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Dictionary, legal meaning of, CABALLERIA... CONSTITUTED AUTHORITIES

    22.2.12  

CABALLERIA, Spanish law. A measure of land, which is different in different provinces. Diccionario por la Real Academia. In those parts of the United States, which formerly belonged to Spain, the
caballeria is a lot of one hundred feet front and two hundred feet deep, and equal, in all respects, to five peonias. (q. v.) 2 White's Coll. 49; 12 Pet. 444. note. See Fanegas.
CABINET. Certain officers who taken collectively make a board; as, the president's, cabinet, which is usually composed of the secretary of state, secretary of the treasury, the attorney general, and some others.
2. These officers are the advisers of the president.
CADASTRE. A term derived from the French, which has been adopted in Louisiana, and which signifies the official statement of the quantity and value of real property in any district, made for the purpose of justly apportioning the taxes payable on such property. 3 Am. St. Pap. 679; 12 Pet. 428, n.
CADET. A younger brother, one trained up for the army or navy.
CADI. The name of a civil magistrate among the Turks.
CALENDER. An almanac. Julius Caesar ordained that the Roman year should consist of 365 days, except every fourth year, which should contain 366, the additional day to be reckoned by counting the twenty-fourth day of February (which was the 6th of the calends of March) twice. See Bissextile is period of time exceeds the solar year by eleven minutes or there abouts, which amounts to the error of a day in about 131 years. In 1582, the error amounted to eleven days or more, which was corrected by Pope Gregory. Out of this correction grew the distinction between Old and New Style. The Gregorian or New Style was introduced into England in 1752, the 2d day of September (0. S.) of that year being reckoned as the 14th day of September, (N. S.) glee Almanac.
CALENDER, crim. law. A list of prisoners, containing their names, the time when they were committed, and by whom, and the cause of their commitments.

CALLING THE PLAINTIFF, practice. When a plaintiff perceives that he has not given evidence to maintain his issue, and intends to become nonsuited, he withdraws himself, when the cryer is ordered to call the plaintiff, and on his failing to appear, he becomes nonsuited. 3 Bl. Com. 376.
CALUMNIATORS, civil law. Persons who accuse others, whom they know to be innocent, of having committed crimes. Code 9, 46, 9.
CAMBIST. A person skilled in exchange; one who deals or trades in promissory notes or bills of exchange.
CAMERA STELLATA, Eng. law. The court of the Star Chamber, now abolished.
CAMPARTUM. A part or portion of a larger field or ground, which would otherwise be in gross or common. Vide Champerty.
CANAL. A trench dug for leading water in a particular direction, and confin- ing it.
2. Public canals are generally protected by the law which authorizes their being made. Various points have arisen under numerous laws authorizing the construction of canals, which have been decided in cases reported in 1 Yeates, 430; 1 Binn. 70; 1 Pennsyl. 462; 2 Pennsyl. 517; 7 Mass. 169; 1 Sumu. 46; 20 Johns. 103, 735; 2 Johns. 283; 7 John. Ch. 315; 1 Wend. 474; 5 Wend. 166; 8 Wend. 469; 4 Wend. 667; 6 Cowen, 698; 7 Cowen, 526 4 Hamm. 253; 5 Hamm. 141, 391; 6 Hamm. 126; 1 N. H. Rep. 339; See River.
CANCELLARIA CURIA. The name formerly given to the court of chancery.

CANDIDATE. One who offers himself or is offered by others for an office.
...CAPAX DOLI. Capable of committing crime. This is said of one who has sufficient mind and understanding to be made responsible for his actions. See, Discretion.
CAPE, English law. A judicial writ touching a plea of lands and tenements. The writs which bear this name are of two kinds, namely, cape magnum, or grand, cape, and cape parvum, or petit cape. The petit cape, is so called, not so much on account of the smallness of the writ, as of the letter. Fleta , lib. 6, c. 55, 40. For the difference between the form and the use of these writs, see 2 Wms. Saund. Rep. 45, c, d; and Fleta, ubi sup.
CAPERS. Vessels of war owned by private persons, and different from ordinary privateers (q. v.) only in size, being smaller. Bea. Lex. Mer. 230.
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CAPIATUR, pro fine. The name of a writ which was issued to levy a fine due to the king. Bac. Ab. Fines and Amercements, in prin. See Judgment of Capiatur.
CAPITA, or PER CAPITA. By heads. An expression of frequent occurrence in laws regulating the distribution of the estates of persons dying intestate. When all the persons entitled to shares in the distribution are of the same degree of kindred to the deceased person, (e.g. when all are grandchildren,) and claim directly from him in their own right and not through an intermediate relation, they take per capita, that is, equal shares, or share and share alike. But when they are of different degrees of kindred, (e. g. some tho children, others the grandchildren or the great grandchildren of the, deceased,) those more remote take er stirpem or per stirpes, that is, they take respectively the shares their parents (or other relation standing in the same degree with them of the surviving kindred entitled) who are in the nearest degree of kindred to the intestate,) would have taken had they respectively survived the intestate. Reeves' Law of Descent, Introd. xxvii.; also 1 Rop. on Leg. 126, 130. See Per Capita; Per Stirpes; Stirpes;
CAPITAL, political economy, commerce. In political economy, it is that portion of the produce of a country, which may be made directly available either to support the human species or to the facilitating of production.
2. In commerce, as applied to individuals, it is those objects, whether consisting of money or other property, which a merchant, trader, or other person adventures in an undertaking, or which he contributes to the common stock of a partnership. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1458.
3. It signifies money put out at interest.
4. The fund of a trading company or corporation is also called capital, but in this sense the word stock is generally added to it; thus we say the capital stock of the Bank of North America.

CAPITATION. A poll tax; an imposition which is yearly laid on each person according to his estate and ability.
2. The Constitution of the United States provides that "no capitation, or other direct tax, shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census, or enumeration, therein before directed to be taken." Art. 1, s. 9, n. 4. See 3 Dall. 171; 5 Wheat. 317.
CAPITE, descents. By the head. Distribution or succession per capita, is said to take place when every one of the kindred in equal degree, and not jure representationis, receive an equal part of an estate.
CAPITULARIES.The Capitularia or Capitularies, was a code of laws promulgated by Childebert, Clotaire, Carloman, Pepin, Charlemague, and other kings. It was so called from the small chapters or heads into which they were divided. The edition by Baluze, published in 1677, is said to be the best.
CAPITULATION, war. The treaty which determines the conditions under which a fortified place is abandoned to the commanding officer of the army which besieges it.
2. On surrender by capitulation, all the property of the inhabitants protected by the articles, is considered by the law of nations as neutral, and not subject to capture on the high seas, by the belligerent or its ally. 2 Dall.
CAPITULATION, civ.law. An agreement by which the prince and the people, or those who have the right of. the people, regulate the manner in which the government is to be administered. Wolff, 989.
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CAPTATION, French law. The act of one who succeeds in controlling the will of another, so as to become master of it. It is generally taken in a bad sense.
2. Captation takes place by those demonstrations of attachment and friendship, by those assiduous attentions, by those services and officious little presents which are usual among friends, and by all those means which ordinarily render us agreeable to others. When those attentions are unattended by deceit or fraud, they are perfectly fair, and the captation is lawful; but if, under the mask of friendship, fraud is the object, and means are used to deceive the person with whom you are connected, then the captation is fraudulent, and the acts procured by the captator are void. See Influence.
CAPTATOR, French law. The name which is sometimes given, to him who by flattery and artifice endeavors to surprise testators, and induce them to. give legacies or devices, or to make him some other gift. Diet. de Jur.
CAPTION, practice. That part of a legal instrument, as a 'Commission, indictment, &c., which shows where, when, and by what authority it was taken, found or executed. As to the forms and requisites of captions, see 1 Murph. 281; 8 Yerg. 514; 4 Iredell, 113; 6 Miss,. 469; 1 Scam. 456; 5 How. Mis. 20; 6 Blackf. 299; 1 Hawks, 354; 1 Brev. 169.
2. In the English practice, when an in ferior court in obedience to the writ of certiorari, returns an indictment into the K. B. , it is annexed to the caption, then called a schedule, and the caption concludes with stating, that " it is presented in manner and form as appears in a certain indictment thereto annexed, " and the caption and indictment are returned on separate parch ments. 1 Saund. 309, n. 2. Vide Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
3. Caption is another name for arrest.
CAPTIVE. By this term is understood one who has been taken; it is usually applied to prisoners of war. (q.v.) Although he bas lost his liberty, a captive does not by his captivity lose his civil rights.
CAPTOR, war. One who has talken property from an enemy; this term is also employed to designate one who has taken an enemy.
2. Formerly, goods taken in war were adjudged to belong to the captor; they are now considered to vest primarily, in the state or sovereign, and belong to the individual captors only to the extent that the municipal laws provide.
3. Captors are responsible to the owners of the property for all losses and damages, when the capture is tortious and without reasonable cause in the exercise of belligerent rights. But if the capture is originally justifiable, the captors will not be responsible, unless by subsequent misconduct they become trespassers ab initio. i Rob. R. 93, 96. See 2 Gall. 374; 1 Gall. 274; 1 Pet. Adm. Dee. 116; 1 Mason, R. 14.
CAPTURE, war. The taking of property by one belligerent from another.
2. To make a good capture of a ship, it must be subdued and taken by an enemy in open war, or by way of reprisals, or by a pirate, and with intent to deprive the owner of it.
3. Capture may be with intent to possess both ship and cargo, or only to seize the goods of the enemy, or contraband goods which are on board: The former is the capture of the ship in the proper sense of the word; the latter is only an arrest and detention, witbout any design to deprive the owner of it. Capture is deemed lawful, when made by a declared enemy, lawfully commissioned and according to the laws of war; and unlawful, when it is against the rules established by the law of nations. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 4.See, generally, Lee on Captures, passim; 1 Chitty's Com. Law, 377 to 512; 2 Woddes. 435 to 457; 2 Caines' C. Err 158; 7 Johns. R. 449; 3 Caines' R. 155; 11 Johns. R. 241; 13 Johns. R.161; 14 Johns. R. 227; 3 Wheat. 183; 4 Cranch, 436 Mass. 197; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CAPUT LUPINUM, Eng. law. Having the head of a wolf. An outlawed felon was said to have the head of a wolf, and might have been killed by any one legally. Now, such killing would be murder. 1. Hale, Pl. C. 497. The rules of the common law on this subject are rauch more severe in their consequences, than the doctrine of the civil law relating to civil death. See 1 Toull. Droit Civil, n. 280, and pp. 254-5, note 3.
CARAT, weights. A carat is a weight equal to three and one-sixth grains, in diamonds, and the like. Jac. L. Dict. See Weight.
CARCAN, French law. A French word, which is applied to an instrument of punishment somewhat resembling a pillory. It sometimes signifies the punishment itself. Biret Vocab.
CARDINAL, eccl. law. The title given to one of tho highest dignitaries of the court of Rome. Cardinals are next to the pope in dignity; he is elected by them and out of their body. There are cardinal bishops, cardinal priests, and cardinal deacons. See Fleury, Hist. Eccles. liv. xxxv. n. 17, Ii. n. 19 Thomassin, part ii. liv. i. oh. 53, part iv. liv. i. c. 79, 80 Loiseau, Traite des Ordres, c. 3, n. 31; Andre, Droit Canon, au mot.
CARDS, crim. law. Small square pasteboards, generally of a fine quality, on which are painted figures of various colors, and used for playing different games. The playing of cards for amusement is not forbidden, but gaming for money is unlawful. Vide Faro bank, and Gaming.
CARGO, mar. law. The entire load of a ship or other vessel. Abb. on Sh. Index, h. t.; 1 Dall. 197; Merl. Rep. h. t.; 2 Gill & John. 136. This term is usually applied to goods only, and does not include human beings. 1 Phill. Ins. 185; 4 Pick. 429. But in a more extensive and less technical sense, it includes persons; thus we say a cargo of emigrants. See 7 Mann. Gr. 729, 744.
CARNAL KNOWLEDGE, crim. law. This phrase is used to signify a sexual connexion; as, rape is the carnal knowledge of a woman, &c. See Rape.
CARNALLY KNEW, pleadings. This is a technical phrase, essential in an indictment to charge the defendant with the crime of rape; no other word or circumlocution will answer the same purpose as these word's. Vide Ravished, and Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 1; Com. Dig. Indictment, G 6; 1 Hale, 632; 3 Inst. 60; Co. Litt. 137; ) 1 Chit. Cr. Law, *243. It has been doubted whether these words were indispensible. 1 East, P. C. 448. But it would be unsafe to omit them.
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CART BOTE. An allowance to the tenant of wood, sufficient for carts and other instruments of husbandry.
CARTE BLANCHE. The signature of an individual or more, on a while. paper, with a sufficient space left above it to write a note or other writing.
2. In the course of business, it not unfrequently occurs that for the sake of convenience, signatures in blank are given with authority to fill them up.. These are binding upon the parties. But the blank must be filled up by the very person authorized. 6 Mart. L. R. 707. Vide Ch. on Bills, 702 Penna. R. 200. Vide Blank.
CARTEL,war. An agreement between two belligerent powers for the delivery of prisoners or deserters, and also a written challenge to a duel.
2. Cartel ship, is a ship commissioned in time of war, to exchange prisoners, or to carry any proposals between hostile powers; she must carry no cargo, ammunitions, or implements of war, except a single gun for signals. The conduct of ships of this description cannot be too narrowly watched. The service on which they are sent is so highly important to the interests of humanity, that it is peculiarly incumbent on all parties to take care that it should be conducted in such a manner as not to become a subject of jealousy and distrust between the two nations. 4 Rob. R. 357. Vide Merl. Rep. b. t.; Dane's Ab. c. 40, a. 6, 7; Pet. C. C. R. 106; 3 C. Rob. 141 C. Rob. 336; 1 Dods. R. 60.
CARTMEN. Persons who carry goods and merchandise in carts, either for great or short distances, for hire. 2. Cartmen who undertake to carry goods for hire as a common employment, are common carriers. Story on Bailm. 496; and see 2 Wend. 327 2 N. & M. 88; 1 Murph. 41 7; 2 Bailey, 421 2 Verm. 92; 1 M'Cord, 444; Bac. Ab. Carriers, A.

