right which two judgment creditors, Whose judgments were rendered at the same time, have to be paid out of the proceeds of real estate bound by them. Dict. de Jur. h. t.
CONCURRENT. Running together; having the same authority; thus we say a concurrent consideration occurs in the case of mutual promises; such and such a court have concurrent jurisdiction; that is, each has the same jurisdiction.
CONCUSSION, civ. law. The unlawful forcing of another by threats of violence to give something of value. It differs from robbery in this, that in robbery the thing is taken by force, while in concussion it is obtained by threatened violence. Hein. Lec. El, 1071
CONDEDIT, eccl. law. The name of a plea, entered by a party to a libel filed in the ecclesiastical court, in which it is pleaded that the deceased made the will which is the subject of the suit, and that he was of sound mind. 2 Eng. Eccl. Rep. 438; 6 Eng. Eccl. Rep. 431.
CONDELEGATES. Advocates who have been appointed judges of the bigh court of delegates are so called. Shelf. on Lun. 310.
CONDEMNATION, mar. law. The sentence or judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction that a ship or vessel taken as a prize on the high seas, was liable to capture, and was properly and legally captured.
2. By the general practice of the law of nations, a sentence of condemnation is, at present, generally deemed necessary in order to divest the title of a vessel taken as a prize. Until this has been done the original owner may regain his property, although the ship may have been in possession of the enemy twenty-four hours, or carried infra praesidia. 1 Rob. Rep. 134; 3 Rob. Rep. 97, n.; Carth. 423; Chit. Law of Nat. 99, 100; 10 Mod. 79; Abb. on Sh. 14; Wesk. on Ins. h. t.; Marsh. on Ins. 402. A sentence of condemnation is generally binding everywhere. Marsh. on Ins. 402.
3. The term condemnation is also applied to the sentence which declares a ship to be unfit for service; this sentence and the grounds of it may, however, be re-examined and litigated by parties interested in disputing it. 5 Esp. N. P. C. 65; Abb. on Shipp. 4.
CONDEMNATION, civil law. A sentence of judgment which condemns some one to do, to give, or to pay something; or which declares that his claim or pretensions are unfounded. This word is also used by common lawyers, though it is more usual to say conviction, both in civil and criminal cases. It is a maxim that no man ought to be condemned unheard, and without the opportunity of being heard.
CONDICTIO INDEBITI, civil law. When the plaintiff has paid to the defendant by mistake what he was not bound to pay either in fact or in law, he may recover it back by an action called condictio indebiti. This action does not lie, 1. if the sum was due ex cequitate, or by a natural obligation; 2. if he who made the payment knew that nothing was due, for qui consulto dat quod non debetat, prcesumitur donare. Vide Quasi contract.
CONDICTION, Lat. condictio. This term is used in the civil law in the same sense as action. Condictio certi, is an action for the recovery of a certain thing, as our action of replevin, condictio incerti, is an action given for the recovery of an uncertain thing. Dig. 12 , 1.
CONDITION, contracts, wills. In its most extended signification, a condition is a clause in a contract or agreement which has for its object to suspend, to rescind, or to modify the principal obligation; or in case of a will, to suspend, revoke, or modify the devise or bequest. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 730. It ii in fact by itself, in many cases, an agreement; and a sufficient foundation as an agreement in writing, for a bill in equity, praying for a specific performance. 2 Burr. 826. In pleading, according to the course of the common Iaw, the bond and its condition are to some intents and purposes, regarded as distinct things. 1 Saund. Rep. by Wms. 9 b. Domat has given a definition of a condition, quoted by Hargrave, in these words: "A condition is any portion or agreement which regulates what the parties have a mind should be done, if a case they foresee should come to pass." Co. Litt. 201 a.
2. Conditions sometimes suspend the obligation; as, when it is to have no effect until they are fulfilled; as, if I bind myself to pay you one thousand dollars ou condition that the ship Thomas Jefferson shall arrive in the United States from Havre; the contract is suspended until the arrival of the ship.
3. The condition sometimes rescinds the contract; as, when I sell you my horse, on condition that he shall be alive on the first day of January, and he dies before that time.
4. A condition may modify the contract; as, if I sell you two thousand bushels of corn, upon condition that my crop shall produce that much, and it produces only fifteen hundred bushels.
5. In a less extended acceptation, but in a true sense, a condition is a future and uncertain event, on the existence or non-existence of which is made to depend, eitther the accomplishment, the modification, or the rescission of an obligation or testamentary disposition.
6. There is a marked difference between a condition and a limitation. When a in is given generally, but the gift may defeated upon the happening of an uncertain event, the latter is called a condition but when it is given to be enjoyed until the event arrives, it is a limitation. See Limitation; Estates. It is not easy to say when a condition will be considered a covenant and when not, or when it will be holden to be both. Platt on Cov. 71.
7. Events foreseen by conditions are of three kinds. Some depend on the acts of the persons who deal together, as, if the agreement should provide that a partner should not join another partnership. Others are independent of the will of the parties, as, if I sell you one thousand bushels of corn,. on condition that my crop shall not be destroyed by a fortuitous event, or act of God. Some depend in part on the contracting parties and partly on the act of God, as, if it be provided that such merchandise shall arrive by a certain day.
8. A condition may be created by inserting the very word condition, or on condition, in the deed or agreement; there are, however, other words that will do so as effectually, as proviso, if, &c. Bac. Ab. Conditions, A.
9. Conditions are of various kinds; 1. as to their form, they are express or implied. This division is of feudal origin. 2 Woodes. Lect. 138. 2. As to their object, they are lawful or unlawful; 3. as to the time when they are to take effect, they are precedent or subsequent; 4. as to their nature, they are possible or impossible 5. as to their operation, they are positive or negative; 6. is to their divisibility, they are copulative or disjunctive; 7. as to their agreement with the contract, they are consistent or repugnant; 8. as to their effect, they are resolutory or suspensive. These will be severally considered.
10. An express condition is one created by express words; as for instance, a condition in a lease that if the tenant shall not pay the rent at the day, the lessor may reenter. Litt. 328. Vide Reentry.
11. An implied condition is one created by law, and not by express words; for example, at common law, the tenant for life holds upon the implied condition not to commit waste. Co. Litt. 233, b.
12 . A lawful or legal condition is one made in consonance with the law. This must be understood of the law as existing at the time of making the condition, for no change of the law can change the force of the condition. For example, a conveyance was made to the grantee, on condition that he should not aliens until be reached the age of twenty-five years. Before he acquired this age be aliened, and made a second conveyance after he obtained it; the first deed was declared void, and the last valid. When the condition was imposed, twenty-five was the age of majority in the state; it was afterwards changed to twenty-one. Under these circumstances the condition was held to be binding. 3 Miss., R. 40.
13. An unlawful or illegal condition is one forbidden by law. Unlawful conditions have for their object, lst. to do something malum in se, or malum prohibitum; 2d. to omit the performance of some duty required by law 3d. to encourage such act or omission. 1 P. Wms. 189. When the law prohibits, in express terms, the transaction in respect to which the condition is made, and declares it void, such condition is then void; 3 Binn. R. 533; but when it is prohibited, without being declared void, although unlawful, it is not void. 12 S. @ R. 237. Conditions in restraint of marriage are odious, and are therefore held to the utmost rigor and strictness. They are contrary to sound policy, and by the Roman law were all void. 4 Burr. Rep. 2055; 10 Barr. 75, 350; 3 Whart. 575.
14. A condition precedent is one which must be performed before the estate will vest, or before the obligation is to be performed. 2 Dall. R. 317. Whether a condition shall be considered as precedent or subsequent, depends not on the form or arrangement of the words, but on the manifest intention of the parties, on the fair construction of the contract. 2 Fairf. R. 318; 5 Wend. R. 496; 3 Pet, R. 374; 2 John. R. 148; 2 Cain es, R. 352; 12 Mod. 464; 6 Cowen, R. 627 9 Wheat. R. 350; 2 Virg. Cas. 138 14 Mass. R. 453; 1 J. J. Marsh. R. 591 6 J. J. Marsh. R. 161; 2 Bibb, R. 547 6 Litt. R. 151; 4 Rand. R. 352; 2 Burr. 900
15. A subsequent condition is one which enlarges or defeats an estate or right, already created. A conveyance in fee, reserving a life estate in a part of the land, and made upon condition that the grantee shall pay certain sums of money at divers times to several persons, passes the fee upon condition subsequent. 6 Greenl. R. 106. See 1 Burr. 39, 43; 4 Burr. 1940. Sometimes it becomes of great importance to ascertain whether the condition is precedent or subsequent. When a precedent condition becomes impossible by the act of God, no estate or right vests; but if the condition is subsequent, the estate or right becomes absolute. Co. Litt. 206, 208; 1 Salk. 170.
16. A possible condition is one which may be performed, and there is nothing in the laws of nature to prevent its performance.
17. An impossible condition is one which cannot be accomplished according to the laws of nature; as, to go from the United States to Europe in one day.; such a condition is void. 1 Swift's Dig. 93; 5 Toull. n. 242-247. When a condition becomes impossible by the act of God, it either vests the estate, or does not, as it is precedent or subsequent: when it is the former, no estate vests when the latter, it becomes absolute. Co. Litt. 206, a, 218, a; 3 Pet. R. 374; 1 Hill. Ab. 249. When the performance of the condition becomes impossible by the act of the party who imposed it, the estate is rendered absolute. 5 Rep. 22; 3 Bro. Parl. Cas. 359. Vide 1 Paine's R. 652; Bac. Ab. Conditions, M; Roll. Ab. 420; Co. Litt. 206; 1 Rop. Leg. 505; Swinb. pt. 4, s. 6; Inst. 2, 4, 10; Dig. 28, 7, 1; Id. 44, 7, 31; Code 6, 25, 1; 6 Toull. n. 486, 686 and the article Impossibility.
18. A positive condition requires that the event contemplated shall happen; as, If I marry. Poth. Ob. part 2, c. 3, art. 1, 1. 19. A negative condition requires that the event contemplated shall not happen as If I do not marry. Potb. Ob. n. 200.
20. A copulative condition, is one of several distinct-matters, the whole of which are made precedent to the vesting of an estate or right. In this case the entire condition must be performed, or the estate or right can never arise or take place. 2 Freem. 186. Such a condition differs from a disjunctive condition, which gives to the party the right to perform the one or the other; for, in this case, if one becomes impossible by the act of God, the whole will, in general, be excused. This rule, however, is not without exception. 1 B. & P. 242; Cro. Eliz. 780; 5 Co. 21; 1 Lord Raym. 279. Vide Conjunctive; Disjunctive.
21. A disjunctive condition is one which gives the party to be affected by it, the right to perform one or the other of two alternatives.
22. A consistent condition is one which agrees with other parts of the contract.
23. A repugnant condition is one which is contrary to the contract; as, if I grant to you a house and lot in fee, upon condition that you shall not aliene, the condition is repugnant and void, as being inconsistent with the estate granted. Bac. Ab. Conditions L; 9 Wheat. 325; 2 Ves. jr. 824.
24. A resolutory condition in the civil law is one which has for its object, when accomplished the revocation of the principal obligation. This condition does not suspend either the existence or the execution of the obligation, it merely obliges the creditor to return what he has received.
25. A suspensive condition is one which susends the fulfilment of the obligation until it has been performed; as, if a man bind himself to pay one -hundred dollars, upon condition that the ship Thomas Jefferson shall arrive from Europe. The obligation, in this case, is suspended until the arrival of the ship, when the condition having been performed, the obligation becomes absolute , and it is no longer conditional. A suspensive condition is in fact a condition precedent.
26. Pothier further divides conditions into potestative, casual and mixed.
27. A potestative condition is that which is in the power of the person in whose favor it is contracted; as, if I engage to give my neighbor a sum of money, in case he outs down a tree which obstructs my. prospect. Poth. Obl. Pt. 2, c. 3, art. 1, 1.
28. A casual condition is one which depends altogether upon chance, and not in the power of the creditor, as the following: if I have children; if I have no children; if such a vessel arrives in the United States, &c. Poth. Ob. n. 201.
29. A mixed condition is one which depends on the will of the creditor and of a third person; as, if you marry my cousin. Poth. Ob. n. 201. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CONDITION, persons. The situation in civil society which creates certain relations between the individual, to whom it is applied, and one or more others, from which mutual rights and obligations arise. Thus the situation arising from marriage gives rise to the conditions of husband and wife that of paternity to the conditions of father and child. Domat, tom. 2, liv. 1, tit. 9, s. 1, n. 8.
2. In contracts every one is presume to know the condition of the person with whom he deals. A man making a contract with an infant cannot recover against him for a breach of the contract, on the ground that he was not aware of his condition.
CONDITIONAL OBLIGATION. One which is superseded by a condition under which it was created and which is not yet accomplished. Poth. Obl. n. 176, 198.
CONDITIONS OF SALE, contracts. The terms upon which the vendor of property by auction pro poses to sell it; the instrument containing these terms, when reduced to writing or printing, is also called the conditions of sale.
2. It is always prudent and advisable that the conditions of sale should be printed and exposed in the auction room; when so done, they are binding ou both parties, and nothing that is said at the time of sale, to add to or vary such printed conditions, will be of any avail. 1 H. Bl. 289 12 East, 66 Ves. 330; 15 Ves. 521; 2 Munf. Rep. 119; 1 Desauss. Ch. Rep. 573; 2 Desauss. Ch. R. 320; 11 John. Rep. 555; 3 Camp. 285. Vide forms of conditions of sale in Babington on Auctions, 233 to 243; Sugd. Vend. Appx. No. 4. Vide duction; ductioneer; Puffer.
CONDONATION. A term used in the canon law. It is a forgiveness by the husband of his wife, or by a wife of her husband, of adultery committed, with an implied condition that the injury shall not be repeated, and that the other party shall be treated with conjugal kindness. 1 Hagg. R. 773; 3 Eccl. Rep. 310. See 5 Mass. 320 5 Mass. 69; 1 Johns. Ch. R. 488.
2. It may be express or implied, as, if a husband, knowing of his wife's infidelity, cohabit with her. 1 Hagg. Rep. 789; 3 Eccl. R. 338.
3. Condonation is not, for many rea sons, held so strictly against a wife as against a husband. 3 Eccl. R. 830 Id. 341, n.; 2 Edw. R. 207. As all condonations, by operation of law, are expressly or impliedly conditional, it follows that the effect is taken off by the repetition of misconduct; 3 Eccl. R. 329 3 Phillim. Rep. 6; 1 Eccl. R. 35; and cruelty revives condoned adultery. Worsley v. Worsley, cited in Durant v. Durant, 1 Hagg. Rep. 733; 3 Eccl. Rep. 311.
4. In New York, an act of cruelty alone, on the part of the husband, does not revive condoned adultery, to entitle the wife to a divorce. 4 Paige's R. 460. See 3 Edw. R. 207.
5. Where the parties have separate beds, there must, in order to found condonation, be something of matrimonial intercourse presumed; it does not rest merely on the wife's not. withdrawing herself. 3 Eccl. R. 341, n.; 2 Paige, R. 108.
6. Condonation is a bar to a sentence of divorce. 1 Eccl. Rep. 284; 2 Paige, R. 108. In Pennsylvania, by the Act of the 13th of March, 1815, 7, 6 Reed's Laws of Penna. 288, it is enacted that " in any suit or action for divorce for cause of adultery, if the defendant shall allege and prove that the plaintiff has admitted the defendant into conjugal society or embraces, after he or she knew of the criminal fact, or that the plaintiff (if the husband) allowed of his wife's prostitutions, or received hire, for them, or exposed his wife to lewd company, whereby she became ensnared to the crime aforesaid, it shall be a good defence, and perpetual bar against the same." The same rule may be found, perhaps, in the codes of most civilized countries. Villanova Y Manes, Materia Criminal Forense, Obs. 11, c. 20, n. 4. Vide, generally, 2 Edw. 207; Dev. Eq. R. 352 4 Paige, 432; 1 Edw. R. 14; Shelf. on M. & D. 445; 1 John. Ch. R. 488 4 N. Hamp. R. 462; 5 Mass. 320.
CONDUCT, law of nations. This term is used in the phrase safe conduct, to signify the security given, by authority of the government, under the great seal, to a stranger, for his quietly coming into and passing out of the territories over which it has jurisdiction. A safe conduct differs from a passport; the former is given to enemies, the latter to friends or citizens.
CONDUCT MONEY. The money advanced to a witness who has been subpoenaed to enable him to attend a trial, i's so called. CONDUCTOR OPERARUM, civil law. One who undertakes, for a reward, to perform a job or piece of work for another. See Locator Operis.
CONFEDERACY, intern. law. An agreement between two or more states or nations, by which they unite for their mutual protection and good. This term is applied to such agreement between two independent nations, but it is used to signify the union of different states of the same nation, as the confederacy of the states.
2. The original thirteen states, in 1781, adopted for their federal government the " Articles of confederation and perpetual union between the States," which continued in force until the present constitution of the United States went into full operation, on the 30th day of April, 1789, when president Washington was sworn into office. Vide 1 Story on the Const. B. 2, c. 3 and 4.
CONFEDERACY, crim. law. An agreement between two or more persons to do an unlawful act, or an act, which though not unlawful in itself, becomes so by the confederacy. The technical term usually employed to signify this offence, is conspiracy. (q. v.)
CONFEDERACY, equity pleading. The fourth part of a bill in chancery usually charges a confederacy; this is either general or special.
2. The first is by alleging a general charge of confederacy between the defendants and other persons to injure or defraud the plaintiff. The common form of the charge is, that the defendants, combining and confederating together, to and with divers other persons as yet to the plaintiff unknown, but whose names, when discovered, he prays may be inserted in the bill, and they be made parties thereto, with proper and apt words to charge them with the premises, in order to injure and oppress the plaintiff in ti e premises, do absolutely refuse, &c. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 40; Coop. Eq. Pl. 9 Story, Eq. Pl. 29; 1 Mont. Eq. Pl. 77; Barton, Suit in Eq. 33; Van Heyth. Eq. Drafts, 4.
3. When it is intended to rely on a confederacy or combination as a ground of equitable jurisdiction, the confederacy must be specially charged to justify an assumption of jurisdiction. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 41; Story, Eq. Pl. 30.
4. A general allegation of confederacy is now considered as mere form. Story, Eq. Pl. 29; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4169.
CONFEDERATION, government. The name given to that form of government which the American colonies, on shaking off the British yoke, devised for their mutual safety and government.
2. The articles of confederation, (q. v.) were finally adopted on the 15th of November, 1777, and with the exception of Maryland, which, however, afterwards also agreed to them, were speedily adopted by the United States, and by which they were formed into a federal bod y, and went into force on the first day of March, 1781; 1 Story Const. 225; and so remained until the adoption of the present constitution, which acquired the force of the supreme law of the land on the first Wednesday of March, 1789. 5 Wheat. R. 420. Vide Articles of Confederation.
CONFERENCE, practice, legislation. In practice, it is the meeting of the parties or their attorneys in a cause, for the purpose of endeavoring to settle the same.
2. In legislation, when the senate and house of representatives cannot agree on a bill or resolution which it is desirable should be passed, committees are appointed by the two bodies respectively, who are called committees of confrence, and whose duty it is, if possible, to -reconcile the differences between them.
3. In the French law, this term is used to signify the similarity and comparison between two laws, or two systems of law; as the Roman and the common law. Encyclopedie, h. t.
4. In diplomacy, conferences are verbal explanations between ministers of two nations at least, for the purpose of accelerating various difficulties and delays, necessarily attending written communications.
CONFESSION, crim. law, evidence. The voluntary declaration made by a person who has committed a crime or misdemeanor, to another, of the agency or participation which he had in the same.
2. When made without bias or improper influence, confessions are admissible in evidence, as the highest and most satisfactory proof: because it is fairly presumed that no man would make such a confession against himself, if the facts confessed were not true but they are excluded, if liable to the of having been unfairly obtained.
3. Confessions should be received with great caution, as they are liable to many objections. There is danger of error from the misapprehension of witnesses, the misuse of words, the failure of a party to express his own meaning, the prisoner being oppressed by his unfortunate situation, and influenced by hope, fear, and sometimes a worse motive, to male an untrue confession. See the case of the two Boorns in Greenl. Ev . 214, note 1; North American Review, vol. 10, p. 418; 6 Carr. & P. 451; Joy on Confess. s. 14, p. 100; and see1 Chit. Cr. Law, 85.
4. A confession must be made voluntarily, by the party himself, to another person. 1. It must be voluntary. A confession, forced from the mind by the flattery of hope, or the torture of fear, comes in so questionable a shape, when it is to be considered as evidence of guilt, that Lo credit ought to be given to it. 1 Leach, 263. This is the principle, but what amounts to a promise or a threat, is not so easily defined. Vide 2 East, P. C. 659; 2 Russ. on Cr. 644 4 Carr. & Payne, 387; S. C. 19 Eng. Com. L. Rep. 434; 1 Southard, R. 231 1 Wend. R. 625; 6 Wend. R. 268 5 Halst. R. 163 Mina's Trial, 10; 5 Rogers' Rec. 177 2 Overton, R. 86 1 Hayw. (N. C.) R, 482; 1 Carr. & Marsh. 584. But it must be observed that a confession will be considered as voluntarily made, although it was made after a promise of favor or threat of punishment, by a person not in authority, over the prisoner. If, however, a person having such authority over him be present at the time, and he express no dissent, evidence of such confession cannot be given. 8 Car. & Payne, 733.
5. - 2. The confession must be made by the party to be affected by it. It is evidence only against him. In case of a conspiracy, the acts of one conspirator are the acts of all, while active in the progress of the conspiracy, but after it is over, the confession of one as to the part he and others took in the crime, is not evidence against any but himself. Phil. Ev. 76, 77; 2 Russ. on Cr. 653.
6. - 3. The confession must be to another person. It may be made to a private individual, or under examination before a magistrate. The whole of the confession must be taken, together with whatever conversation took place at the time of the confession. Roscoe's Ev. N. P. 36; 1 Dall. R. 240 Id. 392; 3 Halst. 27 5 .2 Penna. R. 27; 1 Rogers' Rec. 66; 3 Wheeler's C. C. 533; 2 Bailey's R. 569; 5 Rand. R. 701.
7. Confession, in another sense, is where a prisoner being arraigned for an offence, confesses or admits the crmie with which he is charged, whereupon the plea of guilty is entered. Com Dig. Indictment, K; Id. Justices, W 3; Arch. Cr. Pl. 1 2 1; Harr. Dig. b. t.; 20 Am. Jur. 68; Joy on Confession.