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CASSATION, French law. A decision which emanates from the sovereign authority, and by which a sentence or judgment in the last resort is annulled., Merl. Rep. h. t. This jurisdiction is now given to the Cour de Cassation.
2. This court is composed of fifty-two judges, including four presidents, an attorney-general, and six substitutes, bearing the title of advocates general; a chief clerk, four subordinate clerks, and eight huissiers. Its jurisdiction extends to the examination and superintendence of the judgments and decrees of the inferior court, both in civil and criminal cases. It is divided into three sections, namely, the section des requetes, the section civile, and the section criminelle. Merl. Rep. mots Cour de Cassation.
CASSETUR BREVE, practice. That the writ be quashed. This is the name of a judgment sometime sentered against a plaintiff when he cannot prosecute his writ with effect, in consequence of some allegation on the defendant's part. The plaintiff, in order to put an end to any further proceeding in the action,enters on the roll cassetur breve, the effect of which is to quash his own writ,which exonerates him from the liability to any future costs, and allows him to sue out new process. A cassetur bill a may be entered with like effect. 3 Bl. Com. 340; and vide 5 T. R. 634; Gould's Plead. c. 5, 139; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2913-14. Vide To quash.
CASTIGATORY, punishments. An engine used to punishwomen who have been convicted of being common scolds it is sometimes called the trebucket, tumbrel, ducking stool, or cucking stool. This barbarous punishment has perhaps never been inflicted in the United States. 12 S. & It. 225. Vide Common Scold.
CASTING VOTE, legislation. The vote given by the president or speaker of a deliberate assembly; when the votes of the other members are equal on both sides, the casting vote then decides the question. Dane's Ab. h. t.
CASTRATION, crim. law. The act of gelding. When this act is maliciously performed upon a man, it is a mayhem, and punishable as such, although the sufferer consented to it.
2. By the ancient law of England this crime was punished by retaliation, membrum pro membro. 3 Inst. 118. It is punished in the United States generally by fine and imprisonment. The civil law punished it with death. Dig. 48, 8, 4, 2. For the French law, vide Code Penal, art. 316. 3. The consequences ofcastration, when complete, are impotence and sterility. 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 72.
CASUPROVISO, practice. A writ of entry given by the statute of Gloucester, c. 7, when a tenant in dower aliens in fee or for life. It might have been brought by the reversioner against the alienee. This, is perhaps an obsolete remedy, having yielded to the writ of ejectment. F. N. B. 205 Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
CASUAL. What happens fortuitously what is accidental as, the casual revenue's of the government, are those which are contingeut or uncertain.
CASUAL EJECTOR, pratice, ejectment. A person, supposed to come upon-land casually, (although usually by previous agreement,) who turns out the lessee of the person claiming the possession against the actual tenant or occupier of the land. 3 Bl. Com. 201, 202.
2. Originally, in order to try the right by ejectment, Several things were necessary to be made out before the court first, a title to the land, in question, upon which the owner was to make a formal entry; and being so in possession he executed a lease to some third person or lessee, leaving him in possession then the prior tenant or some other person, called the casual ejector, either by accident or by agreement beforehand, came upon the land and turned him out, and for this ouster or turning out, the action was brought. But these formalities are now dispensed with, and the trial relates merely to the title, the defendant being bound to acknowledge the lease, entry, and ouster. 3 Bl. Com. 202;.Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
CASUS FOEDORIS. When two nations have formed a treaty of alliance, in anticipation of a war or other difficulty with another, and it is required to determine the case in which the parties must act in consequence of the alliance, this is called the casus foederis, or case of alliance. Vattel, liv. 3, c. 6, 88.
CASUS FORTUITUS. A fortuitous case; an uncontrollable accident an act of God. See Act of God; Cas fortuit; Fortuitous event.
CASUS OMISSUS. An omitted case.
2. When a statute or an instrument of writing undertakes to foresee and to provide for certain contingencies, and through mistake, or some other cause, a case remains to be provided for, it is said to be a casus omissus.For example, when a statute provides for the descent of intestates estates, and omits a case, the estate descends as it did before the statute, whenever that, case occurs, although it appear to be within the general scope and intent of the statute. 2 Binn. R. 279.
3. When there has been a casus omissus in a statute, the subject is ruled by the common law: casus omissuset oblivioni datus dispositioni juris communis relinquitur. 5 Co. 38. Vide Dig. 38, 1, 44 and 55 Id. 38, 2, 10; Code, 6, 52, 21 and 30.
CATCHING BARGAIN, contracts, fraud. An agreement made with an heir expectant, for the purchase of his expectancy, at an inadequate price.
2. In such case, the heir is, in general, entitled to relief in equity, and way have the contract rescinded upon terms of redemption. 1 Vern. 167; 2 Cox, 80; 2 Cli. Ca. 136; 2 Vern., 121; 2 Freem. 111; 2 Vent. 329; 2 Rep. in Ch. 396; 1 P.Wms. 312; 3 PWms. 290, 293, n.; 1Cro. C. C. 7; 2 Atk. 133; 2 Swanst. 147, and the cases cited in the note; 1 Fonb.140 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 66 Id. 361 1 Vern. 320, n. It has been said that all persons dealing for a reversionary interest are subject to this rule, but it may be doubted whether the course of decisions authorizes so extensive a conclusion and whether, in order to constitute a title to relief, the reversioner must not combine the character of heir. 2 Swanst. 148, n. Vide 1 Ch. Pr. 112, 113, n., 458, 826, 838, 839. A mere hard bargain is not sufficient ground for relief.
3. The French law is in unison with these principles. An agreement, which has for its object the succession of aman yet alive, is generally void.Merl. Rep. mots Succession Future. Vide also Dig. 14,6, and Lesion.
CATCHPOLE, officer. A name formerly given to a sheriff's deputy, or to a constable, or other officer whose duty it is to arrest persons. He was a sort of serjeant. The word is not now in use as an official designation. Minshew ad verb.
CAUSA MATRIMONII PRAELOCUTI, Engl. law. An obsolete writ, which lies when a woman gives land to a man in fee simple, or for a less estate, to the intent that he should marry her and he refuses upon request. New. Nat. Bre. 455.