8. Confessions are classed into judicial and extra judicial. Judicial confessions are those made before a magistrate, or in court, in the due course of legal proceedings; when made freely by the party, and with a full and perfect knowledge of their nature and consequences, they are sufficient to found a conviction. These confessions are such as are authorized by a statute, as to take a preliminary examination in writing; or they are by putting in the plea of guilty to an indictment. Extra judicial confessions are those wbich are made by the part elsewhere than before a magistrate or in open court. 1 Greenl. Ev. 216. See, generally, 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3081-2.
CONFESSIONS AND AVOIDANCE, pleadings. Pleas in confession and avoidance are those which admit the averments in the plaintiff Is declaration to be true, and allege new facts which obviate and repel their legal effects.
2. These pleas are to be considered, first, with respect to their division. Of pleas in confession and avoidance, some are distinguished (in reference to their subjectmatter) as pleas in justification or excuse, others as pleas in discharge. Com. Dig. Pleader, 3 M 12. The pleas of the former class, show some justification or excuse of the matter charged in the declaration; of the latter, some discharge or release of that matter. The effect of the former, therefore, is to show that the plaintiff never had any right of action, because the act charged was lawful; the effect of the latter, to show that though he had once a right of action, it is discharged or released by some matter subsequent. Of those in justification or excuse, the plea of son assault demesne is an example; of those in discharge, a release. This division applies to pleas only; for replications and other subsequent pleadings in confession and avoidance, are not subject to such Classification;
3. Secondly, they are to be considered in respect to their form. As to their form, the reader is referred to Stephens on Pleading, 72, 79, where forms are given. In common with all pleadings whatever, which do not tender issue, they always conclude with a verification and prayer of judgment.
4. Thirdly, with respect to the quality of these pleadings, it is a rule that every pleading by way of confession and avoidance must give color. (q. v.) And see, generally, 1 Chit. Pl. 599; 2 Chit. Pl, 644; Co. Litt. 282, b; Arch. Civ. Pl. 215; Dane's Ab. Index, ii. t.; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2921, 293 1.
CONFESSOR, evid. A priest of some Christian sect, who receives an account of the sins of his people, and undertakes to give them absolution of their sins.
2. The general rule on the subject of giving evidence of confidential communications is, that the privilege is confined to counsel, solicitors, and attorneys, and the interpreter between the counsel and the client. Vide Confidential Communications. Contrary to this general rule, it has been decided in New York, that a priest of the Roman Catholic denomination could not be compelled to divulge secrets which he had received in auricular confession. 2 City Hall Rec. 80, n.; Joy on Conf. 4, p. 49. See Bouv. Inst. n. 3174 and note.
CONFIDENTIAL COMMUNICATIONS, evidence. Whatever is communicated professedly by a client to his counsel, solicitor, or attorney, is considered as a confidential communication.
2. This the latter is not permitted to divulge, for this is the privilege of the client and not of the attorney.
3. The. rule is, in general, strictly confined to counsel, solicitors or attorneys, except, indeed, the case of an interpreter between the counsel and client, when the privilege rests upon the same grounds of necessity. 3 Wend. R. 339. In New York, contrary to this general rule, tinder the statute of that state, it has been decided that information disclosed to a physician while attending upon the defendant in his professional character, which information was necessary to enable the witness to prescribe for his patient, was a confidential communication which the witness need not have testified. about; and in a case where such evidence had been received by the master, it was rejected. 4 Paige, R. 460.
4. As to the matter communicated, it extends to all cases where the party applies for professional assistance. 6 Mad. R. 47; 14 Pick., R. 416. But the privilege does not extend to extraneous or impertinent communications; 3 John. Cas. 198; nor to information imparted to a counsellor in the character of a friend, and not as counsel. 1 Caines' R. 157.
5. The cases in which communications to counsel have been holden not to be privileged may be classed under the following heads: 1. When the communication was made before the attorney was employed as such; 1 Vent. 197; 2 Atk. 524; 2. after the attorney's employment has ceased 4 T. R. 431; 3. when the attorney was consulted because he was an attorney, yet he refused to act as such, and was therefore only applied to as a friend; 4 T. R. 753; 4. where a fact merely took place in the presence of the attorney, Cowp. 846; 2 Ves. 189; 2 Curt. Eccl. R. 866; but see Str. 1122; 5. when the matter communicated was not in its nature private, and could in no sense be termed the subject of a confidential communication; 7 East,, R. 357; 2 B. & B. 176; 3 John' Cas. 198; 6. when the things disclosed had no reference to professional employment, though disclosed while the relation of attorney and client subsisted; Peake's R. 77; 7. when the attorney made himself a subscribing witness; 10 Mod. 40 2 Curt. Eccl. R. 866; 3 Burr. 1687
8. when he was directed to plead the facts to wbich he is called to testify. 7 N. S. 179. See a well written article! on this subject in the American Jurist, vol. xvii. p. 304. Vide, generally, Stark. Ev. h. t.; 1 Greenl. Ev. 236-247; 1 Peters' R. 356; 1 Root, 383; Whart. Dig. 275; Caryls' R. 88, 126, 143; Toth. R. 177; Peake's Cas. 77 2 Stark. Cas. 274; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 718; 11 Wheat. 280; 3 Yeates, R. 4; 4 Munf. R. 273 1 Porter, R. 433; Wright, R. 136; 13 John. R. 492. As to a confession made to a catholic priest, see 2 N. Y. City Hall Rec. 77. Vide 2 Ch. Pr. 18-21; Confessor.
CONFIRMATIO CHARTORUM. The name given to a statute passed during reign of the English king Edward I. 25 Ed. I., c. 6. See Bac. Ab. Smuggling, B.
CONFIRMATION, contracts, conveyancing. 1 . A contract by which that which was voidable, is made firm and unavoidable.
2. A species of conveyance.
2. - 1. When a contract has been entered into by a stranger without authority, he in whose name it has been made may, by his own act, confirm it; or if the contract be made by the party himself in an informal and voidable manner, he may in a more formal manner confirm and render it valid; and in that event it will take effect, as between the parties, from the original making. To make a valid confirmation, the party must be apprised of, his rights, and where there has been a fraud in the transaction, he must be award of it, and intend to confirm his contract. Vide 1 Ball & Beatty, 353; 2 Scho. & Lef. 486; 12 Ves. 373; 1 Ves. Jr. 215; Newl. Contr. 496; 1 Atk. 301; 8 Watts. R. 280.
3. - 2. Lord Coke defines a confirmation of an estate, to be "a conveyance of an estate or right in esse, whereby a voidable estate is made sure and unavoidable; or where a particular estate is increased."
4. The first part of this definition may be illustrated by the following case, put by Littleton, 516; where a person lets land to another for the term of his life, who lets the same to another for forty years, by force of which he is in possession; if the Iessor for life confirms the estate of the tenant for years by deed, and afterwards the tenant for life dies, during the term; this deed will operate as a confirmation of the term for years.. As to the latter branch of the definition; whenever a confirmation operates by way of increasing the estate, it is similar in every respect to a release that operates by way of enlargement, for there must be privity of estate, and proper words of limitation. The proper technical words of a confirmation are, ratify and confirm; although it is usual and prudent to insert also the words given and granted. Watk. Prin. Convey. cbap. vii.
5. A confirmation does not strengthen a void estate. Confirmatio est nulla, ubi donum precedens est invalidum, et ubi donatio nulla est nec valebit confirmatio. For confirmation may make a voidable or defeasible estate good, but cannot operate on an estate void in law. Co. Litt. 295. The canon law agrees with this rule, and hence the maxim , qui confirmat nihil dat. Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 3, c. 6, n. 476. Vide Vin. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. 11. t.; Ayliffe's Pand. *386; 1 Chit. Pr. 315; 3 Gill & John. 290; 3 Yerg. R. 405; Co. Litt. 295; Gilbert on Ten. 75; 1 Breese's R. 236; 9 Co. 142, a; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2067-9.
6. An infant is said to confirm his acts performed during infancy, when, after coming to full age, be expressly approves of them, or does acts from which such confirmation way be implied. Sec Ratification.
CONFIRMEE. He to whom a confirmation is made.
CONFIRMOR. He who makes a confirmation to another.
CONIFISCATION. The act by which the estate, goods or chattels of a person who has been guilty of some crime, or who is a public enemy, is declared to be forfeited for the benefit of the public treasury. Domat, Droit Public, liv. 1, tit. 6, s. 2, n. 1. When property is forfeited as a punishment for the commission of crime, it is usually called a forfeiture. 1 Bl. Com. 299.
2. It is a general rule that the property of the subjects of an enemy found in the country may be appropriated by the government, without notice, unless there be a treaty to the contrary. 1 Gallis. R. 563; 8 Dall. R. 199; N. Car. Cas. 79. It has been frequently provided by treaty that foreign subjects should be permitted to remain and continue their business, notwithstanding a rupture between the governments, so long as they conducted themselves innocently and when there was no such treaty, such a liberal permission has been announced in the very declaration of war. Vattel, liv. 3, c. 4, 63. Sir Michael Poster, (Discourses on High Treason, p. 185, 6, mentions several instances of such declarations by the king of Great Britain; and he says that aliens were thereby enabled to acquire personal chattels and to maintain actions for the recovery of their personal rights, in as full a manner as alien friends. 1 Kent, Coin. 57.
3. In the United States, the broad principle has been assumed "that war gives to the sovereign full right to take the persons and confiscate the property of the enemy, wherever found. The mitigations of this rigid rule, which the policy of modern times has introduced into practice, will more or less affect the exercise of this right, but cannot impair the right itself." 8 Cranch, 122-3. Commercial nations have always considerable property in the possession of their neighbors: and when war breaks out the question, what shall be done with enemies property found in the country, is one rather of policy than of law, and is properly addressed to the consideration of the legislature, and not to courts of law. The strict right of confiscation exists in congress; and without a legislative act authorizing the confiscation of enemies' property, it cannot be condemned. 8 Cranch, 128, 129. See Chit. Law of Nations, c. 3; Marten's Law of Nat. lib. 8, c. 3, s. 9; Burlamaqui, Princ. of Pol. Law, part 4, c. 7; Vattel, liv. 3, c. 4, 63.
4. The claim of a right to confiscate debts, contracted by individuals in time of peace, and which remain due to subjects of the enemy in time of war, rests very much upon the same principles as that concerning the enemy's tangible property, found in the country at the commencement of the war. But it is the universal practice to forbear to seize and confiscate debts and credits. 1 Kent, Com. 64, 5; vide 4 Cranch, R. 415 Charlt. 140; 2 Harr. & John. 101, 112, 471 6 Cranch, R. 286; 7 Conn. R. 428: 2 Tayl. R. 115; 1 Day, R. 4; Kirby, R. 228, 291 C. & N. 77, 492.
CONFLICT. The opposition or difference between two judicial jurisdictions, when they both claim the right to decide a cause, or where they both declare their incompetency. The first is called a positive conflict, and the, latter a negative conflict.
CONFLICT OF JURISDICTION. The contest between two officers, who each claim to have cognizance of a particular case.
CONFLICT OF LAWS. This phrase is used to signify that the laws of different countries, on the subject-matter to be decided, are in opposition to each other; or that certain laws of the same country are contradictory.
2. When this happens to be the case, it becomes necessary to decide which law is to be obeyed. This subject has occupied the attention and talents of some of the most learned jurists, and their labors are comprised in many volumes. A few general rules have been adopted on this subject, which will here be noticed.
3. - 1. Every nation possesses an exclusive sovereignty and jurisdiction within its own territory. The laws of every state, therefore, affect and bind directly all property, whether real or personal, within its territory; and all persons who are resident within it, whether citizens or aliens, natives or foreigners; and also all contracts made, and acts done within it. Vide Lex Loci contractus; Henry, For. Law, part 1, c. 1, 1; Cowp. It. 208; 2 Hag. C. R. 383. It is proper, however, to observe, that ambassadors and other public ministers, while in the territory of the state to, which they are delegates, are exempt from the local jurisdiction. Vide Ambassador. And the persons composing a foreign army, or fleet, marching through, or stationed in the territory of another state, with whom the foreign nation is in amity, are also exempt from the civil and criminal jurisdiction of the place. Wheat. Intern. Law, part 2, c. 2, 10; Casaregis, Disc. 136-174 vide 7 Cranch, R. 116.
4. Possessing exclusive authority, with the above qualification, a state may regulate the manner and circumstances, under which property, whether real or personal, in possession or in action, within it shall be held, transmitted or transferred, by sale, barter, or bequest, or recovered or enforced; the condition, capacity, and state of all persons within it the validity of contracts and other acts done there; the resulting rights and duties growing out of these contracts and acts; and the remedies and modes of administering justice in all cases. Story, Confl. of Laws, 18; Vattel, B. 2, c. 7, 84, 85; Wheat. Intern. Law, part 1, c. 2, 5.
5. - 2. A state or nation cannot, by its laws, directly affect or bind property out of its own territory, or persons not resident therein, whether they are natural born or naturalized citizens or subjects, or others. This result flows from the principle that each sovereignty is perfectly independent. 13 Mass. R. 4. To this general rule there appears to be an exception, which is this, that a nation has a right to bind its own citizens or subjects by its own laws in every place; but this exception is not to be adopted without some qualification. Story, Confl. of Laws, 21; Wheat. Intern. Law, part 2, c. 2, 7.
6. - 3. Whatever force and obligation the laws of one, country have in another, depends upon the laws and municipal regulations of the latter; that is to say, upon its own proper jurisprudence and polity, and upon its own express or tacit consent. Huberus, lib. 1, t. 3, 2. When a statute, or the unwritten or common law of the country forbids the recognition of the foreign law, the latter is of no force whatever. When both are silent, then the question arises, which of the conflicting laws is to have effect. Whether the one or the other shall be the rule of decision must necessarily depend on a variety of circumstances, which cannot be reduced to any certain rule. No nation will suffer the laws of another to interfere with her own, to the injury of her own citizens; and whether they do or not, must depend on the condition of the country in which the law is sought to be enforced, the particular state of her legislation, her policy, and the character of her institutions. 2 Mart. Lo. Rep. N. S. 606. In the conflict of laws, it must often be a matter of doubt which should prevail; and, whenever a doubt does exist, the court which decides, will prefer the law of its own country to that of the stranger. 17 Mart. Lo. R. 569, 595, 596. Vide, generally, Story, Confl. of Laws; Burge, Confl. of Laws; Liverm. on Contr. of Laws; Foelix, Droit Intern.; Huberus, De Conflictu Leguin; Hertius, de Collisions Legum; Boullenois, Traits de Ia personnalite' et de la realite de lois, coutumes et statuts, par forme d'observations; Boullenois, Dissertations sur des questions qui naissent de la contrariete des lois, et des coutumes.
CONFRONTATION, crim. law, practice. The act by which a witness is brought in the presence of the accused, so that the latter may object to him, if he can, and the former may know and identify the accused, and maintain the truth in his presence. No man can be a witness unless confronted with the accused, except by consent.
CONFUSION. The concurrence of two qualities in the same subject, which mutually destroy each other. Potli. Ob. P. 3, c. 5 3 Bl. Com. 405; Story Bailm. 40.
CONFUSION OF GOODS. This takes place where the goods of two or more persons become mixed together so that they cannot be separated. There is a difference between confusion and commixtion; in the former it is impossible, while in the latter it is possible, to make a separation. Bowy. Comm. 88.
2. When the confusion takes place by the mutual consent of the owners, they have an interest in the mixture in proportion to their respective shares. 2 Bl. Com. 405; 6 Hill, N. Y. Rep. 425. But if one willfully mixes his money, corn or hay, with that of another man, without his approbattion or knowledge, the law, to guard against fraud, gives the entire property without any account, to him whose original dominion is invaded land endeavored to be rendered uncertain, without his cosent. Ib.; and see 2 Johns. Ch. It. 62 2 Kent's Comm. 297.
3. There may be a case neither of consent nor of wilfulness, in the confusion of goods; as where a bailee by negligence or unskilfuluess, or inadvertence, mixes up his own goods of the same sort with those bailed; and there may be a confusion arising from accident and unavoidable casualty. Now, in the latter case of accidental intermixture, the rule, following the civil law, which deemed the property to be held in common, might be adopted; and it would make no difference whether the mixture produced a thing of the same sort or not; as, if the wine of two persons were mixed by accident. See Dane's Abr. ch. 76, art. 5, 19.
4. But in cases of mixture by unskilfulness, negligence, or inadvertence, the true principle seems to be, that if a man having undertaken to keep the property of another distinct from, mixes it with his own, the whole must, both at law and in equity, be taken to be the property of the other, until the former puts the subject under such circumstances, that it may be distinguished as satisfactorily as it might have been before the unauthorized mixture on his part. 15 Ves. 432, 436, 439, 440; 2 John. Ch. R. 62; Story on Bailm. c. l, 40. And see 7 Mass. 11. 123; Dane's Abr. c. 76, art. 3, 15; Com. Dig. Pleader, 3 M 28; Bac. Ab. Trespass, E 2; 2 Campb. 576; 2 Roll. 566, 1, 15 2 Bul. 323. 2 Cro. 366 , 2 Roll. 393; 5 East, 7; 21 Pick. R. 298.
CONFUSION OF RIGHTS, contracts. When the qualities of debtor and creditor are united in the same person, there arises a confusion of rights, which extinguishes the two credits; for instance, when a woman obliges marries the obligor, the debt is extinguished. 1 Salk. 306; Cro. Car. 551; 1 Ld. Raym. 515; Ca. Ch. 21, 117. There is, however, an excepted case in relation to a bond given by the husband to the wife; when it is given to the intended wife for a provision to take effect after his death. 1 Ld. Raym. 515; 5 T. R. 381; Hut. 17 Hob. 216; Cro. Car. 376; 1 Salk. 326 Palm. 99; Carth. 512; Com. Dig. Baron & Feme, D. A further exception is the case of a divorce. If one be bound in an obligation to a feme sole and then marry her, and afterwards they are divorced, she may sue her former husband on the obligation, notwithstanding, her action was in suspense during the marriage. 26 H. VIII. 1.
2. Where a person possessed of an estate, becomes in a different right entitled to a charge upon the estate; the charge is in general merged in the estate, and does not revive in favor of the personal representative against the heir; there are particular exceptions, as where the person in whom the interests unite is a minor, and can therefore dispose of the personalty, but not of the estate; but in the case of a lunatic the merger and confusion was ruled to have taken place. 2 Ves. jun. 261. See Louis. Code, art. 801 to 808; 2 Ld. R. 527; 3 L. R. 552 4 L. R. 399, 488. Burge on Sur. Book 2, c. 11, p. 253.
CONGE'. A French word which signifies permission, and is understood in that sense in law. Cunn. Diet. h. t. In the French maritime law, it is a species of passport or permission to navigate, delivered by public authority. It is also in the nature of a clearance. (q. v.) Bouch. Inst. n. 812; Repert. de la Jurisp. du Notoriat, by Rolland de Villargues. Conge'.
CONGEABLE, Eng. law. This word is nearly obsolete. It is derived from the French conge', permission, leave; it signifies that a thing is lawful or lawfully done, or done with permission; as entry congeable, and the like. Litt. s. 279.
CONGREGATION. A society of a number of persons who compose an ecclesiastical body. In the ecclesiastical law this term is used to designate certain bureaux at Rome, where ecclesiastical matters are attended to. In the United States, by congregation is meant the members of a particular church, who meet in one place worsbip. See 2 Russ. 120.
CONGRESS. This word has several significations. 1. An assembly of the deputies convened from different governments, to treat of peace or of other political affairs, is called a congress.
2. - 2. Congress is the name of the legislative body of the United States, composed of the senate and house of representatives. Const. U. S. art. 1,s. 1.
3. Congress is composed of two independent houses. 1. The senate and, 2. The house of representatives.
4.- 1. The senate is composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof for six years, and each senator has one vote. They represent the states rather than the people, as each state has its equal voice and equal weight in the senate, witliout any regard to the disparity of population, wealth or dimensions. The senate have been, from the first formation of the government, divided into three classes; and the rotation of the classes was originally determined by lots, and the seats of one class are vacated at the end of the second year, and one-third of the senate is chosen every second year. Const. U. S. art 1, s. 3. This provision was borrowed from a similar one in some of the state constitutions, of which Virginia gave the first example.
5. The qualifications which the constitution requires of a senator, are, that he should be thirty years of age, have been nine years a citizen of the United States, and, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen. Art. 1, s. 3.
6.-2. The house of representatives is composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, who are qualified electors of the most numerous branch of the legislature of the state to which they belong.
7. No person can be a representative until he has attained the age of twenty-five years, and has been seven years a citizen of the United States, and is, at the time of his election, an inhabitant of the state in which he is chosen. Const. U. S. art. 1, 2.
8. The constitution requires that the representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states, which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. Art. 1, s. 1.
9. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one representative. Ib.
10. Having shown how congress is constituted, it is proposed here to consider the privileges and powers of the two houses, both aggregately and separately.
11. Each house is made the judge of the election, returns, and qualifications of its own members. Art. 1, s. 5. As each house acts in these cases in a judicial character, its decisions, like the decisions of any other court of justice, ought to be regulated by known principles of law, and strictly adhered to, for the sake of uniformity and certainty. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as, each may provide. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings; punish its members for disorderly behaviour; and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. Each house is bound to keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time, publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and to enter the yeas and nays on the journal, on any question, at the desire of one-fifth of the members present. Art. 1, s. 5.
12. The members of both houses are in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to, and returning from the same. Art. 1, s. 6.
13. These privileges of the two houses are obviously necessary for their preservation and character; And, what is still more important to the freedom of deliberation, no member can be questioned in any other place for any speech or debate in either house. lb.
14. There is no express power given to either house to punish for contempts, except when committed by their own members, but they have such an implied power. 6 Wheat. R. 204. This power, however, extends no further than imprisonment, and that will continue no farther than the duration of the power that imprisons. The imprisonment will therefore terminate with the adjournment or dissolution of congress.
15. The house of representatives has the exclusive right of originating bills for raising revenue, and this is the only privilege that house enjoys in its legislative character, which is not shared equally with the other; and even those bills are amendable by the senate in its discretion. Art. 1, s. 7.
16. The two houses are an entire and perfect check upon each other, in all business appertaining to legislatiou and one of them cannot even adjourn, during the session of congress, for more than three days, without the consent of the either nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. Art. 1, s. 5.
17. The powers of congress extend generally to all subjects of a national nature. Congress are authorized to provide for the common defence and general welfare; and for that purpose, among other express grants, they have the power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; to borrow money on the credit of the United States; to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indians; 1 McLean R. 257; to establish all uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws of bankruptcy throughout the United States; to establish post offices and post roads; to promote the progress of science and the useful arts, by securing for a limited time to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; to constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court; to define and punish piracies on the high seas, and offences against the laws of nations; to declare war; to raise and support armies; to provide and maintain a navy; to provide for the calling forth of the militia; to exercise exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia; and to give full efficacy to the powers contained in the constitution.