CAUTIO PRO EXPENSIS. Security for costs or expenses.
2. This term is used among the civilians, Nov. 112, c. 2, and generally on the continent of Europe. In nearly all the countries of Europe, a foreign plaintiff, whether resident there or not, is required to give caution pro expenses; that is, security for costs. In some states this requisition is modified, and, when such plaintiff has real estate, or a commercial or manufacturing establishent within the state, he is not required to give such caution. Faelix, Droit. Intern. Prive, n. 106.
CAUTION. A term of the Roman civil law, which is used in various senses. It signifies, sometimes, security, or security promised. Generally every writing is called cautio, a caution by which any object is provided for. Vicat, ad verb. In the common law a distinction is made between a contract and the security. The contract may be good and the security void. The contract may be divisible, and the security entire and indivisible. 2 Burr, 1082. The securities or cautions judicially required of the defendant, are, judicio sisti, to attend and appear during the pendency of the suit; de rato, to confirm the acts of his attorney or proctor; judicium solvi, to pay the sum adjudged against him. Coop. Just. 647; Hall's Admiralty Practice, 12; 2 Brown, Civ. Law, 356.
CAUTION, TURATORY, Scotch law. Juratory caution is that which a suspender swears is the best he can offer in order to obtain a suspension. Where the suspender cannot, from his low or suspected circumstances, procure unquestionable security, juratory caution is admitted. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4, 3, 6.
CAUTIONER, Scotch law, contracts. One who becomes bound as caution or surety for another, for the performance of any obligation or contract contained in a deed.
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CAVIL. Sophism, subtlety. Cavilis a captious argument, by which a conclusion evidently false, is drawn from a principle evidently true: Ea est natura cavillationis ut ab evidenter veris, per brevissimas mutationes disputatio, ad ea quce evidentur falsa sunt perducatur. Dig. 60, 16, 177 et 233; Id. 17, 65; Id. 33, 2, 88 .
CAESARIAN OPERATION, med. juris. An incision made through the parietes of the abdomen and uterus to extract the foetus. It is said that Julius Caesar was born in this manner. When the child is cut out after the death of the mother, his coming into being in this way confers on other persons none of the rights to which they would have been entitled if he had been born, in the usual course of nature, during her life. For example, his father would not be tenant by the curtesy; for to create that title, it ought to begin by the birth of issue arive, and be consummated by the death of the wife. 8 Co. Rep. 35; 2 Bl. Com. 128 Co. Litt. 29 b.; 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 264 Coop. Med. Jur. 7; 1 Fodere, Med. Leg. 334. The rule of the civil law on this subject will be found in Dig. lib. 50, t. 16, 1. 132 et 141; lib. 5, t. 2, 1. 6; lib. 28, t. 2, 1. 12.
C2ETERORUM. The name of a kind of administration, which, after an administration has been granted for a limited purpose, is granted for the rest of the estate. 1 Will. on Ex. 357; 2 Hagg. 62; 4 Hagg. Eccl. R. 382, 386; 4 Mann. & Gr. 398. For example, where a wife had a right to devise or bequeath certain stock, and she made a will of the same, but there were accumulations that did not pass, the husband might take out letters of administration caeterorum. 4 Mann. & Grang.398;1 Curteis, 286.
TO CEDE, civil law. To assign; to transfer; as, France ceded Louisiana to the United States.
CEDENT, civil law, Scotch law. An assignor. The term is usually applied to the assignor of a chose in action. Kames on Eq. 43.
CELEBRATION, contracts. This word is usually applied, in law, to the celebration of marriage, which is the solemn act by which a man and woman take each other for husband and wife, conformably to the rules prescribed by law. Diet. de Juris. h. t.
CELL. A small room in a prison. See Dungeon.
CENOTAPH. An empty tomb. Dig. 11, 7, 42.
CENSUS. An enumeration of the inhabitants of a country.
2. For the purpose of keeping the reeresentation of the several states in congress equal, the constitution provides, that " representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states, which may be included in this Union, according to their respective numbers; which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Idians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such a manner as they shall by law direct." Art. 1, s. 2; vide 1 Story, L. U. S., 73, 722, 751; 2 Id. 1134, 1139, 1169, 1194; 3 Id. 1776; 4 Sharsw. continuation, 2179.
CENT, money. A copper coin of the United States of the value of ten mills; ten of them are equal to a dime, and one hundred, to one dollar. Each cent is required to contain one hundred and sixty-eight grains. Act of January 18th, 1837, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story',s L. U. S. 2524.
CENTIME. The name of a French money; the one hundredth part of a franc.
CENTRAL. Relating to the centre, or placed in the centre; as, the central courts of the United States, are those located in the city of Washington, whose jurisdiction extends over the whole country. These are, first, the Senate of the United States, when organized to try impeachments; secondly, the Supreme Court of the United States.
2. The government of the United States is the central government.
CENTUMVIRI, civil law. the citizens of Rome were distributed into thirty-five tribes, and three persons out of each tribe were elected judges, who were called centumviri, although they were one hundred and five in number. They were distributed into four different tribunals, but in certain causes called centumvirales causas, the judgments of the four tribunals were necessary. Vicat,.ad verb.; 3 Bl. Com. 315.
CENTURY, civil law. One hundred. The Roman people were dividedinto centu ries. In England they were divided into hundreds. Vide Hundred. Century also means one hundred years.
CEPI. A Latin word signifying I have taken. Cepicorpus, I have taken the body; cepiand B. B., I have taken the body and discharged him on bail bond; cepi corpus et est in custodia, I have taken the body and it is in custody; cepi corpus, et est languidus, I have taken the body of, &c. and he is sick. These are some of the various returns made by the sheriff to a writ of capias.
CEPI CORPUS, practice. The return which the sheriff, or otherproper officer, makes when he has arrested a defendant by virtue of a capias. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2804. See Capias. F. N. B. 26.
CEPIT. Took. This is a technical word, which cannot be supplied by any other in an indictment for larceny. The charge against the defendant must be that he took the thing stolen with a felonious design. Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 1.
CEPIT ET ABDUXIT. He took and led away. These words are applied to cases of trespass or larceny, where the defendant took a living chattel, and led it away. It is used in contradistinction to took and carried away, cepit et asportavit. (q. v.)
CEPIT ET ASPORTAVIT. Took and carried away. (q. v.)
CEPIT IN ALIO LOCO, pleadings. He took in another place. This is a plea in replevin, by which the defendant alleges, that he took the thing replevied in another place than that mentioned in the plaintiff's declaration. 1 Chit. Pl. 490, 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3569 2 Chit. Pl. 558; Rast. 554, 555; Clift. 636 Willes, R. 475; Tidd's App. 686.
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CESSET EXECUTIO. The staying of an execution.
2. When a judgment has been entered, there is sometimes, by the agreement of the parties, a cesset executio for a period of time fixed upon and when the defendant enters security for the amount of the judgment, there is a cesset executio until the time allowed by law has expired.
CESSET PROCESSUS, practice. An entry made on the record that there be a stay of the procas or proceedings.
2. This is made in cases where the plaintiff has become insolvent after action brought. 2 Dougl. 627.
CESSAVIT, Eng. law. An obsolete writ, which could formerly have been sued out when the defendant had for two years ceased or neglected to perform such service or to pay such rent as he was bound to do by his tenure, and had not upon his lands sufficient goods or cbattels to be distrained. F. N. B. 208.
CESSIO BONORUM, civil law. The relinquishment which a debtor made of his property for the benefit of his creditors.
2. This exempted the debtor from imprisonment, not, however, without leaving an ignominious stain on his reputation. Dig. 2, 4, 25; Id. 48, 19, 1; Nov. 4, c. 3, and Nov. 135. By the latter Novel, an honest unfortunate debtor might be discharged, by simply affirming that he was insolvent, without having recourse to the benefit of cession. By the cession the creditors acquired title to all the property of the insolvent debtor.
3. The cession discharged the debtor only to the extent of the property ceded, and he remained responsible for the difference. Dom. Lois Civ. liv. 4, tit. 5., s. 1, n. 2. Vide, for the law of Louisiana, Code, art. 2166, et seq. 2 M. R. 112; 2 L. R. 354; 11 L. R. 531; 5 N. S. 299; 2 L. R. 39; 2 N. S. 108; 3 M. R. 232; 4 Wheat. 122; and Abandonment.
CESSION, contracts. Yielding up; release.
2. France ceded Louisiana to the United States, by the treaty of Paris, of April 30, 1803 Spain made a cession of East and West Florida, by the treaty of February 22, 1819. Cessions have been severally made of a part of their territory, by New York, Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut) South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia. Vide Gord. Dig. art. 2236 to 2250.
CESSION, civil law. The, act by which a party assigns or transfers property to a other; an assignment.
CESSION, eccl. law. When an ecclesiastic is created bishop, or when a parson takes another benefice, without dispensation, the first benefice becomes void by a legal cession, or surrender. Cowel, h. t.
CESTUI. He. This word is frequently used in composition as, cestui que trust, cestui que vie, &c.
CESTUI QUE TRUST, A barbarous phrase, to signify the beneficiary of an estate held in trust. He for whose benefit another person is enfeoffed or seised of land or tenements, or is possessed of personal property. The cestui que trust is entitled to receive the rents and profits of the land; he may direct such conveyances, consistent with the trust, deed or will, as he shall choose, and the trustee (q. v.) is bound to execute them: he may defend his title in the name of the trustee. 1 Cruise, Dig. tit. 12, c. 4, s. 4; vide Vin. Ab. Trust, U, W, X, and Y 1 Vern. 14; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.: 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 321, note 1; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CESTUI QUE VIE. He for whose life land is holden by another person; the latter is called tenant per auter vie, or tenant for another's life. Vide Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
CESTUI QUE USE. He to whose use land is granted to another person the latter is called the terre-tenant, having in himself the legal property and possession; yet not to his own use, but to dispose of it according to the directions of the cestui que use, and to suffer him to take the profits. Vide Bac. Read. on Stat. of Uses, 303, 309, 310. 335, 349; 7 Com. Dig. 593.
CHAFEWAX , Eng, law. An officer in chancery who fits the wax for sealing, to the writs, commissions and other. instruments then made to be issued out. He is probably so called because he warms (chaufe) the wax.
CHAFFERS. Anciently signified wares and merchandise; hence the word chaffering, which is yet used for buying and selling, or beating down the price of an article. The word is used in stat. 3 Ed. III. c. 4.
CHAIRMAN. The presiding officer of a committee; as, chairman of the committee of ways and means. The person selected to preside over a popular meeting, is also called a chairman or moderator.
CHALDRON. A measure of capacity, equal to fifty-eight and two-third cubic feet nearly. Vide Measure.

CHAMBER. A room in a house.
2. It was formerly hold that no freehold estate could be had in a chamber, but it was afterwards ruled otherwise. When a chamber belongs to one person, and the rest of the house with the land is owned by another the two estates are considered as two separate but adjoining dwelling house's. Co. Litt. 48, b; Bro. Ab. Demand, 20; 4 Mass. 575; 6 N. H. Rep. 555; 9 Pick. R. 297; vide 3 Leon. 210; 3 Watts. R. 243.
3 . By chamber is also understood the place where an assembly is held; and, by the use of a figure, the assembly itself is called a chamber.
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. A society of the principal merchants and traders of a city, who meet to promote the general trade and commerce of the place. Some of these are incorporated, as in Philadelphia.
CHAMBERS, practice. When a judge decides some interlocutory matter, which has arisen in the course of the cause, out of court, he is said to make such decision at his chambers. The most usual applications at chambers take place in relation to taking bail, and staying proceedings on process.
CHAMPART, French law. By this name was formerly understood the grant of a piece of land by the owner to another, on condition that the latter would deliver to him a portion of the crops. IS Toull. n. 182.
CHAMPERTOR, crim. law. One who makes pleas or suits, or causes them to be moved, either directly or indirectly, and sues them at his proper costs, upon condition of having a part of the gain.
CHAMPERTY, crimes. A bargain with a plaintiff or defendant, campum partire, to divide the land or other matter sued for between them, if they prevail at law, the champertor undertaking to carry on the suit at his own expense. 1 Pick. 416; 1 Ham. 132; 5 Monr. 416; 4 Litt. 117; 5 John. Ch. R. 44; 7 Port. R. 488.
2. This offence differs from maintenance, in this, that in the latter the person assisting the suitor receives no benefit, while in the former he receives one half, or other portion, of the thing sued for. See Punishment; Fine; Imprisonment; 4 Bl. Com. 135.
3. This was an offence in the civil law. Poth. Pand. lib. 3, t. 1; App. n. 1, tom. 3, p. 104; 15 Ves. 139; 7 Bligh's R. 369; S. C. 20 E. C. L. R. 165; 5 Moore & P. 193; 6 Carr. & P. 749; S. C. 25 E. C. L. R. 631; 1 -Russ. Cr. 179 Hawk. P. C. b. 1 c. 84, s. 5.
4. To maintan a defendant may be champerty. Hawk. P. C. b. 1, c. 84, s. 8 3 Ham. 541; 6 Monr. 392; 8 Yerg. 484; 8 John. 479; 1 John. Ch. R. 444;, 7 Wend. 152; 3 Cowen, 624; 6 Coaven, 90.
CHAMPION. He who fights for another, or takes his place in a quarrel; it also includes him who fights his own battles. Bract. lib. 4, t. 2, c. 12.
CHANCE, accident. As the law punishes a crime only when there is an intention to commit it, it follows that when those acts are done in a lawful business or pursuit by mere chance or accident, which would have been criminal if there had been an intention, express or implied, to commit them, there is no crime. For example, if workmen were employed in blasting rocks in a retired field, and a person not knowing of the circumstance should enter the field, and be killed by a piece of the rock, there would be no guilt in the workmen. 1 East, P. C. 262 Poster, 262; 1 Hale's P. C. 472; 4 Bl. Com. 192. Vide Accident.
CHANCE-MEDLEY, criminal law. A sudden affray. This word is sometimes applied to any kind of homicide by misadventure, but in strictness it is applicable to such killing only as happens se defendendo. (q. v.) 4 Bl. Com. 184.