18. The rules of proceeding in each house are substantially the same; the house of representatives choose their own speaker; the vice-president of the United States is, ex officio, president of the senate, and gives the casting vote when the members are equally divided. The proceedings and discussions in the two houses are generally in public.
19. The ordinary mode of passing laws is briefly this; one day's notice of a motion for leave to bring in a bill, in cases of a general nature, is required; every bill must have three readings before it is passed, and these readings must be on different days; and no bill can be committed and amended until it has been twice read. In the house of representatives, bills, after being twice read, are committed to a committee of the whole house, when a chairman is appointed by the speaker to preside over the committee, when the speaker leaves the chair, and takes a part in the debate as an ordinary member.
20. When a bill has passed one house, it is transmitted, to tho other, and goes through a similar form, though in the senate there is less formality, and bills are often committed to a select committee, chosen by ballot. If a bill be altered or amended in the house to which it is transmitted, it is then returned to the house in which it orignated, and if the two houses cannot agree, they appoint a committee to confer on the subject See Conference.
21. When a bill is engrossed, and has received the sanction of both houses, it is sent to the president for his approbation. If he approves of the bill, he signs it. If he does not, it is returned, with his objections, to the house in which it originated, and that house enters the objections at large on their journal, and proceeds to re-consider it. If, after such re-consideration, two-thirds of the house agree to pass the bill, it is sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it is likewise re-considered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it becomes a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both houses are determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, are to be entered on the journal of each house respectively.
22. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law. Art. 1, s. 7. See House of Representatives; President; Senate; Veto; Kent, Com. Lecture xi.; Rawle on the Const. ch. ix.
CONGRESS, med. juris. This name was anciently given in France, England, and other countries, to the-indecent intercourse between married persons, in the presence of witnesses appointed by the courts, in cases when the husband or wife was charged by the other with impotence. Trebuchet, Jurisp. de Med. 101 Dictionnaire des Sciences Medicales, art. Congres, by Marc.
CONJECTURE. Conjectures are ideas or notions founded on probabilities without any demonstration of their truth. Mascardus has defined conjecture: "rationable vestigium latentis veritatis, unde nascitur opinio sapientis;" or a slight degree of credence arising from evidence too weak or too remote to produce belief. De Prob. vol. i. quoest. 14, n. 14. See Dict. de Trevoux, h. v.; Denisart, h. v.
CONJOINTS. Persons married to each other. Story, Confl. of L. 71; Wolff. Dr. de la Nat. 858.
CONJUGAL. Matrimonial; belonging, to marriage as, conjugal rights, or the rights which belong to the husband or wife as such.
CONJUNCTIVE, contracts, wills, instruments. A term in grammar used to designate particles which connect one word to another, or one proposition to another proposition.
2. There are many cases in law, where the conjunctive and is used for the disjunctive or, and vice versa.
3. An obligation is conjunctive when it contains several things united by a conjunction to indicate that they are all equally the object of the matter or contract for example, if I promise for a lawful consideration, to deliver to you my copy of the Life of Washington, my Encyclopaedia, and my copy of the History of the United States, I am then bound to deliver all of them and cannot be discharged by delivering one only. There are, according to Toullier, tom. vi. n. 686, as many separate obligations Is there are things to be delivered, and the obligor may discharge himself pro tanto by delivering either of them, or in case of refusal the tender will be valid. It is presumed, however, that only one action could be maintained for the whole. But if the articles in the agreement had not been enumerated; I could not, according to Toullier, deliver one in discharge of my contract, without the consent of the creditor; as if, instead of enumerating the, books above mentioned, I had bound myself to deliver all my books, the very books in question. Vide Disjunctive, Item, and the case, there cited; and also, Bac. Ab. Conditious, P; 1 Bos. & Pull. 242; 4 Bing. N. C. 463 S. C. 33 E. C. L. R. 413; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 687-8.
CONJURATION. A swearing together. It signifies a plot, bargain, or compact made by a number of persons under oath, to do some public harm. In times of ignorance, this word was used to signify the personal conference which some persons were supposed to have had with the devil, or some evil spirit, to know any secret, or effect any purpose.
CONNECTICUT. The name of one of the original states of the United States of America. It was not until the year 1665 that the territory now known as the state of Connecticut was united under one government. The charter was granted by Charles II. in April, 1662, but as it included the whole colony of New Haven, it was not till 1665 that the latter ceased its resistance, when both the colony of Connecticut and that of New Haven agreed, and then they were indissolubly united, and have so remained. This charter, with the exception of a temporary suspension, continued in force till the American revolution, and afterwards continued as a fundamental law of the state till the year 1818, when the present constitution was adopted. 1 Story on the Const. 86-88.
2. The constitution was adopted on the fifteenth day of September, 1818. The powers of the government are divided into three distinct departments, and each of them confided to a separate magistracy, to wit: those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive to another; and those which are judicial to a third. Art. 2.
3. - 1st. The legislative power is vested in two distinct houses or branches, the one styled the senate, and the other the house of representatives, and both together the general assembly. 1. The senate consists of twelve members, chosen annually by the electors. 2. The house of representatives consists of electorr residing in towns from which they are elected. The number of representatives is to be the same as at present practised and allowed; towns which may be hereafter incorporated are to be entitled to one representative only.
4. - 2d. The executive power is vested in a governor and lieutenant-governor. 1. The supreme executive power of the state is vested in a governor, chosen by the electors of the state; he is to hold his office for one year from the first Wednesday of May, next succeeding his election, and until his successor be duly qualified. Art. 4, s. 1. The governor possesses the veto power, art. 4, s. 12. 2. The lieutenant-governor is elected immediately after the election of governor, in the same manner as is provided for the election of governor, who continues in office the same time, and is to possess the same qualifications as the governor. Art. 4, s. 3. The lieutenant-governor, by virtue of his office, is president of the senate; and in case of the death, resignation, refusal to serve, or removal from office of the governor, or of his impeachment or absence from the state, the lieutenant-governor exercises all the powers and authority appertaining to the office of governor, until another be chosen, at the next periodical election for governor, and be duly qualified; or until the governor, impeached or absent, shall be acquitted or return. Art. 4, s. 14.
5. - 3d. The judicial, power of the state is vested in a supreme court of errors, a superior court, and such inferior courts as the general assembly may, from time to time, ordain and establish; the powers of which courts shall be defined. A sufficient number of justices of the peace, with such jurisdiction, civil and criminal, as the general assembly may prescribe, are to be appointed in each county. Art. 5.
CONNIVANCE. An agreement or consent, indirectly given, that something unlawful shall be done by another.
2. The connivance of the husband to his wife's prostitution deprives him of the right of obtaining a divorce; or of recovering damages from the seducer. 4 T. R. 657. It may be satisfactorily proved by implication.
3. Connivance differs from condonation, (q. v.) though either may have the same legal consequences. Connivance necessarily involves criminality on the part of the individual who connives, condonation may take place without implying the slightest blame to the party who forgives the injury.
4. Connivance must be the act of the mind before the offence has been committed; condonation is the result of a determination to forgive an injury which was not known until after it was inflicted. 3 Hagg. Eccl. R. 350.
5. Connivance differs, also, from collusion (q. Y.); the former is generally collusion. for a particular purpose, while the latter may exist without connivance. 3 Hagg, Eccl. R. 130. Vide Shelf. on Mar. & Div. 449; 3 Hagg. R. 82; 2 Hagg. R. 376; Id. 278; 3 Hagg. R. 58, 107, 119, 131, 312; 3 Pick. R. 299; 2 Caines, 219; Anth. N.P. 196.
CONQUEST, feudal law. This term was used by the feudists to signify purchase.
CONQUEST, international law. The acquisition of the sovereignty of a country by force of arms, exercised by an independent power which reduces the vanquished to the submission of its empire.
2. It is a general rule, that where conquered countries have laws of their own, these laws remain in force after the conquest, until they are abrogated, unless they are contrary to our religion, or enact any malum in se. In all such cases the laws of the conquering country prevail; for it is not to be presumed that laws opposed to religion or sound morals could be sanctioned. 1 Story, Const. 150, and the cases there cited.
3. The conquest and military occupation of a part of the territory of the United States by a public enemy, renders such conquered territory, during such occupation, a foreign country with respect to the revenue laws of the United States. 4 Wheat. R. 246; 2 Gallis. R. 486. The people of a conquered territory change theirallegiance, but, by the modern practice, their relations to each other, and their rights of property, remain the same. 7 Pet. R. 86.
4. Conquest does not, per se, give the conqueror plenum dominium et utile, but a temporary right of possession and government. 2 Gallis. R. 486; 3 Wash. C. C. R. 101. See 8 Wheat. R. 591; 2 Bay, R. 229; 2 Dall. R. 1; 12 Pet. 410.
5. The right which the English government claimed over the territory now composing the United States, was not founded on conquest, but discovery. Id. 152, et seq.
CONQUETS, French law. The name given to every acquisition which the husband and wife, jointly or severally, make during the conjugal community. Thus, whatever is acquired by the husband and wife, either by his or her industry or good fortune, enures to the extent of one-half for the benefit of the other. Merl. Rep. mot Conquet; Merl. Quest. mot Conquet. In Louisiana, these gains are called aquets. (q. v.) Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2369.
CONSANGUINITY The relation subsisting among all the different persons descendiug from the same stock, or common ancestor. Vaughan, 322, 329; 2 Bl. Com. 202 Toull. Dr. Civ.. Fr. liv. 3, t. 1, ch. n 115 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1955, et seq.
2. Some portion of the blood of the common ancestor flows through the veins of all his descendants, and though mixed with the blood flowing from many other families, yet it constitutes the kindred or alliance by blood between any two of the individuals. This relation by blood is of two kinds, lineal and collateral.
3. Lineal consanguinity is that relation which exists among persons, where one is descended from the other, as between the son and the father, or the grandfather, and so upwards in a direct ascending line; and between the father and the son, or the grandson, and so downwards in a direct descending line. Every generation in this direct course males a degree, computing either in the ascending or descending line. This being the natural mode of computing the degrees of lineal, consanguinity, it has been adopted by the civil, the canon, and the common law.
4. Collateral consanguinity is the relation subsisting among persons who descend from the same commnon ancestor, but not from each other. It is essential to constitute this relation, that they spring from the same common root or stock, but in different branches. The mode of computing the degrees is to discover the common ancestor, to begin with him to reckon downwards, and the degree the two persons, or the more remote of them, is distant from the ancestor, is the degree of kindred subsisting between them. For instance, two brothers are related to each other in the first degree, because from the father to each of them is one degree. An uncle and a nephew are related to each other in tho second degree, because the nephew is two degrees distant from the common ancestor, and the rule of computation is extended to the remotest degrees of collateral relationship. This is the mode of computation by the common and canon law. The method of computing by the civil law, is to begin at either of the persons in questian and count up to the common ancestor, and then downwards to the, other person, calling it a degree for each person, both ascending and descending, and the degrees they stand from each other is the degree in which they stand related. Thus, from a nephew to his father, is one degree; to the grandfather, two degrees and then to the uncle, three; which points out the relationship.
5. The following table, in which the Roman numeral letters express the degrees by the civil law, and those in Arabic figures at the bottom, those by the common law, will fully illustrate the subject.