CHANGE. The exchange of money for money. The giving, for example, dollars for eagles, dimes for dollars, cents for dimes. This is a contract which always takes place in the same place. By change is also understood small money. Poth. Contr. de Change, n. 1.
CHANGE TICKET. The name given in Arkansas to a species of promissory notes issued for the purpose of making change in small transactions. Ark. Rev. Stat. cb. 24.
CHAPLAIN. A clergyman appointed to say prayers and perform divine service. Each house of congress usually appoints it own cbaplain.
CHAPMAN. One whose business is to buy and sell goods or other things. 2 Bl. Com. 476.
CHAPTER, eccl. law. A congregation of clergymen. Such an assembly is termed capitulum, which signifies a little head it being a kind of head, not only to govern the diocese in the vacation of the bishopric, but also for other purposes. Co. Litt. 103.
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CHARITY. In its widest sense it denotes all the good affections which men ought to bear towards each other; 1 Epistle to Cor. c. xiii.; in its most restricted and usual sense, it signifies relief to the poor. This species of charity is a mere moral duty, which cannot be enforced by the law. Kames on Eq. 17. But it is not employed in either of these senses in law; its signification is derived chiefly from the statute of 43 Eliz. c. 4. Those purposes are considered charitable which are enumerated in that act, or which by analogy are deemed within its spirit and intendment. 9 Ves. 405; 10 Ves, 541; 2 Vern. 387; Shelf. Mortm. 59. Lord Chancellor Camden describes a charity to be a gift to a general public use, which extends to the rich as well as to the poor. Ambl. 651; Boyle on Charities, 51; 2 Ves. sen. 52; Ambl. 713; 2 Ves. jr. 272; 6 Ves. 404; 3 Rawle, 170; 1 Penna. R. 49 2 Dana, 170; 2 Pet. 584; 3 Pet. 99, 498 9 Cow. 481; 1 Hawks, 96; 12 Mass. 537; 17 S. & R. 88; 7 Verm. 241; 5 Harr. & John. 392; 6 Harr. & John. 1; 9 Pet. 566; 6 Pet. 435; 9 C-ranch, 331; 4 Wheat. 1; 9 Wend. 394; 2 N. H. Rep. 21, 510; 9 Cow. 437; 7 John. Cb. R. 292; 3 Leigh. 450; 1 Dev. Eq. Rep. 276; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3976, et seq.
CHARRE OF LEAD, Eng. law, commerce. A quantity of lead consisting of thirty pigs, each pig containing six stones wanting two pounds, and every stone being twelve pounds. Jacob.
CHARTA. An ancient word which signified not only a charter or deed in writing, but any signal or token by which an estate was held.
CHARTA CHYROGRAPIHATA VEL COMMUNIS. Signifies an indenture. Shep. Touch. 50; Beames, Glanv. 197-8; Fleta, lib. 3, c. 14, 3. It was so called, because each party had a part.
CHARTA DE UNA PARTE. A deed of one part; a deed poll.
2. Formerly, this phrase was used to distinguish, a deed poll, which is an agreement made by one party only, that is, only one of the parties does any act which is binding upon him, from a deed inter partes. Co. Litt. 229. Vide Deed poll; Indenture; Inter partes.
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CHARTIS REDDENDIS, Eng. law. An ancient writ, now obsolete, which lays against one who had charters of feoffment entrusted to his keeping, and who refused to deliver them. Reg. Orig. 159. CHASE, Eng. law. The liberty of keeping beasts of chase, or royal gaine, on another man's ground as well as on one's own ground, protected even from the owner of the land, with a power of hunting them thereon. It differs from a park, because it may be on another's ground, and because it is not enclosed. 2 Bl. Com. 38.
CHASE, property. The act of acquiring possession of animals ferae naturae by force, cunning or address. The hunter acquires a right to such animals by occupancy, and they become his property. 4 Toull. n. 7. No man has a right to enter on the lands of another for the purpose of hunting, without his consent. Vide 14 East, R. 249 Poth. Tr. du Dr. de Propriete, part 1, c. 2, art. 2.
CHASTITY. That virtue which prevents the unlawful commerce of the sexes.
2. A woman may defend her chastity by killing her assailant. See Self-defence. And even the solicitation of her chastity is indictable in some of the states; 7 Conn. 267; though in England, and perhaps elsewhere, such act is not indictable. 2 Chit. Pr. 478. Words charging a woman with a violation of chastity are actionable in themselves. 2 Conn. 707.
CHATTELS, property. A term which includes all hinds of property, except the freehold or things which are parcel of it. It is a more extensive term than goods or effects. Debtors taken in execution, captives, apprentices, are accounted chattels. Godol. Orph. Leg. part 3, chap. 6, 1.
2. Chattels are personal or real. Personal, are such as belong immediately to the person of a man; chattels real, are such as either appertain not immediately to the person, but to something by way of dependency, as a box with the title deeds of lands; or such as are issuing out of some real estate, as a lease of lands, or term of years, which pass like personally to the executor of the owner. Co. Litt. 118; 1 Chit. Pr. 90; 8 Vin. Ab. 296; 11 Vin. Ab. 166; 14 Vin. Ab. 109; Bac. Ab. Baron, &c. C 2; 2 Kent, Com. 278; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Com. Dig. Biens, A; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CHEAT, criminal law, torts. A cheat is a deceitful practice, of a public nature, in defrauding another of a known right, by some artful device, contrary to the plain rules of common honesty. 1 Hawk. 343.
2. To constitute a cheat, the offence must be, lst. of a public nature for every species of fraud and dishonesty in transactions between individuals is not the subject-matter of a criminal charge at common law; it must be such as is calculated to defraud numbers, and to deceive the people in general. 2 East, P. C. 816; 7 John. R. 201; 14 John. R. 371; 1 Greenl. R. 387; 6 .Mass. R. 72; 9 Cowen, R. 588; 9 Wend. R. 187; 1 Yerg. R. 76; 1 Mass. 137. 2. The cheating must be done by false weights, false measures, false tokens, or the like, calculated to deceive numbers. 2 Burr, 1125; 1 W. Bl. R. 273; Holt, R. 354.
3. That the object of the defendant in defrauding the prosecutor was successful. If unsuccessful, it is a mere attempt. (q. v.) 2 Mass. 139. When two or more enter into an agreement to cheat, the offence is a conspiracy. (q. v.) To call a man a cheat is slanderous. Hetl. 167; 1 Roll's Ab. 53; 2 Lev. 62. Vide Illiterate; Token.

CHEMISTRY med. jur. The science which teaches the nature and property of all bodies by their analysis and combination. In considering cases of poison, the lawyer will find a knowledge of chemistry, even very limited in de ree, to be greatly useful. 2 Cbit. Pr. 42, n.
CHEVISANCE, contracts, torts. This is a French word, which signifies in that language, accord, agreement, compact. In the English statutes it is used to denote a bargain or contract in general. In a legal sense it is taken for an unlawful bargain or contract.
CHIEF, principal. One who is put above the rest; as, chief magistrate chief justice : it also signifies the best of a number of things. It is frequently used in composition.
CHIEF CLERK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE. This officer is appointed by the secretary of state; his duties are to attend to the business of the ofFice under the superintendence of the secretary; and when the secretary shall be removed from office, by the president, or in any other case of vacancy, shall, during such vacancy, have the charge and custody of all records, books and papers appertaining to such department,
CHIEF JUSTICE, officer. The president of a supreme court; as the chief justice of the United States, the chief justice of Pennsylvania, and the -like. Vide 15 Vin. Ab. 3.
CHIEF JUSTICIARY. An officer among the English, established soon after the conquest.
2. He had judicial power, and sat as a judge in the Curia Regis. (q. v.) In the absence of the king, he governed the kingdom. In the course of time, the power and distinction of this officer gradually diminished, until the reign of Henry III, when the office was abolished.
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CHIMIN. This is a corruption of the French word chemin, a highway. It is used by old writers. Com. Dig. Chimin.
CHINESE INTEREST. Interest for money charged in China. In a case where a note was given in China, payable eighteen months after date, without, any stipulation respecting interest, the court allowed the Chinese interest of one per cent. per month, from the expiration of the eighteen months. 2 Watts & Serg. 227, 264.
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CHIROGRAPHER. A word derived from the Greek, which signifies "a writing with a man's hand." A chirographer is an officer of the English court of C. P.who engrosses the fines, and delivers the indentures of them to the parties, &c.
CHIVALRY, ancient Eng. law. This word is derived from the French chevelier, a horseman. It is. the name of a tenure of land by knight's service. Chivalry was of two kinds: the first; which was regal, or held only of the king; or common, which was held of a common person. Co. Litt. h. t.
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CINQUE PORTS, Eng. law. Literally, five ports. The name by which tho five ports of Hastings, Ramenhale, Hetha or Hethe, Dover, and Sandwich, are known. 2. These ports have peculiar charges and services imposed upon them, and were entitled to certain privileges and liberties. See Harg. L. Tr. 106-113.
CIPHER. An arithmetical character, used for numerical notation. Vide Figures, and 13 Vin. Ab. 210; 18 Eng. C. L. R. 95; 1 Ch. Cr. Law, 176.
2. By cipher is also understood a mode of secret writing. Public ministers and other public agents frequently use ciphers in their correspondence, and it is sometimes very useful so to correspond in times of war. A key is given to each minister before his departure, namely, the cipher for writing ciphers, (chiffre chiffrant,) and the cipher for deciphering (chiffre dechiffrant.) Besides these, it is usual to give him a common cipher, (chiffre banal,) -which is known to all the ministers of the same power, who occasionally use it in their correspondence with each other.
3. When it is suspected that, a cipher becomes known to the cabinet where the minister is residing, recourse is had to a preconcerted sign in order to annul, entirely or in part, what has been written in cipher, or rather to indicate that the contents are to be understood in an inverted or contrary sense. A cipher of reserve is also employed in extraordinary cases.
CIRCUIT COURT. The name of a court of the United States, which has both civil and criminal jurisdiction. In several of the states there are courts which bear this name. Vide Courts of the United States.
CIRCUITY OFACTION, practice, remedies. It is where a party, by bringing an action, gives an action to the defendant against him.
2. As, supposing the obligee of a bond covenanted that he would not sue on it; if he were to sue he would give an. action against himself to the defendant for a breach of his covenant. The courts prevent such circuitous actions, for it is a maxim of law, so to judge of contracts as to prevent a multiplicity of actions; and in the case just put, they would hold that the covenant not to sue operated as a release. 1 T. R. 441. It is a favorite object of courts of equity to prevent a multiplicity of actions. 4 Cowen, 682.
CIRCUITS. Certain divisions of the country, appointed for particular judges to visit for the trial of causes, or for the administration of justice. See 3 Bl. Com. 58; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2532.
CIRCULATING MEDIUM. By this term is understood whatever is used in making payments, as money, bank notes, or paper which passes from hand to hand in payment of goods, or debts.
CIRCUMDUCTION, Scotch law. A term applied to the time allowed for bringing proof of allegiance, which being elapsed, if either party sue for circumduction of the time of proving, it has the effect that no proof can afterwards be brought; and the cause must be determined as it stood when circumduction was obtained. Tech. Dict.

CIRCUMSTANDIBUS, persons, practice. Bystanders from whom jurors are to be selected when the panel has been exhausted. Vide Tales de circumstandibus.
CIRCUMVENTION, torts, Scotch law. Any act of fraud whereby a person is reduced to a deed by decreet. Tech. Dict. It has the same sense in the civil law. Dig. 50, 17, 49 et 155; Id. 12, 6, 6, 2; Id. 41, 2, 34. Vide Parphrasis.
CITATIO AD REASSUMENDAM CAUSAM, civil law. The name of a citation, which issued when a party died pending a suit, against the heir of the defendant, or when the plaintiff died, for the heir of the plaintiff. Our bill of revivor is probably borrowed from this proceeding.


CITY, government. A town incorporated by that name. Originally, this word did not signify a town, but a portion of mankind who lived under the same government: what the Romans called civitas, and, the Greeks polis; whence the word politeia, civitas seu reipublicae status et administratio. Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. 1. 1, t. 1, n. 202; Henrion de Pansey, Pouvoir Municipal, pp. 36, 37.