- IV. -
- father -
- 4 -
- III. - - V. -
- Great grand-father - -Great grand-uncle-
- 3. - - -
- II. - - IV. -
- Grand father - - Great uncle. -
- 2. - - 3 -
- \ \
- I. - - III. - - V. -
- Father - - Uncle. - -Great Uncle's son-
- 1. - - 2. - - 3. -
- \ \ \
- - - II. - - IV. - - VI. -
-Intestate person - - Brother - - Cousin german - - 2nd. Cousin-
- proposed. - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 -
- I. - - III. - - V. -
- Son. - - Nephew - -Son of Cousin-
- 1. - - 2 - - german 3 -
- II. - - IV. -
- Grandson. - -Son of Nephew or -
- 2. - -brother's grandson-
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸Á - 3 -
- III. -
- Great grandson. -
- 3. -
6. The mode of the civil law is preferable, for it points out the actual degree of kindred in all cases; by the mode adopted by the common law, different relations may stand in the same degree. The uncle and nephew stand related in the second degree by the common law, and so are two first cousins, or two sons of two brothers; but by the civil law the uncle and nephew are in the third degree, and the cousins are in the fourth. The mode of computation, however, is immaterial, for both will establish the same person to be the heir. 2 Bl. Com. 202; 1 Swift's Dig. 113; Toull. Civ. Fr. liv. 8, t. 1, o. 3, n. 115. Vide Branch; Degree; Line.
CONSCIENCE. The moral sense, or that capacity of our mental constitution, by which we irresistibly feel the difference between right and wrong.
2. The constitution of the United States wisely provides that "no religious test shall ever be required." No man, then, or body of men, have a right to control a man's belief or opinion in religious matters, or to forbid the most perfect freedom of inquiry in relation to them, by force or threats, or by any other motives than arguments or persuasion. Vide Story, Const. 1841-1843.
CONSENSUAL, civil law. This word is applied to designate one species of contract known in the civil laws; these contracts derive their name from the consent of the parties which is required in their formation, as they cannot exist without such consent.
2. The contract of sale, among the civilians, is an example of a consensual contract, because the moment there is an agreement between the seller and the buyer as to the thing and the price, the vendor and the purchaser have reciprocal actions On the contrary, on a loan, there is no action by the lender or borrower, although there may have been consent, until the thing is delivered or the money counted. This is a real contract in the sense of the civil law. Lec. El. Dr: Rom. 895; Poth. Ob. pt. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2; 1 Bell's Com. (5th ed.) 435. Vide Contract.
CONSENT. An agreement to something proposed, and differs from assent. (q. v.) Wolff, Ins. Nat. part 1, SSSS 27-30; Pard. Dr. Com. part 2, tit. 1, n. 1, 38 to 178. Consent supposes, 1. a physical power to act; 2. a moral power of acting; 3. a serious, determined, and free use of these powers. Fonb. Eq. B; 1, c. 2, s. 1; Grot. de Jure Belli et Pacis, lib. 2, c. 11, s. 6.
2. Consent is either express or implied. Express, when it is given viva voce, or in writing; implied, when it is manifested by signs, actions, or facts, or by inaction or silence, which raise a presumption that the consent has been given.
3. - 1. When a legacy is given with a condition annexed to the bequest, requiring the consent of executors to the marriage of the legatee, and under such consent being given, a mutual attachment has been suffered to grow up, it would be rather late to state terms and conditions on which a marriage between the parties should take place;. 2 Ves. & Beames, 234; Ambl. 264; 2 Freem. 201; unless such consent was obtained by deceit or fraud. 1 Eden, 6; 1 Phillim. 200; 12 Ves. 19.
4. - 2. Such a condition does not apply to a second marriage. 3 Bro. C. C. 145; 3 Ves. 239.
5. - 3. If the consent has been substantially given, though not modo et forma, the legatee will be held duly entitled to the legacy. 1 Sim. & Stu. 172; 1 Meriv. 187; 2 Atk. 265.
6. - 4. When trustees under a marriage settlement are empowered to sell "with the consent of the husband and, wife," a sale made by the trustees without the distinct consent of the wife, cannot be a due execution of their power. 10 Ves. 378.
7. - 5. Where a power of sale requires that the sale should be with the consent of certain specified individuals, the fact of such consent having been given, ought to be evinced in the manner pointed out by the creator of the power, or such power will not be considered as properly executed. 10 Ves. 308. Vide, generally, 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 161, 165, 169; Ayliffe's Pand. 117; 1 Rob. Leg.. 345, 539.
8. - 6. Courts of equity have established the rule, that when the true owner of property stands by, and knowingly suffers a stranger to sell the same as his own, without objection, this will be such implied consent as to render the sale valid against the true owner. Story on Ag. 91 Story on Eq. Jur. 385 to 390. And courts of law, unless restrained by technical formalities, act upon the principles of justice; as, for example, when a man permitted, without objection, the sale of his goods under an execution against another person. 6 Adolph. & El 11. 469 9 Barn. & Cr. 586; 3 Barn. & Adolph. 318, note.
9. The consent which is implied in every agreement is excluded, 1. By error in the essentials of the contract; ,is, if Paul, in the city of Philadelphia, buy the horse of Peter, which is in Boston, and promise to pay one hundred dollars for him, the horse at the time of the sale, unknown to either party, being dead. This decision is founded on the rule that he who consents through error does not consent at all; non consentiunt qui errant. Dig. 2, 1, 15; Dig. lib. 1, tit. ult. 1. 116, 2. 2. Consent is excluded by duress of the party making the agreement.
3. Consent is never given so as to bind the parties, when it is obtained by fraud. 4. It cannot be given by a person who has no understanding, as an idiot, nor by one who, though possessed of understanding, is not in law capable of making a contract, as a feme covert. See Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CONSENT RULE. In the English practice, still adhered to in some of the states of the American Union, the defendant in ejectment is required to enter on record that he confesses the lease, entry, and ouster of the plaintiff; this is called the consent rule.
2. The consent rule contains the following particulars, namely: 1. The person appearing consents to be made defendant instead of the casual ejector; 2. To appear at the suit of the plaintiff; and, if the proceedings are by bill, to file common bail; 3. To receive a declaration in ejectment, and plead not guilty; 4. At the trial of the case to confess lease, entry, and ouster, and insist upon his title only; 5. That if at the trial, the party appearing shall not confess lease, entry, and ouster, whereby the plaintiff shall not be able to prosecute his suit, such party shall pay to the plaintiff the costs of the nonpros, and suffer judgment to be entered against the casual ejector; 6. That if a verdict shall be given for the defendant, or the plaintiff shall not prosecute his suit for any other cause than the non-confession of lease, entry, and ouster, the lessor of the plaintiff shall pay costs to the defendant; 7. When the landlord appears alone, that the plaintiff shall be at liberty to sign judgment immediately against the casual ejector, but that execution shall be stayed until the court shall further order. Adams, Ej. 233, 234 and for a form see Ad. Ej. Appx. No. 25. Vide 2 Cowen, 442; 4 John. R. 311; Caines' Cas. 102; 12 Wend. 105, 3 Cowen, 356; 6 Cowen, 587; 1 Cowen, 166; and Casual Ejector; Ejectment.
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, torts. Those damages or those losses which arise not from the immediate act of the party, but in consequence of such act; as if a man throw a log into the public streets, and another fall upon it and become injured by the fall or if a man should erect a dam over his own ground, and by that means overflow his neighbor's, to his injury.
2. The form of action to be instituted for consequential damages caused without force, is by action on the case. 3 East, 602; 1 Stran. 636; 5 T. R. 649; 5 Vin. Ab. 403; 1 Chit. Pl. 127 Kames on Eq. 71; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3484, et seq. Vide Immediate.
CONSERVATOR. A preserver, a protector.
2. Before the institution of the office of justices of the peace in England, the public order was maintained by officers who bore the name of conservators of the peace. All judges, justices, sheriffs and constables, are conservators of the peace, and are bound, ex officio, to be aiding and assisting in preserving older.
3. In Connecticut, this term is applied to designate a guardian who has the care of the estate of an idiot. 5 Conn. R. 280.
CONSIDERATIO CURLAE, practice. The judgment of the court. In pleadings where matters are determined by the court, it is said, therefore it is considered and adjudged by the court ideo consideratum est per curiam.
CONSIDERATION, contracts. A compensation which is paid, or all inconvenience suffered by the, party from whom it proceeds. Or it is the reason which moves the contracting party to enter into the contract. 2 Bl. Com. 443. Viner defines it to be a cause or occasion meritorious, requiring a mutual recompense in deed or in law. Abr. tit. Consideration, A. A consideration of some sort or other, is so absolutely necessary to the forming a good contract, that a nudum pactum, or an agreement to do or to pay any thing on one side, without any compensation to the other, is totally void in law, and a man cannot be compelled to perform it. Dr. & Stud. d. 2, c. 24 3 Call, R. 439 7 Conn. 57; 1 Stew. R. 51 5 Mass. 301 4 John. R. 235; C. Yerg. 418; Cooke, R. 467; 6 Halst. R. 174; 4 Munf. R. 95. But contracts under seal are valid without a consideration; or, perbaps, more properly speaking, every bond imports in itself a sufficient consideration, though none be mentioned. 11 Serg. & R. 107. Negotiable instruments, as bills of exchange and promissory notes, carry with them prima facie evidence of consideration. 2 Bl. Com. 445.
3. The consideration must be some benefit to the party by whom the promise is made, or to a third person at his instance; or some detriment sustained at the instance of the party promising, by the party in whose favor the promise is made. 4 East, 455; .1 Taunt. 523 Chitty on Contr. 7 Dr. & Stu. 179; 1 Selw. N. P. 39 , 40; 2 pet. 182 1 Litt. 123; 3 John. 100; 6 Mass. 58 2 Bibb. 30; 2 J. J. Marsh. 222; 5 Cranch, 142, 150 2 N. H. Rep. 97 Wright, It. 660; 14 John. R. 466 13 S. & R. 29 3 M. Gr. & Sc. 321.
4. Considerations are good, as when they are for natural love and affection; or valuable, when some benefit arises to the party to whom they are made, or inconvenience to the party making them. Vin. Abr. Consideration, B; 5 How. U. S. 278; 4 Barr, 364; 3 McLean, 330; 17 Conn. 511; 1 Branch, 301; 8 Ala. 949.
5. They are legal, which are sufficient to support the contract or illegal, which render it void. As to illegal considerations, see 1 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. 295; 2 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. 448; 2 Burr. 924 1 Bl. Rep. 204. If the, performance be utterly impossible, in fact or in law, the consideration is void. 2 Lev. 161; Yelv. 197, and note; 3 Bos. & Pull. 296, n. 14 Johns. R. 381.
6. A mere moral obligation to pay a debt or perform a duty, is a sufficient consideration for an express promise, although no legal liability existed at the time of making such promise. Cowp. 290 Bl. Com. 445 3 Bos. & Pull. 249, note; 2 East, 506; 3 Taunt. 311; 5 Taunt. 36; 13 Johns. R. 259; Yelv. 41, b, note; 3 Pick. 207. But it is to be observed, that in such cases there must have been a good or valuable consideration; for example, every one is under a moral obligation to relieve a person in distress, a promise to do so, however, is not binding in law. One is bound to pay a debt which he owes, although he has been released; a promise to pay such a debt is obligatory in law on the debtor, and can therefore be enforeed by action. 12 S. & R. 177; 19 John. R. 147; 4 W. C. C. R. 86, 148; 7 John. R. 26; 14 John. R. 178; 1 Cowen, R. 249; 8 Mass. R. 127. See 7 Conn. R. 57; 1 Verm. R. 420; 5 Verm. R. 173; 5. Ham. R. 58; 3 Penna. R. 172; 5 Binn. R. 33.
7. In respect of time, a consideration is either, 1st. Executed, or Something done before the making of the obligor's promise. Yelv. 41, a. n. In general, an executed consideration is insufficient to support a contract; 7 John. R. 87; 2 Conn. R. 404; 7 Cowen, R. 358; but an executed consideration on request; 7 John. R. 87 1 Caines R. 584; or by some previous duty, or if the debt be continuing at the time, or it is barred by some rule of law, or some provision of a statute, as the act of limitation, it is sufficient to maintain an action. 4 W. C. C. R. 148 14 John. R. 378 17 S. & R. 126. 2d. Executory, or something to be done after such promise. 3d. Concurrent, as in the case of mutual promises; and, 4th. A continuing consideration. Chitty on Contr. 16.
8. As to cases where the contract has been set aside on the ground of a total failure of the consideration, see 11 Johns. R. 50; 7 Mass. 14; 8 Johns. R. 458; 8 Mass. 46 6 Cranch, 53; 2 Caines' Rep. 246 and 1 Camp. 40, n. When the consideration turns out to be false and fails, there is no contract; as, for example, if my father by his will gives me all his estate, charged with the payment of a thousand dollars, and I promise to give you my house instead of the legacy to you, and you agree to buy it with the legacy, and before the contract is completed, and I make you a deed for the house, I discover that my father made a codicil to his will and by it be revoked the gift to you' I am not bound to complete the contract by making you a deed for my house. Poth. on Oblig. part 1, c. 1, art. 3, 6. See, in general, Obligation,, New Promise; Bouv. Inst. Index. b. t,; Evans' Poth. vol. ii. p. 19; 1 Fonb. Eq. 335; Newl. Contr. 65; 1 Com. Contr. 26; Fell on Guarrant. 337; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 63 to 99; 3 Bos. & Pull. 249, n; 1 Fonb. Eq. 122, note z; Id. 370, note g; 5 East, 20, n.; 2 Saund. 211, note 2; Lawes Pl. Ass. 49; 1 Com. Dig. Action upon the case upon Assumpsit, B Vin. Abr. Actions of Assumpsit, Q; Id. tit. Consideration.
CONSIDERATUM EST per curiam. It is considered by the court. This formula is used in giving judgments. A judgment is the decision or sentence of the law, given by a court of justice, as the result of proceedings instituted therein, for the redress of an injury. The language of the judgment is not, therefore, that " it is decreed," or " resolved," by the court; but that " it is considered by the court," consideratum est per curiam, that the plaintiff recover his debt, &c. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3298.
CONSIGNATION, contracts. In the civil law, it is a deposit which a debtor makes of the thing that he owes, into the hands of a third person, and under the authority of a court of justice. Poth. Oblig. P. 3, c. 1, art. 8.
2. Generally the consignation is made with a public officer it is very similar to our practice of paying money into court.
3. The term to consign, or consignation, is derived from the Latin consignare, which signifies to seal, for it was formerly the practice to seal up the money thus received in a bag or box. Aso & Man. Inst. B. 2, t. 11, c. 1, 5. See Burge on Sur. 138.
CONSIGNEE, contracts. One to whom a consignment is made.
2. When the goods consigned to him are his own, and they have been ordered to be sent, they are at his risk the moment the consignment is made according to his direction; and the persons employed in the transmission of the goods are his agents. 1 Liverm. on Ag, 9. When the goods are not his own, if he accept the consignment, he is bound to pursue the instructions of the consignor; as if the goods be consigned upon condition that the consignee will accept the consignor's bills, he is bound to accept them; Id. 139; or if he is directed to insure, he must do so. Id. 325.
3. It is usual in bills of lading to state that the goods are to be delivered to the consignee or his assigns, he or they paying freight; in such case the consignee or his assigns, by accepting the goods, by implication, become bound to pay the freight, Abbott on Sh. p. 3, c. 7, 4; 3 Bing. R, 383.
4. When a person acts, publicly as a consignee, there is an implied engagement on his part that he will be vigilant in receiving goods consigned to his care, so as to make him responsible for any loss which the owner may sustain in consequence of his neglect. 9 Watts & Serg. 62.
CONSIGINMENT. The goods or property sent by a common carrier from one or more persons called the consignors, from one place, to one or more persons, called the consignees, who are in another. By this term ig also understood the goods sent by one person to another, to be sold or disposed of by the latter for and on account of the former.
CONSIGNOR, contracts. One who makes a consignment to another.
2. When goods are consigned to be sold on commission, and the property remains in the consignor; or when goods have been consigned upon a credit, and the consignee has become a bankrupt or failed, the consignor has a right to stop them in transitu. (q. v.) Abbot on Sh. p. 3, c.
3. The consignor is generally liable for the freight or the hire for the carriage of goods. 1 T. R. 6 5 9.
CONSILIUM, or dies consilii, practice. A time allowed for the accused to make his defence, and now more commonly used for a day appointed to argue a demurrer. In civil cases, it is a special day appointed for the purpose of hearing an argument. Jer. Eq. Jur. 296; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3753.
CONSIMILI CASU. These words occur in the Stat. West. 21 C. 24, 13 Ed. 1. wbich gave authority to the clerks in chancery to form new writs in consimili casu simili remedio indigente sicut prius fit breve. In execution of the powers granted by this statute, many new writs were formed by the clerk's in chancery, especially in real actions, as writs of quod permittat prosternere, against the alienee of land after the erection of a nuisance thereon, according to the analogy of the assize of nuisance, writs of juris utrum, c. &c. In respect to personal actions, it has, long been the practice to issue writs in consimili casu, in the most general form, e. g. in trespass on the case upon promises, leaving it to the plaintiff to state fully, and at large, his case inthe declaration the sufficiency of which in point of law is always a question for the court to consider upon the pleadings and evidence. See Willes, Rep. 580; 2 Lord Ray. 957; 2 Durnf. & East, 51; 2 Wils. 146 17 Serg. & R.. 195; 3 Bl. Com. 51 7 Co. 4; F. N. B. 206; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3482.
CONSISTENT. That which agrees with something else; as a consistent condition, which is one which agrees with all other parts of a contract, or which can be reconciled with every other part. 1 Bouv. Just. n. 752,
CONSISTORY, ecclesiastical law. An assembly of cardinals convoked by the pope. The consistory is public or secret. It is vublic, when the pope receives princes or gives audience to ambassadors; secret, when he fills vacant sees, proceeds to the canonization of saints, or judges and settles certain contestations submitted to him.
2. A court which was formerly held among protestants, in which the bishop presided, assisted by some of his clergy, also bears this name. It is now held in England, by the bishop's chancellor or commissary, and some other ecclesiastical officers, either in the cathedral, church, or other place in his diocese, for the determination of ecclesiastical cases arising in that diocese. Merl. Rep. h. t.; Burns' Dict. h. t.
CONSOLATO DEL MARE, (IL). The name of a code of sea laws compiled by order of the ancient kings of Aragon. Its date is not very certain, but it was adopted on the continent of Europe, as the code of maritime law, in the course of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. It comprised the ancient ordinances of the Greek and Roman emperors, and of the kings of France and Spain; and the laws of the Mediterranean islands, and of Venice and Genoa. It was originally written in the dialect of Catalonia, as its title plainly indicates, and it has been translated into every language of Europe. This code has been reprinted in the second volume of the " Collection de Lois Maritimes Anterieures au XVIII. Siecle, par J. M. Pardessus, (Paris, 1831)." A collection of sea laws, which is very complete.
CONSOLIDATION, civil law. The union of the usufruct with the estate out of which it issues, in the same person which happens when the usufructuary acquires the estate, or vice versa. In either case the usufruct is extinct. In the common law this is called a merger. Ley. El. Dr. Rom. 424. U. S. Dig. tit. Actions, V.
2. Consolidation may take place in two ways: first, by the usufructuary surrendering his right to the proprietor, which in the common law is called a surrender; secondly, by the release of the. proprietor of his rights to the usufructuary, which in our law is called a release.
CONSOLIDATION RULE, practice, com. law. When a number of actions are brought on the same policy, it is the constant practice, for the purpose of saving costs, to consolidate them. by a rule of court or judge's order, which restrains the plaintiff from proceeding to trial in more than one, and binds the defendants in all the others to abide the event of that one; but this is done upon condition that the defendant shall not file any bill inequity, or bring any writ of error for delay. 2 Marsh. Ins. 701. For the history of this rule, vide Parke on Ins. xlix.; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 1 6, s. 4. And see 1 John. Cas. 29; 19 Wend. 23; 13 Wend. 644 5 Cowen, 282,; 4 Cowen, 78; Id. 85; 1 John. 29; 9 John. 262.
2. The term consolidation seems to be rather misapplied in those cases, for in point of fact there is a mere stay of proceedings in all those cases but one. 3 Chit. Pr. 644. The rule is now extended to other cases: when several actions are brought on the same bond against several obligors, an order for a stay of proceedings in all but one will be made. 3 Chit. Pr. 645 3 Carr. & P. 58. See 4 Yeates, R. 128 3 S. & R. 262; Coleman, 62; 3 Rand. 481; 1 N. & M. 417, n.; 1 Cow n 89; 3 Wend. 441; 9 Wend. 451; M. 438, 440, n.; 5 Cowen, 282; 4 Halst. 335; 1 Dall. 145; 1 Browne, Appx. lxvii.; 1 Ala. R. 77; 4 Hill, R. 46; 19 Wend. 23 5 Yerg. 297; 7 Miss. 477; 2 Tayl. 200.,
3. The plaintiff may elect to join in the same suit several causes of action, in many cases, consistently with the rules of pleading, but having done so, his election is determined. He cannot ask the court to consolidate them; 3 Serg. & R. 266; but the court will sometimes, at the instance of the defendant, order it against the plaintiff. 1 Dall. Rep. 147, 355; 1 Yeates, 5; 4 Yeates, 128; 2 Arch. Pr. 180; 3 Serg. & R. 264.
CONSOLS, Eng. law. This is an abbreviation for consolidated annuities. Formerly when a loan was made, authorized by government, a particular part of the revenue was appropriated for the payment of the interest and of the principal. This was called the fund, and every loan had its fund. In this manner the Aggregate fund originated in 1715; the South Sea fund, in 1717; the General fund, 1617 and the Sinking fund, into which the surplus of these three funds flowed, which, although destined for the diminution of the national debt, was applied to the necessities of the government. These four funds were consolidated into one in the year 1787, under the name of consolidated fund.
2. The income arises from the receipts on account of excise, customs, stamps, and other, perpetual taxes. The charges on it are the interest on and the redemption of the public debt; the civil list; the salaries of the judges and officers of state, and the like.
3. The annual grants on account of the army and navy, and every part of the revenue which is considered temporary, are excluded from this fund. 4. Those persons who lent the money to the government, or their assigns, are entitled to an annuity of three per cent on the amount lent, which, however, is not to be returned, except at the option of the government so that the holders of consols are simply annuitants.
CONSORT. A man or woman married. The man is the consort of his wife, the woman is the consort of her husband.