CIVILITER. Civilly; opposed to criminaliter or criminally.
2. When a person does an unlawful act injurious to another, whether with or without an intention to commit a tort, he is responsible civiliter. In order to make him liable criminaliter, he must have intended to do the wrong; for it is a maxim, actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea. 2 East, 104.
CIVILITER MORTUUS. Civilly dead; one who is considered as if he were naturally dead, go far as his rights are concerned.
CLAIM. A claim is a challenge of the ownership of a thing which a man has not in possession, and is wrongfully withheld by another. Plowd. 359; Wee i Dall.444; 12 S. & R. 179.
2. In Pennsylvania, the entry on of the demand of a mechanic or materialman for work done or material furnished in the erection of a building, in those counties to which the lien laws extend, is called a claim.
3. A continual c1aim is a claim made in a particular way, to preserve the' rights of a feoffee. See Continual claim.
4. Claim of conusance is defined to be an intervention by a third person, demanding jurisdiction of a cause against a plaintiff, who has chosen to commence his action out of the claimant's court. 2 Wils. 409; 1 Cit. Pb. 403; Vin. Ab. Conusance; Com. Dig. Courts, P; Bac. Ab. Courts, D 3; 3 Bl. Com. 298.
CLAIMANT. In the courts of admiralty, when the suit is in rem, the cause is entitled in the Dame of the libellant against the thing libelled, as A B v. Ten cases of calico and it preserves that title through the whole progress of the suit.When a person is authorized and admitted to defend the libel, he is called the claimant. The United States v. 1960 bags of coffee; 8 Cranch, R. 398; United States v. The Mars; 8 Cranch, R. 417; 30 hhds. of sugar, (Brentzon, claimant, v. Boyle. 9 Cranch, R. 191.
CLANDESTINE. That which is done in secret and contrary to law.
2.Generally a clandestine act in case of the limitation of actions will prevent the act from running. A clandestine marriage is one which has been contracted without the form which the law has prescribed for this important contract. Alis. Princ. 543
CLARENDON. The constitutions of Clarendon were certain statutes made in the reign of Henry H., of England, in a parliament holden at Clarendon, by which the king cheeked the power of the pope and his clergy. 4 Bl. Com. 415.
CLASS. The order according to which are arranged or distributed, or are supposed to be arranged or distributed, divers persons or things; thus we say, a class of legatees.
2. When a legacy is given to a class of individuals, all who answer the description at the time the will takes effect, are entitled; and though the expression be in the plural, yet if there be but one, he shall take the whole. 3 M'Cord, Ch. R. 440.
3. When a bond is given to a class of persons, it is good, and all composing that class are entitled to sue upon it; but if the obligor be a member of such class, the bond is void, because a man cannot be obligor and obligee at the same-time; as, if a bond be given to the justices of the county court, and at the time the obligor is himself one of said justices. 3 Dev. 284, 287,289; 4 Dev. 882.
4. When a charge is made against a class of society, a profession, an order or body of men, and cannot possibly import a personal application to private injury, no action lies; but if any one of the class have sustained special damages inconsequence of such charge, he may maintain an action. 17 Wend. 52, 23, 186. See 12 John. 475. When the charge is against one of a class, without designating which, no action lies; as, where three persons had been examined as witnesses, and the defendant said in addressing himself to them, " one of you three is perjured." 1 Roll. Ab. 81; Cro. Jac. 107; 16 Pick. 132.
CLAUSE, contracts. A particular disposition which makes part of a treaty; of an act of the legislature; of a deed, written agreement, or other written contract or will. When a clause is obscurely written, it ought to be construed in such a way as to agree with what precedes and what follows, if possible. Vide Dig. 50, 17, 77; Construction; Interpretation.
CLAUSUM FREGIT, torts, remedies. He broke the close. These words are used in a writ for an action of trespass to real estate, the defendant being summonedto answer quare clausum fregit, that is, why he broke the close of the plaintiff. 3 Bl. Com. 209.
2. Trespass quare clausum fregit lies for every unlawful intrusion into land, whether enclosed or not, though only grass may be trodden. 1 Dev. & Bat. 371. And to maintain this action there must be a possession in the plaintiff, and a right to that possession.9 Cowen 39; 4 Yeates, 418; 11 Conn. 60, 10 Conn. 225; 1 John. 511; 12 John. 1834 Watts, 377; 4 Bibb, 218; 15 Pick. 32; 6 Rand. 556; 2 Yeates, 210; 1 Har. & John. 295; 8 Mass. 411.

CLEMENCY. The disposition to treat with leniency. See Mercy; Pardon.
CLEMENTINES, eccl. law. The name usually given to the collection of decretals or constitutious of Pope Clement V., which was made by order of John XXII. his successor, who published it in 1317. The death of Clement V., which happened in 1314, prevented him from publishing this collection, which is properly a compilation, as well of the epistles and constitutions of this pope, as of the decrees of the council of Vienna, over which he presided. The Clementines are divided in five books, in which the matter is distributed nearly upon the same plan as the Decretals of Gregory IX. VideLa Bibliotheque des auteurs ecclesiastiques, par Dupin.
CLERGY. All who are attached to the ecclesiastical ministry are called the clergy; a clergyman is therefore an ecclesiastical minister.
2. Clergymen were exempted by the emperor Constantine from all civil burdens. Baronius ad ann. 319, 30. Lord Coke says, 2 Inst. 3, ecclesiastical persons have more and greater liberties than other of the king's subjects, wherein to set down all, would take up a whole volume of itself.
3. In the United States the clergy is not established by law, but each congregation or church may choose its own clergyman.
CLERICAL ERROR. An error made by a clerk in transcribing or otherwise. This is always readily corrected by the court. 2. An error, for example, in the teste of a fi. fa.; 4 Yeates, 185, 205; or in the teste and return of a vend. exp.; 1 Dall. 197 or in writing Dowell forMcDowell. 1 Serg. & R. 120; 8 Rep. 162 a; 9 Serg. & R. 284, 5. An error is amendable where there is something to amend by, and this even in a criminal case. 2 Bin. 5-16; 5 Burr. 2667; 1 Bin. 367-9; Dougl. 377; Cowp. 408. For the party ought not to be harmed by the omission of the clerk; 3 Bin. 102; even of his signature, if he affixes the seal. 1 Serg. & R. 97.
CLERK, commerce, contract. A person in the employ of a merchant, who attends only to a part of his business, while the merchant himself superintends the whole. He differs from a factor in this, that the latter wholly supplies the place of his principal in respect to the property consigned to him. Pard. Dr. Com. n. 38, 1 Chit. Pract. 80; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1287.
CLERK, officer. A person employed in an office, public or private, for keeping records or accounts. His business is to write or register, in proper form, the transactions of the tribunal or body to which he belongs. Some clerks, however, have little or no writing to do in their offices, as, the clerk of the market, whose duties are confined chiefly to superintending the markets. In the English law, clerk also signifies a clergyman.
CLERK, eccl. law. Every individual, who is attached to the ecclesiastical state, and who has submitted to the ceremony of the tonsure, is a clerk.
CLIENT, practice. One who employs and retains an attorney or counsellor to manage or defend a suit or action in which he is a party, or to advise him about some legal matters.
2. The duties of the client towards his counsel are, 1st. to give him a written authority, 1 Ch. Pr. l9; 2. to disclose his case with perfect candor3. to offer spontaneously, advances of money to his attorney; 2 Ch. Pr. 27; 4. he should, at the end of the suit, promptly pay his attorney his fees. Ib. His rights are, 1. to be diligently served in the management of his business 2. to be informed of its progress and, 3. that his counsel shall not disclose what has been professionally confided to him. See Attorney at law; Confidential communication.
CLOSE. Signifies the interest in the soil, and not merely a close or enclosure in the common acceptation of the term. Doct. & Stud. 307 East, 207 2 Stra. 1004; 6 East, 1541 Burr. 133 1 Ch. R. 160.
2. In every case where one man has a right to exclude another from his land, the law encircles it, if not already enclosed, with an imaginary fence; and entitles him to a compensation in damages for the injury he sustains by the act of another passing through his boundary, denominating the injurious act a breach of the enclosure. Hamm. N. P. 151; Doct. & Stud. dial. 1, c. 8, p. 30; 2 Whart. 430.
3. An ejectment will not lie for a close. 11 Rep. 55; 1 Rolle's R. 55 Salk. 254 Cro. Eliz. 235; Adams on Eject. 24.
CLOSE ROLLS, or close writs, Eng. law. Writs containing, grants from the crown, to particular persons, and for particular purposes, and, not being intended for public inspection, are closed up and sealed on the outside, and for that reason called close writs ,in contradistinction. to grants relating to the public in general, which are left open and not sealed up, and are called letters patent. (q. v.) 2 Bl. Com. 346.
CLOSED DOORS. Signifies that something is done privately. The senate sits with closed doors on executive business.
2. In general the legislative business of the country is transacted openly. And the constitution and laws require that courts of justice shall be open to the public.
CLUB. An association of persons.It differs from a partnersbip in this, that the members of a club have no authority to bind each other further than they are authorized, either expressly or by implication, as each other's agents in the particular transaction; whereas in trading associations, or common partnerships, one partner may bind his co-partners, as each has a right of property in the whole. 2 Mees. & Welsb. 172; Colly, Partn. 31; Story, Partn. 144; Wordsworth on Joint Stock Companies, 154, et seq.; 6 W. & S. 67; 3, W. & S. 118.
CO. A prefix or particle in the nature of an inseparable proposition, signifying with or in conjunction. Con and the Latin cum are equivalent, as, co-executors, co-obligor. It is also used as an abbreviation for company as, John Smith & Co.
COADJUTOR, eccl. law. A fellow helper or assistant; particularly applied to the assistant of a bishop.
COAL NOTE, Eng. law. A species of promissory note authorized by the st. 3 Geo. H., c. 26, SSSS 7 and 8, which, having these words expressed therein, namely, " value received in coals," are to be protected and noted as inland bills of exchange.
COALITION, French law. By this word is understood an unlawful agreement among several persons, not to do a thing except on some conditions agreed upon.
2. The most usual coalitions are, 1st. those which take place among master workmen, to reduce, diminish or fix at a low rate the wages of journeymen and other workmen; 2d. those among workmen or journeymen, not to work except at a certain price. These offences are punished by fine and imprisonment. Dict. de Police, h. t. In our law this offence is known by the name of conspiracy. (q. v.)
CO-ADMINISTRATOR. One of several administrators. In general, they have, like executors, the power to act singly to the personal estate of the intestate. Vide Administrator.
CO-ASSIGNEE. One who is assignee with another.
2. In general, the rights and duties of co-assignees are equal.
CO-EXECUTOR. One who is executor of a will in company with another. In general each co-executor has the full power over the personal estate of the testator, that all the executors have jointly. Vide Joint Executors. But one cannot bring suit without joining with the others.
COAST. The margin of a country bounded by the sea. This term includes the natural appendages of the territory which rise out of the water, although they are not of sufficient firmness to be inhabited or fortified. Shoals perpetually covered with water are not, however, comprehended under the name of coast. The small islands, situate at the mouth of the Mississippi, composed of earth and trees drifted down by the river, which are not of consistency enough to support the purposes of life, and are uninhabited, though resorted to for shooting birds, were held to form a part of the coast. 5 Rob. Adm. R. 385. (c).
COCKET, commerce. In England the office at the custom house, where the goods to be exported are entered, is so called, also the custom house seal, or the parchment sealed and delivered by the officers of customs to merchants, as a warrant that their goods are customed. Crabbe's Tech. Dict.
COCKETTUM, commerce. In the English law this word signifies, 1. the custom- house seal; 2. the office at the custom where cockers are to be procured. Crabbe's Tech. Dict.