CONSPIRACY, crim. law, torts. An agreement between two or more persons to do an unlawful act, or an act which may become by the combination injurious to others. Formerly this offence was much more circumscribed in its meaning than it is now. Lord Coke describes it as "a consultation or agreement between two or more to appeal or indict an innocent person falsely and maliciously, whom accordingly they cause to be indicted or appealed and afterwards the party is acquitted by the verdict of twelve men."
2. The crime of conspiracy, according to its modern interpretation, may be of two kinds, Damely, conspiracies against the public, or such as endanger the public health, violate public morals, insult public justice, destroy the public peace, or affect public trade or business. See 3 Burr. 1321.
3. To remedy these evils the guilty persons may be indicted in the name of the commonwealth. Conspiracies against individuals are such as have a tendency to injure them in their persons, reputation, or property. The remedy in these cases is either by indictment or by a civil action.
4. In order to reader the offence complete, there is no occasion that any act should be done in pursuance of the unlawful agreement entered into between the parties, or that any one should have been defrauded or injured by it. The conspiracy is the gist of the crane. 2 Mass. R. 337; Id. 538 6 Mass. R. 74; 3 S. & R. 220 4 Wend. R. 259; Halst. R. 293 2 Stew. Rep. 360; 5 Harr. & John. 317 8 S. & R. 420. But see 10 Verm. 353.
5. By the laws of the United State's, St. 1825, c. 76, 23, 3 Story's L. U. S., 2006, a wilful and corrupt conspiracy to cast away, burn or otherwise destroy any ship or vessel. with intent to injure any underwriter thereon, or the goods on board thereof, or any lender of money on such vessel, on bottomry or respondentia, is, by the laws of the United States, made felony, and the offender punishable by fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars, and by imprisonment and confinement at hard labor, not exceeding ten years.
6. By the Revised Statutes of New York, vol. 2, p. 691, 692, it is enacted, that if any two or more persons shall conspire, either, 1. To commit any offence; or, 2. Falsely and maliciously to indict another for any offence; or, 3. Falsely to move or maintain any suit; or, 4. To cheat and defraud any person of any property, by any means which are in themselves criminal; or, 5. To cheat and defraud any person of any property, by means which, if executed, would amount to a cheat, or to obtaining property by false pretences; or, 6. To commit any act injurious to the public health, to public morals, or to trade and commerce, or for the perversion or obstruction of justice, or the due administration of the laws; they shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. No other conspiracies are there punishable criminally. And no agreement, except to commit a felony upon the person of another, or to commit arson or burglary, shall be deemed a conspiracy, unless some act besides such agreement be done to effect the object thereof, by one or more of the parties to such agreement.
7. When a felony has been committed in pursuance of a conspiracy, the latter, which is only a misdemeanor, is merged in the former; but when a misdemeanor only has been committed in pursuance of such conspiracy, the two crimes being of equal degree, there can be no legal technical merger. 4 Wend. R. 265. Vide 1 Hawk. 444 to 454; 3 Chit. Cr. Law, 1138 to 1193 3 Inst. 143 Com. Dig. Justices of the Peace, B 107; Burn's Justice, Conspiracy; Williams' Justice, Conspiracy; 4 Chit. Blacks. 92; Dick. Justice Conspiracy, Bac. Ab. Actions on the Case, G 2 Russ. on Cr. 553 to 574 2 Mass. 329 Id. 536 5 Mass. 106 2 D R. 205; Whart. Dig. Conspiracy; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 220; 7 Serg. & Rawle, 469 4 Halst. R. 293; 5 Harr. & Johns. 317 4 Wend. 229; 2 Stew. R. 360;1 Saund. 230, u. 4. For the French law, see Merl. Rep. mot Conspiration Code Penal, art. 89.
CONSPIRATORS. Persons guilty of a conspiracy. See 3 Bl. Com. 126-71 Wils. Rep. 210-11. See Conspiracy.
CONSTABLE. An officer, who is generally elected by the people.
2. He possess power, virture officii, as a conservator of the peace at common law, and by virtue of various legislative enactments; he. way therefore apprehend a supposed offender without a warrant, as treason, felony, breach of the peace, and for some misdemeanors Iess than felony, when committed in his view. 1 Hale, 587; 1 East, P. C. 303 8 Serg. & Rawle, 47. He may also arrest a supposed offender upon the informatiou of others but he does so at his peril, unless he can show that a felony has been committed by some person, as well as the reasonableness of the suspicion that the party arrested is guilty. 1 Chit. Cr. L. 27; 6 Binn. R. 316; 2 Hale, 91, 92 1 East, P. C. 301. He has power to call others to his assistance; or he may appoint a deputy to do ministerial acts. 3 B urr. Rep. 1262.
3. A constable is also a ministerial officer, bound to obey the warrants and precepts of justices, coroners, and sheriffs. Constables are also in some states bound to execute the warrants and process of justices of the peace in civil cases.
4. In England, they have many officers, with more or less power, who bear the name of constables; as, lord high constable of England, high constable 3 Burr. 1262 head constables, petty constables, constables of castles, constables of the tower, constables of the fees, constable of the exchequer, constable of the staple, &c.
5. In some of the cities of the United States there are officers who are called high constables, who are the principal police officers where they reside. Vide the various Digests of American Law, h. t.; 1 Chit. Cr. L. 20; 5 Vin. Ab. 427; 2 Phil. Ev. 253 2 Sell. Pr. 70; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. Justices of the Peace, B 79; Id. D 7; Id, Officer, E 2; Wille. Off. Const.
CONSTABLEWICK. In England, by this word is meant the territorial jurisdiction of a constable. 5 Nev. & M. 261.
CONSTAT, English law. The name of a certificate, which the clerk of the pipe and auditors of the exchequer make at the request of any person who intends to plead or move in the court for the discharge of anything; and the effect of it is, the certifying what constat (appears) upon record touching the matter in question.
2. A constat is held to be superior to an ordinary certificate, because it contains nothing but what is on record. An exemplification under the great seal, of the enrolment of any letters-patent, is called a constat. Co. Litt. 225. Vide Exemplification; Inspeximus.
3. Whenever an officer gives a certificate that such a thing appears of record, it is called a constat; because the officer does not say that the fact is so, but it appears to be as he certifies. A certificate that it appears to the officer that a judgment has been entered, &c., is insufficient. 1 Hayw. 410.
CONSTITUENT. He who gives authority to another to act for him. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 893.
2. The constituent is bound with whatever his attorney does by virtue of his authority. The electors of a member of the legislature are his constituents, to whom he is responsible for his legislative acts.
CONSTITUIMUS. A Latin word which signifies we constitute. Whenever the king of England is vested with the right of creating a new office, he must use proper words to do so, for example, erigimus, constituimus, c . Bac. Ab. Offices, &c. E.
TO CONSTITUTE, contr. To empower, to authorize. In the common form of letters of attorney, these words occur, I nominate, constitute and appoint."
CONSTITUTED AUTHORITIES. Those powers which the constitution of each people has established to govern them, to cause their rights to be respected, and to maintain tliose of eacli of its members.
2. They arc called constituted, to distinguish them from the constituting authority which has created or organized them, or has delegated to an authority, which it has itself created, the right of establishing or regulating their movements. The officers appointed under the constitution are also collectively called the constituted authorities. Dall. Dict. mots Contrainte par corps, n. 526.
CONSTITUTION,, government. The fundamental law of the state, containing the principles upon which the government is founded, and regulating the divisions of the sovereign powers, directing to what persons each of these powers is to be confided, and the, manner it is to be exercised as, the Constitution of the United States. See Story on the Constitution; Rawle on the Const.
2. The words constitution and government (q. v.) are sometimes employed to express the same idea, the manner in which sovereignty is exercised in each state. Constitution is also the name of the instrument containing the fundamental laws of the state.
3. By constitution, the civilians, and, from them, the common law writers, mean some particular law; as the constitutions of the emperors contained in the Code.
CONSTITUTION, contracts. The constitution of a contract, is the making of the contract as, the written constitution of a debt. 1 Bell's Com. 332, 5th ed.
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The fundamental law of the United States.
2. It was framed by a convention of the representatives of the people, who met at Philadelphia, and finally adopted it on the 17th day of September, 1787. It became the law of the land on the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 5 Wheat. 420.
3. A short analysis of this instrument, so replete with salutary provisions for insuring liberty and private riglits, and public peace and prosperity, will here be given.
4. The preamble declares that the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure public tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to themselves and their posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America.
5. - 1. The first article is divided into ten sections. By the first the legislative power is vested in congress. The second regulates the formation of the house of representatives, and declares who shall be electors. The third provides for the organization of the senate, and bestows on it the power to try impeachments. The fourth directs the times and places of holding elections and the time of meeting of congress. The fifth determines the power of the respective houses. The sixth provides for a compensation to members of congress, and for their safety from arrests and disqualifies them from holding certain offices. The seventh directs the manner of passing bills. The eighth defines the powers vested in congress. The ninth contains the following provisions: 1st. That the migration or importation of persons shall not be prohibited prior to the year 1808. 2d. That the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, except in particular cases. 3d. That no bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed. 4th. The manner of laying taxes. 5th. The manner of drawing money out of the treasury. 6th. That no title of nobility shall be granted. 7th. That no officer shall receive a present from a foreign government. The tenth forbids the respective states to exercise certain powers there enumerated.
6. - 2. The second article is divided into four sections. The first vests the executive power in the president of the United States of America, and provides for his election, and that of the vice-president. The second section confers various powers on the president. The third defines his duties. The fourth provides for the impeachment of the president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the United States.
7. - 3. The third article contains three sections. The first vests the judicial power in sundry courts, provides for the tenure of office by the judges, and for their compensation. The second provides for the extent of the judicial power, vests in the supreme court original jurisdiction in certain cases, and directs the manner of trying crimes. The third defines treason, and vests in congress the power to declare its punishment.
8. - 4. The fourth article is composed of four sections. The first relates to the faith which state records, &c., shall have in other states. The second secures the rights of citizens in the several states for the delivery of fugitives from justice or from labor. The third for the admission of new states, and the government of the territories. The fourth guaranties to every state in the Union the republican form of government, and protection from invasion or domestic violence.
9. - 5. The Fifth Article provides for amendments to the constitution.
10. - 6. The sixth article declares that the debts due under the confederation shall be valid against the United States; that the constitution and treaties made under its powers shall be the supreme law of the land that public officers shall be required by oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the United States that no religious test shall be required as a qualification for office.
11. - 7. The seventh article directs what shall be a sufficient ratification of this constitution by the states.
12. In pursuance of the fifth article of the constitution, articles in addition to, and amendment of, the constitution, were proposed by congress, and ratified by the legislatures of the several states. These additional articles are to the following import:
13. - 1. Relates to religious freedom; the liberty of the press; the right of the people to assemble and petition.
14. - 2. Secures to the people the right to bear arms.
15. - 3. Provides for the quartering of soldiers.
16. - 4. Regulates the right of search, and of arrest on criminal charges.
17. - 5. Directs the manner of being held to answer for crimes, and provides for the security of the life, liberty and property of the citizens.
18. - 6. Secures to the accused the right to a fair trial by jury.18. - 6. Secures to the accused the right to a fair trial by jury.
19. - 7. Provides for a trial by jury in civil cases.
20. - 8. Directs that excessive bail shall not be required; nor excessive fines imposed nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
21. - 9. Secures to the people the rights retained by them.
22.- 10. Secures the rights to the states, or to the people the rights they have not granted.
23. - 11. Limits the powers of the courts as to suits against one of the United States.
24. - 12. Points out the manner of electing the president and vice-president.