CO-DEFENDANT. One who is made defendant in an action with another person.
CODEX. Literally, a volume or roll. It is particularly applied to the volume of the civil law, collected by the emperor Justinian, from all pleas and answers of the ancient lawyers, which were in loose scrolls or sheets of parchment. These he compiled into a book which goes by the name of Codex.
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CO-EXECUTOR. One who is executor with another.
2. In general, the rights and duties of co-executors are equal.
COGNATION, civil law. Signifies generally the kindred which exists between two persons who are united by ties of blood or family, or both.
2. Cognation is of -three kinds: natural, civil, or mixed. Natural cognation is that which is alone formed by ties of blood; such is the kindred of those who owe their origin to an illicit connexion, either in relation to their ascendants or collaterals.
3. Civil cognation is that which proceeds alone from the ties of families as the kindred between the adopted father and the adopted child.
4. Mixed cognation is that which unites at the same time the ties of blood and family, as that which exists between brothers, the issue of the same lawful marriage. 6; Dig. 38, 10.
COGNATI, cognates. This term occurs frequently in the Roman civil law, and denotes collateral heirs through females. It is not used in the civil law as it now prevails in France. In the common law it has no technical sense, but as a word of discourse in English it signifies, generally, allied by blood, related in origin, of the same family. See Vicat, ad verb.; also, Biret's Vocabulaire.
COGNISANCE, pleading. Where the defendant in an action of replevin (not being entitled to the distress or goods which are the subject of the replevin) acknowledges the taking of the distress, and insists that such taking was legal, not because he himself had a right to distrain on his own account, but because he made the distress by the command of another, who had a right to distrain on the goods which are the subject of the suit. Lawes on Pl. 35, 36; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3571.
COGNISANCE, practice. Sometimes signifies jurisdiction and juudicial power, an sometimes the hearing of a matter judicially. It is a term used in the acknowledgment of a fine. See Vaughan's Rep. 207.
COGNISANCE OF PLEAS, Eng. law. A privilege granted by the king to a city or town, to hold pleas within the same; and when any one is impleaded in the courts at Westminster, the owner of the franchise may demand cognisance of the plea. T. de la Ley.
COGNISEE. He to whom a fine of lands, &c. is acknowledged. See Cognisor.
COGNISOR, English law. One who passes or acknowledges,a fine of lands or tenements to another, in distinction from the cogzisee, to whom the fine of the lands, &c. is acknowledged.
COGNITIONIBUS ADMITTENDIS, English law, practice. A writ to a justice ,or other person, who has power to take a fine, and having taken the acknowledgment of a fine, delays to certify it in the court of common pleas, requiring him to do it. Crabbe's Tech. Dict.
COGNOMEN. A Latin word, which signifies a family name. The praenomen among the Romans distinguished the person, the nomen, the gens, or all the kindred descended from a remote common stock through males, while the cognomen denoted the particular family. The agnomen was added on account of some particular event, as a further distinction. Thus, in the designation Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Publius is the proenomen, Cornelius is the nomen, Scipio the cognomen, and Africanus the agnomen. Vicat. These several terms occur frequently in the Roman laws. See Cas. temp. Hardw. 286; 1 Tayl. 148. See Name; Surname.
COGNOVIT, contr. leading. A written confession of an action by a defendant, subscribed but not sealed, and authorizing the plaintiff to sign judgment and issue execution, usually for a sum named.
2. It is given after the action is brought to save expense.
3. It differs from a warrant of attorney, which is given before the commencement of any action, and is under seal. A cognovit actionem is an acknowledgment and confession of the plaintiff's cause of action against the defendant to be just and true. Vide 3 Ch. Pr. 664; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 8299.

CO-HEIR. One of several men among whom an inheritance is to be divided.
CO-HEIRESS. A woman who inherits an estate in common with other women. A joint heiress.
COIF. A head-dress. In England there are certain serjeants at law, who are called serjeants of the coif, from the lawn coif they wear on their heads under their thin caps when they are admitted to that order.
COIN, commerce, contracts. A piece of gold, silver or other metal stamped by authority of the government, in order to determine its value, commonly called money. Co. Litt. 207; Rutherf. Inst. 123. For the different kinds of coins of the United States, see article Money. As to the value of foreign coins, see article Foreign Coins.
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COLLATIO BONORUM, descent, distribution. Where a portion or money advanced to a son or daughter, is brought into botchpot, in order to have an equal distributive share of the ancestor's personal estate. The same rule obtains in the civil law. Civil Code of Louis. 1305; Diet. de Jur. mot Collation; Merlin Rep. mot Collation.
COLLATION, descents. A term used in the laws of Louisiana. Collation -of goods is the supposed or real return to the mass of the succession, which an heir makes of the property he received in advance of his share or otherwise, in order that such property may be divided, together with the other effects of the succession. Civil Code of Lo. art. 1305.
2. As the object of collation is to equalize the heirs, it follows that those things are excluded from collation, which the heir acquired by an onerous title from the ancestor, that is, where he gave a valuable consideration for them. And upon the same principle, if a co-heir claims no share of the estate, he is not bound to collate. Qui non vult hereditatem, non cogitur ad collationem. See Id. art. 1305 to 1367; And Hotchpot.
COLLATION, eccl. law. The act by which the bishop, who has the bestowing of a benefice, gives it to an incumbent. T. L.
COLLATION, practice. The comparison of a copy with its original, in order to ascertain its correctness and conformity; the report of the officer who made the comparison, is also called a collation.
COLLATION OF SEALS. Where, on the same label, one seal was set on the back or reverse of the other, this was said to be a collation of seals. Jacob. L. D. h. t.
COLLECTOR, officer. One appointed to receive taxes or other impositions; as collector of taxes; collector of militia fines, &c. A collector is also a person appointed by a private person to collect the credits due him. Metc. & Perk. Dig. h. t.
COLLECTORS OF THE CUSTUMS. Officers of the United States, appointed for the term of four years, but removable at the pleasure of the president. Act of May 15, 1820, sect. 1, 3 Story's U. S. Laws, 1790.
2. The duties of a collector of customs are described in general terms, as follows: " He shall receive all reports, manifests and documents, to be made or exhibited on the entry of any ship or vessel, according to the regulations of this act shall record in books, to be kept for the purpose, all manifests; shall receive the entries of all ships or vessels, and of the goods, wares and merchandise imported in them; shall, together with the naval officer, where there is one, or alone, where there is none, estimate the amount of duties payable thereupon, endorsing the said amounts upon the respective entries; shall receive all moneys paid for duties, and shall take bonds for securing the payment thereof; shall grant all permits for the unlading and delivery of goods; shall, with the approbation of the principal officer of the treasury department, employ proper persons as weighers, gaugers, measurers and inspectors, at the several ports within his district; and also, with the like approbation, provide, at the public expense, storehouses for the safe keeping of goods, and such scales, weights and measures, as may be necessary." Act of March 2,1799) s. 21, 1 Story, U. S. Laws, 590. Vide, for other duties of collectors, 1 Story, U. S. Laws, 592, 612, 620, 632, 659, and vol. 3, 1650, 1697, 1759, 1761, 1791, 1811, 1848, 1854; 10 Wheat. 246.
COLLEGE. A civil corporation, society or company, authorized by law, having in general a literary object. In some countries by college is understood the union of certain voters in *one body; such bodies are called electoral colleges; as, the college of electors or their deputies to the diet of Ratisbon; the college of cardinals. The term is used in the United States; as, the college of electors of president and vice-president, of the United States. Act of Congress of January 23, 1845.
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COLLISTRIGIUM. The pillory.
COLLOCATION, French law. The act by which the creditors of an estate are arranged in the order in which they are to be paid according to law. The order in which the creditors-are placed, is also called collocation. Merl. Rep. h. t. Vide Marshalling Assets.
COLLOQUIM, pleading. A discourse a conversation or conference.
2. In actions of slander, it is generally true that an action does not lie for words, on account of, their being merely disgraceful to a person in his office, profession or trade; unless it be averred, that at the time of publishing the words, there was a colloquium concerning the office, profession or trade of the plaintiff.
3. In its technical sense, the term colloquium signifies an averment in a declaration that there was a conversation or discourse on the part of the defendant, which connects the slander with the office, profession or trade of the plaintiff; and this colloquium must extend to the whole of the prefatory matter to render the words actionable. 3 Bulst. 83. Vide Bac. Ab. Slander, S, n. 3; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Com. Dig. Action upon the case for Defamation, G 7, 8, &c.; Stark. on Sland. 290, et seq.

COLONEL. An officer in the army, next below a brigadier general, bears this title.
COLONY. A union of citizens or subjects who have left their country to people another, and remain subject to the mother country. 3 W. C. C. R. 287. The country occupied by the colonists is also called a colony. A colony differs from a possession, or a dependency. (q. v.) For a history of the American colonies, the reader is referred to Story on the Constitution, book I.; 1 Kent, Com. 77 to 80; 1 Dane's Ab. Index, b. t.

COLT. An animal of the horse species, whether male or female, not more than four years old. Russ. & Ry. 416.
COMBAT, Eng. law. The form of a forcible encounter between two or more persons or bodies of men; an engagement or battle. A duel.
COMBINATION. A union of different things. A patent may be taken out for a new combination of existing machinery, or machines. See 2 Mason, 112; and Composition of matter.
2. By combination is understood, in a bad sense, a union of men for the purpose of violating the law.
COMBUSTIO DOMORUM. Burning of houses; arson. Vide 4 Bl. Com. 372.
COMES, pleading. In a plea, the defendant says, " And the said C D, by E F, his attorney, comes, and defends, &c. The word comes, venit, expresses the appearance of the defendant , in court. It is taken from the style of the entry of the proceedings on the record, and formed no part of the viva voce pleading. It is, accordingly, not considered as, in strictness, constituting a part of the Plea. 1 Chit. Pl. 411; Steph. Pl. 432.
COMES, offices. A Count. An officer during the middle ages, who possessed civil and military authority. Sav. Dr. Rom. Moy. age, n. 80.
2. Vice-comes, the Latin name for sheriff, was originally the lieutenant of the comes.
COMITATUS. A county. Most of the states are divided into counties; some, as Louisiana, are divided into parishes.
COMITES. Persons who are attached to a public minister, are so called. As to their privileges, see 1 Dall. 117; Baldw. 240; and Ambassador.
COMITY. Courtesy; a disposition to accomodate.
2. Courts of justice in one state will, out of comity, enforce the laws of another state, when by such enforcement they will not violate their laws or inflict. an injury on some one of their own citizens; as, for example, the discharge of a debtor under the insolvent laws of one state, will be respected in another state, where there is a reciprocity in this respect.
3. It is a general rule that the municipal laws of a country do not extend beyond its limits, and cannot be enforced in another, except on the principle of comity. But when those laws clash and interfere with the rights of citizens, or the laws of the countries where the parties to the contract seek to enforce it, as one or the other must give way, those prevailing where the relief is sought must have the preference. 2 Mart. Lo. Rep. N. S. 93; S. C. 2 Harr. Cond. Lo. Rep. 606, 609; 2 B. & C. 448, 471; 6 Binn. 353; 5 Crancb, 299; 2 Mass. 84; 6 Mass. 358; 7 Mart. Lo. R. 318. See Conflict of Laws; Lex loci contractus.
COMMAND. This word has several meanings. 1. It signifies an order; an apprentice is bound to obey the lawful command of his master; a constable may command rioters to keep the peace. 2. He who commands another to do an unlawful act, is accessary to it. 3 Inst. 51, 57; 2 Inst. 182; 1 Hayw.
3. Command is also equivalent to deputation or voluntary substitution; as, when a master employs one to do a thing, he is said to have Commanded him to do it; and he is responsible accordingly. Story Ag. 454, note.
COMMENCEMENT OF A SUIT OR ACTION. The suit is considered as commenced from the issuing of the writ; 3 Bl. Com. 273, 285; 7 T. R. 4; 1 Wils. 147; 18 John. 14; Dunl. Pr. 120; 2 Phil. Ev. 95; 7 Verm. R. 426; 6 Monr. R. 560; Peck's R. 276; 1 Pick. R. 202; Id. 227; 2 N. H. Rep. 36; 4 Cowen, R. 158; 8 Cowen, 203; 3 John. Cas. 133; 2 John. R. 342; 3 John. R. 42; 15 John. R. 42; 17 John. R. 65; 11 John. R. 473; and if the teste or date of the writ be fictitious, the true time of its issuing may be a and proved, whenever the purposes of justice require it; as in cases of a plea of tender or of the statute of limitations. Bac. Ab. Tender D; 1 Stra. 638; Peake's Ev. 259; 2 Saund. 1, n. 1. In Connecticut, the service of, the writ is the commencement of the action. 1 Root, R. 487; 4 Conn. 149; 6 Conn. R. 30; 9 Conn. R. 530; 7 Conn. R. 558; 21 Pick. R. 241; 2 C. & M. 408, 492 1 Sim. R. 393. Vide Lis Pendens.
COMENDAM, eccles. law. When a benefice or church living is void or vacant, it is commended to the. care of some sufficient clerk to be supplied, until it can be supplied with a pastor. He to whom the church is thus commended is said to hold in commendam, and he is entitled to the profits of the living. Rob. 144; Latch, 236.
2. In Louisiana, there is a species of limited partnership called a partnership in commendam. It is formed by a contract, by which one person or partnership agrees to furnish another person or partnership a certain amount, either in property or money, to be employed by the person or partnership to whom it is furnished, in his or their own name or firm, on condition of receiving a share in the profits, in the proportion determined by the contract, and of being liable to losses and expenses, to the amount furnished, and no more. Civ. Code of Lo. 2810. A similar partnership exists in France. Code de Comm. 26, 33; Sirey, tom. 12, part 2, p. 25. He who makes this contract is called in respect to those to whom he makes the advance of capital, a partner in commendam. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2811.
COMMENDATARY. A person who holds a church living or presentment in commendam.
COMMENDATION. The act of recommending, praising. A merchant who merely commends goods he offers for sale, does not by that act warrant them, unless there is some fraud: simplex commendatio non obligat.
COMMENDATORS, eccl. law. Secular persons upon whom ecclesiastical benefices are bestowed, because they were commended and instructed to their oversight: they are merely trustees.
COMMERCE, trade, contracts. The exchange of commodities for commodities; considered in a legal point of view, it consists in the various agreements which have for their object to facilitate the exchange of the products of the earth or industry of man, with an intent to realize a profit. Pard. Dr. Coin. n. 1. In a narrower sense, commerce signifies any reciprocal agreements between two persons, by which one delivers to the other a thing, which the latter accepts, and for which he pays a consideration; if the consideration be money, it is called a sale; if any other thing than money, it is called exchange or barter. Domat, Dr. Pub. liv. 1, tit. 7, s. 1, n. 2. Congress have power by the constitution to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes. 1 Kent. 431; Story on Corst. 1052, et seq. The sense in which the word commerce is used in the constitution seems not only to include traffic, but intercourse and navigation. Story, 1057; 9 Wheat. 190, 191, 215, 229; 1 Tuck. Bl. App. 249 to 252. Vide 17 John. R. 488; 4 John. Ch. R. 150; 6 John. Ch. R. 300; 1 Halst. R. 285; Id. 236; 3 Cowen R. 713; 12 Wheat. R. 419; 1 Brock. R. 423; 11 Pet. R. 102; 6 Cowen, R. 169; 3 Dana, R. 274; 6 Pet. R. 515; 13 S. & R. 205.
COMMISSARIATE. The whole body of officers who act in the department of the commissary, are called the, commissariate.
COMMISSARY. An officer whose principal duties are to supply the army witli provisions.
2. The Act of April 14, 1818, s. 6, requires that the president, by and with the consent of the senate, shall appoint a commissary general with the rank, pay, and emoluments of colonel of ordnance, and as many assistants, to be taken from the sub-alterns of the line, as the service may require. The commissary general and his assistants shall perform such duties, in the purchasing and issuing of rations to the armies of the United States, as the president may direct. The duties of these officers are further detailed in the subsequent sections of this act,, and in the Act of March 2, 1821.

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COMMITTEE, practice. When a person has been found non compos, the law requires that a guardian should be appointed to take care of his person and estate; this guardian is called the committee.
2. It is usual to select the committee from the next of kin; Shelf. on Lun. 137; and in case of the lunacy of the husband or wife, the one who is of sound mind is entitled, unless under very special circumstances, to be the committee of the other. Id. 140. This is the committee of the person. For committee of the estate, the heir at law is most favored. Relations are referred to strangers, but the latter may be appointed. Id. 144.
3. It is the duty of the committee of the person, to take care of the lunatic; and the committee of the estate is bound to administer the estate faithfully, and to account for his administration. He cannot in general, make contracts in relation to the estate of the lunatic, or bind it, without a Special order of the court or authority that appointed him. Id. 179; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 389-91.
COMMITTEE, legislation. One or more members of a legislative body to whom is specially referred some matter before that body, in order that they may investigate and examine into it and report to those who delegated this authority to them.
COMMITTITUR PIECE, Eng. law. An instrument in writing, on paper or parchment, which charges a person already in prison, in execution at the suit of, the person who arrested him.
COMMlXTION, civil law. This term is used to signify the act by which goods are mixed together.
2. The matters which are mixed are dry or liquid. In the commixtion of the former, the matter retains its substance and individuality; in the latter, the substances no longer remain distinct. The commixtion of liquids is called confusion, (q. v.) and that of solids, a mixture. Lec. Elem. du Dr. Rom. 370, 371; Story, Bailm. 40; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 506.
COMMODATE, contracts. A term used in the Scotch law, which is synonymous to the Latin commodatum, or loan for use. Ersk. Inst. B. 3, t. 1, 20; 1 Bell's Com. 225; Ersk. Pr. Laws of Scotl. B. 3, t. 1, 9.
2. Judge Story regrets this term has not been adopted and naturalized, as mandate has been from mandatum. Story, Com. 221. Ayliffe, in his Pandects, has gone further, and terms the bailor the commodant, and the bailee the commodatory, thus avoiding those circumlocutions, which, in the common phraseology of our law, have become almost indispensable. Ayl. Pand. B. 4, t. 16, p. 517. Browne, in his Civil Law, vol. 1, 352, calls the property loaned "commodated property." See Borrower; Loan for use; Lender.
COMMODATUM. A contract, by which one of the parties binds himself to return to the other certain personal chattels which the latter delivers to him, to be used by him, without reward; loan -for use. Vide Loan for use.

COMMONALTY, Eng. law. This word signifies, 1st. the common people of England, as contradistinguished from the king and the nobles; 2d. the body of a society as the masters, wardens, and commonalty of such a society.
COMMONER. One who is entitled with others to the use of a common.
COMMONS, Eng. law. Those subjects of the English nation who are not noblemen. They are represented in parliament in the house of commons.
COMMONWEALTH, government. A commonwealth is properly a free state, or republic, having a popular or representative government. The term has been, applied to the government of Great Britain. It is not applicable to absolute governments. The states composing the United States are, properly, so many commonwealths.
2. It is a settled principle, that no sovereign power is amenable to answer suits, either in its own courts or in those of a foreign country, unless by its own consent. 4 Yeates, 494.
COMMORANCY, persons. An abiding dwelling, or continuing as an inhabitant in any place. It consists, properly, in sleeping usually in one place.,
COMMORANT. One residing or inhabiting a particular place. Barnes, 162.
COMMORIENTES. This Latin word signifies those wbo die at the same time, as, for example, by shipwreck.
2. When several persons die by the same accident, and there is no evidence as to who survived, the presumption of law is, they all died at the same time. 2 Phillim. R. 261 Fearne on Rem. iv.; 5 B. & Adol. 91; Cro. Eliz. 503; Bac. Ab. Execution, D; 1 Mer. R. 308. See Death; Survivor.
COMMUNICATION, contracts. Information; consultation; conference.
2. In order to make a contract, it is essential there should be an agreement; a bare communication or conference will not, therefore, amount to a contract; nor can evidence of such communication be received in order to take from, contradict, or alter a written agreement. 1 Dall. 426; 4 Dall. 340; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 609. Vide Pour-parler; Wbarton's Dig. Evid. R.
COMMUNINGS, Scotch law. This term is used to express the negotiations which have taken place before making a contract, in relation thereto. See Pourparler.
2. It is a general rule, that such communings or conversations, and the propositions then made, are no part of the contract for no parol evidence will be allowed to be given to contradict, alter, or vary a written instrument. 1 Serg. & R. 464 Id. 27; Add. R. 361; 2 Dall. R. 172 1 Binn. 616; 1 Yeates, R. 140; 12 John. R. 77; 20 John. R. 49; 3 Conn. R. 9; 11 Mass. R. 30; 13 Mass. R. 443; 1 Bibb's R. 271; 4 Bibb's R. 473; 3 Marsh. (Kty.) R. 333; Bunb. 175; 1 M. & S. 21; 1 Esp. C. 58; 3 Campb. R. 57.
COMMUNIO BONORUM, civil law. Common goods.
2. When a person has the management of common property, owned by himself and others, not as partners, he is bound to account for the profits, and is entitled to be reimbursed for the expenses which he has sustained by virtue of the quasi-contract which is created by his act, called communio bonorum. Vicat; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 907, note.

COMMUTATION, punishments. The change of a punishment to which a person has been condemned into a less severe one. This can be granted only by the executive authority in which the pardoning power resides.
COMMUTATIVE CONTRACT, civil law. One in which each of the contracting parties gives and, receives an equivalent. The contract of sale is of this kind. The seller gives the thing sold, and receives the price, which is the equivalent. The buyer gives the price and receives the thing sold, which is the equivalent.
2. These contracts are usually distributed into four classes, namely; Do ut des; Facio ut facias; Facio ut des; Do ut facias. Poth. Obl. n. 13. See' Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1761.
COMMUTATIVE JUSTICE. That virtue whose object is, to render to every one what belongs to him, as nearly as may be, or that which governs contracts.
2. The word commutative is derived from commutare, which signifies to exchange. Lepage, El. du Dr. ch. 1, art. 3, 3. See Justice.
TO COMMUTE. To substitute one punishment in the place of another. For example, if a man be sentenced to be hung, the executive may, in some states, commute his punishment to that of imprisonment.
COMPACT, contracts. In its more general sense, it signifies an agreement. In its strict sense, it imports a contract between parties, which creates obligations and rights capable of being enforeed, and contemplated as such between the parties, in their distinct and independent characters. Story, Const. B. 3, c. 3; Rutherf. Inst. B. 2, c. 6, 1. 2. The constitution of the United States declares that " no state shall, without the consent of congress, enter into agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power." See 11 Pet: 1; 8 Wheat. 1 Bald. R. 60; 11 Pet. 185.
COMPANION, dom. rel. By 5 Edw. III., st. 5, c. 2, 1, it is declared to be high treason in any one who " doth compass or imagine the death of our lord the king, or our lady his companion," &c. See 2 Inst. 8, 9; 1 H. H. P. C. 124.
COMPANIONS, French law. This is a general term, comprehending all persons who compose the crew of a ship or vessel. Poth. Mar. Contr. n. 163.
COMPANY. An association of a number of individuals for the purpose of carrying on some legitimate business.
2. This term is not synonymous with partnership, though every such unincorporated compass is a partnership.
3. Usage has reserved this term to associations whose members are in greater number, their capital more considerable, and their enterprizes greater, either on account of their risk or importance.
4. When these companies are authorized by the government, they are known by the name of corporations. (q. v.)
5. Sometimes the word is used to represent those members of a partnership whose names do not appear in the name of the firm; as, A.B & Company. Vide, 12 Toull. n, 97; Mortimer on Commerce, 128. Vide Club; Corporation; Firm; Parties to actions; Partnership.
COMPARISON OF HANDWRITING, evidence. It is a general rule that comparison of hands is not admissible; but to this there are some exceptions. In some instances, when the antiquity of the writing makes it impossible for any living witness to swear that he ever saw the party write, comparison of handwriting, with documents known to be in his handwriting, has been admitted. For the general principle, see Skin. 579, 639; 6 Mod. 167; 1 Lord Ray. 39, 40; Holt. 291; 4 T. R. 497; 1 Esp. N. P. C. 14, 351; Peake's Evid. 69; 7 East, R. 282; B. N. P. 236; Anthon's N. P. 98, n.; 8 Price, 653; 11 Mass. R. 309 2 Greenl. R. 33 2 Johns. Cas. 211 1 Esp. 351; 1 Root, 307; Swift's Ev. 29; 1 Whart. Dig 245; 5 Binn. R. 349; Addison's R. 33; 2 M'Cord, 518; 1 Tyler, R. 4 6 Whart. R. 284; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3129-30. Vide Diploma.
TO COMPASS. To imagine; to contrive.
2. In England, to compass the death of the king is high treason. Bract. 1. 3, c. 2 Britt. c. 8; Mirror, c. 1, s. 4.
COMPATIBILITY. In speaking of public offices it is meant by this term to convey the idea that two of them may be held by the same person at the same time. It is the opposite of incompatibility. (q. v.)
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COMPERUIT AD DIEM, pleading. He appeared at the day. This is the name of a plea in bar to an action of debt on a bail-bond. The usual replication to this plea is nul tiel record: that there is not any such record of appearance of the said. For forms of this plea, vide 5 Wentw. 470; Lil. Entr. 114; 2 Chit. Pl. 527.
2. When the issue is joined on this plea, the trial is by the record. Vide 1 Taunt. 23; Tidd, 239. And see, generally, Com. Dig. Pleader, 2 W. 31; 7 B. & C. 478.
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COMPETITORS, French law. Persons who compete or aspire to the same office, rank or employment. As an English word in common use, it has a much wider application. Ferriere, Dict. de Dr. h. t.
COMPILATION. A literary production, composed of the works of others, and arranged in some methodical manner.
2. When a compilation requires in its execution taste, learning, discrimination and intellectual labor, it 'is an object of copyright; as, for example, Bacon's Abridgment. Curt. on Copyr. 186.
COMPLAINANT. One who makes a complaint. A plaintiff in a suit in chancery is so called.
COMPLAINT, crim. law. The allegation made to a proper officer, that some person, whether known or unknown, has been guilty of a designated offence, with an offer to prove the fact, and a request that the offender may be punished.
2. To have a legal effect, the complaint must be supported by such evidence as shows that an offence has been committed, and renders it certain or probable that it was committed by the person named or described in the complaint.
COMPOS MENTIS. Of sound mind. See non compos mentis.
COMPOSITION, contracts. An agreement, made upon a sufficient consideration, between a debtor and creditor, by which the creditor accepts part of the debt due to him in satisfaction of the whole. Montagu on Compos. 1; 3 Co. 118; Co. Litt. 212, b; 4 Mod. 88; 1 Str. 426; 2 T. R. 24, 26; 2 Chit. R. 541, 564; 5 D. & R. 56 3 B. & C. 242; 1 R. & M. 188; 1 B. & A. 103, 440; 3 Moore's R. 11; 6 T. R. 263; 1 D. & R. 493; 2 Campb. R. 283; 2 M. & S. 120; 1 N. R. 124; Harr. Dig. Deed VIII.
2. In England, compositions were formerly allowed for crimes and misdemeanors, even for murder. But these compositions are no longer allowed, and even a qui tam action cannot be lawfully compounded. Bac. Ab. Actions qui tam, See 2 John. 405; 9 John. 251; 10 John. 118; 11 John. 474; 6 N. H.-Rep. 200.
COMPOSITION OF MATTER. In describing the subjects of patents, the Act of Congress of July 4, 1836, sect. 6, uses the words "composition of matter;" these words are usually applied to mixtures and chemical compositions, and in these cases it is enough that the compound is new. Both the composition and the mode of compounding may be considered as included in the invention, when the compound is new.
COMPOUND INTEREST. Interest allowed upon interest; for example, when a sum of money due for interest, is added to the principal, and then bears interest. This is not, in general, allowed. See Interest for money.
COMPOUNDER, in Louisiana. He who makes a composition. An amicable compounder is one who has undertaken by the agreement of the parties to compound or settle differences. between them. Code of Pract. of Lo. art. 444.
COMPOUNDING A FELONY, The act of a party immediately aggrieved, who agrees with a thief or other felon that he will not prosecute him, on condition that he return to him the goods stolen, or who takes a reward not to prosecute. This is an offence punishable by fine and imprisonment. The mere retaking by the owner of stolen goods is no offence, unless the offender is not to be prosecuted. Hale, P. C. 546 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 4.
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COMPROMISSARIUS, civil law. A name sometimes given to an arbitrator; because the parties to the submission usually agree to fulfil his award as a compromise.
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COMPULSION. The forcible inducement to au act.
2. Compulsion may be lawful or unlawful. 1. When a man is compelled by lawful authority to do that which be ought to do, that compulsion does not affect the validity of theact; as for example, when a court of competent jurisdiction compels a party to execute a deed, under the pain of attachment for contempt, the grantor cannot object to it on the ground of compulsion. 2. But if the court compelled a party to do an act forbidden by law, or not having jurisdiction over the parties or the subject-matter, the act done by such compulsion would be void. Bowy. Mod. C. L. 305.
3. Compulsion is never presumed. Coercion. (q. v.)
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COMPUTATION counting, calculation. It is a reckoning or ascertaining the number of any thing.
2. It is sometimes used in the common law for the true reckoning or account of time. Time is computed in two ways; first, naturally, counting years, days and hours; and secondly, civilly, that is, that when the last part of the time has once commenced, it is considered as accomplished. Savig. Dr. Rom. 182. See Infant; Fraction. For the computation of a year, see Com. Dig. Ann; of a mouth, Com. Dig. Temps. A; 1 John. Cas. 100 15 John. R. 120; 2 Mass. 170, n.; 4 Mass. 460; 4 Dall. 144; 3 S. & R. 169; of a day, vide Day.; and 3, Burr 1434; 11 Mass. 204; 2 Browne, 18; Dig. 3, 4, 5; Salk. 625; 3 Wils. 274.
3. It is a general rule that when an act is to be done within a certain time, one day is to be taken inclusively, and one exclusively. Vide Lofft, 276; Dougl. 463; 2 Chit. Pr. 69; 3 Id. 108, 9; 3 T. R. 623; 2 Campb. R. 294; 4 Man. and Ryl. 300, n. (b) 5 Bingh. R. 339; S. C. 15, E. C. L. R. 462; 3 East, R. 407; Hob. 139; 4 Moore, R. 465; Har. Dig. Time, computation of; 3 T. R. 623; 5 T. R. 283; 2 Marsh. R. 41; 22 E. C. L. R. 270; 13 , E, C. L. R. 238; 24 E. C. L. R. 53; 4 Wasb. C. C. R. 232; 1 Ma-son, 176; 1 Pet. 60; 4 Pet. 349; 9 Cranch, 104; 9 Wheat. 581. Vide Day; Hour; Month; Year.
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CONCESSI, conveyancing. This is a Latin word, signifying, I have granted. It was frequently used when deeds and other conveyances were written in Latin.. It is a word of general extent, and is said to amount to a grant, feoffment, lease, release, and the like. 2 Saund. 96; Co. Lift. 301, 302; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 5 Whart. R. 278.
2. It has been held that this word in a feoffment or fine implies no -warranty. Co. Lit. 384 Noke's Case, 4 Rep. 80; Vaughan's Argument in Hayes v. Bickoxsteth, Vaughan, 126; Butler"s Note, Co. Lit. 3 84. But see 1 Freem. 339, 414.
CONCESSION. A grant. This word is frequently used in this sense when applied to grants made by the French and Spanish governments in Louisiana.
CONCESSIMUS. A Latin word, which signifies, we have granted. This word creates a covenant in law, for the breach of which the grantors may be jointly sued. It imports no warranty of a freehold, but as in case of a lease for years. Spencer's Case, 5 Co. Rep. 16 Brown v. Heywood, 3 Keble, Rep. 617 Bac. Ab. Covenant, B. See Bac. Ab. officers, &c. E.
CONCESSOR. A grantor; one who makes a concession to another.
CONCILIUM. A day allowed to a defendant to make his defence; an imparlance, 4 Bl. Com. 356, n.; 3 T. R. 530.
CONCILIUM REGIS. The name of a tribunal which existed in England during the times of Edward I. and Edward H., composed of the judges and sages of the law. To them were referred cases of great difficulty. Co. Litt. 804.
CONCLAVE. An assembly of cardinals for the purpose of electing a pope; the place where the assembly is held is also called a conclave. It derives this name from the fact that all the windows and doors are looked, with the exception of a single panel, which admits a gloomy light.

CONCLUSUM, intern. law. The form of an acceptance or conclusion of a treaty; as, the treaty was ratified purely and simply by a conclusum. It is the name of a decree of the Germanic diet, or of the aulic council.
CONCORD, estates, conveyances, practice. An agreement or supposed agreement between the parties in levying a fine of lands, in which the deforciant (or he who keeps the other out of possession,) acknowledges that the lands in question, are the right of the complainant;. and from the acknowledgment or recognition of right thus made, the party who levies the fine is called the cognisor, and the person to whom it is levied, the cognisee. 2 Bl. Com. 350; Cruise, Dig. tit. 35, c. 2, s. 33; Com. Dig. Fine, E 9.
CONCORDATE. A convention; a pact; an agreement. The term is generally confined to the agreements made between independent government's; and, most usually applied to those between the pope and some prince.
CONCUBINAGE. This term has two different significations; sometimes it means a species of marriage which took place among the ancients, and which is yet in use in some countries. In this country it means the act or practice of cobabiting as man and woman, in sexual commerce, without the authority of law, or a legal marriage. Vide 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 80; Merl. Rep. b. t.; Dig. 32, 49, 4; Id. 7, 1, 1; Code, 5, 27, 12.
CONCUBINE. A woman who cohabits with a man as his wife, without being married.
TO CONCUR. In Louisiana, to concur, signifies, to claim a part, of the estate of an insolvent along with other claimants; 6 N. S. 460; as " the wife concurs with her husband's creditors, and claims a privilege over them."
CONCURRENCE, French law. The equality of rights, or privilege which several persons-have over the same thing; as, for example, the right which two judgment creditors, Whose judgments were rendered at the same time, have to be paid out of the proceeds of real estate bound by them. Dict. de Jur. h. t.
CONCURRENT. Running together; having the same authority; thus we say a concurrent consideration occurs in the case of mutual promises; such and such a court have concurrent jurisdiction; that is, each has the same jurisdiction.
CONCUSSION, civ. law. The unlawful forcing of another by threats of violence to give something of value. It differs from robbery in this, that in robbery the thing is taken by force, while in concussion it is obtained by threatened violence. Hein. Lec. El, 1071
CONDEDIT, eccl. law. The name of a plea, entered by a party to a libel filed in the ecclesiastical court, in which it is pleaded that the deceased made the will which is the subject of the suit, and that he was of sound mind. 2 Eng. Eccl. Rep. 438; 6 Eng. Eccl. Rep. 431.
CONDELEGATES. Advocates who have been appointed judges of the bigh court of delegates are so called. Shelf. on Lun. 310.

CONDICTIO INDEBITI, civil law. When the plaintiff has paid to the defendant by mistake what he was not bound to pay either in fact or in law, he may recover it back by an action called condictio indebiti. This action does not lie, 1. if the sum was due ex cequitate, or by a natural obligation; 2. if he who made the payment knew that nothing was due, for qui consulto dat quod non debetat, prcesumitur donare. Vide Quasi contract.

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CONDUCT, law of nations. This term is used in the phrase safe conduct, to signify the security given, by authority of the government, under the great seal, to a stranger, for his quietly coming into and passing out of the territories over which it has jurisdiction. A safe conduct differs from a passport; the former is given to enemies, the latter to friends or citizens.
CONDUCT MONEY. The money advanced to a witness who has been subpoenaed to enable him to attend a trial, i's so called. CONDUCTOR OPERARUM, civil law. One who undertakes, for a reward, to perform a job or piece of work for another. See Locator Operis.
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CONFERENCE, practice, legislation. In practice, it is the meeting of the parties or their attorneys in a cause, for the purpose of endeavoring to settle the same.
2. In legislation, when the senate and house of representatives cannot agree on a bill or resolution which it is desirable should be passed, committees are appointed by the two bodies respectively, who are called committees of confrence, and whose duty it is, if possible, to -reconcile the differences between them.
3. In the French law, this term is used to signify the similarity and comparison between two laws, or two systems of law; as the Roman and the common law. Encyclopedie, h. t.
4. In diplomacy, conferences are verbal explanations between ministers of two nations at least, for the purpose of accelerating various difficulties and delays, necessarily attending written communications.
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CONFIRMATIO CHARTORUM. The name given to a statute passed during reign of the English king Edward I. 25 Ed. I., c. 6. See Bac. Ab. Smuggling, B.
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CONFLICT. The opposition or difference between two judicial jurisdictions, when they both claim the right to decide a cause, or where they both declare their incompetency. The first is called a positive conflict, and the, latter a negative conflict.
CONFLICT OF JURISDICTION. The contest between two officers, who each claim to have cognizance of a particular case.
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CONFRONTATION, crim. law, practice. The act by which a witness is brought in the presence of the accused, so that the latter may object to him, if he can, and the former may know and identify the accused, and maintain the truth in his presence. No man can be a witness unless confronted with the accused, except by consent.
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CONGE'. A French word which signifies permission, and is understood in that sense in law. Cunn. Diet. h. t. In the French maritime law, it is a species of passport or permission to navigate, delivered by public authority. It is also in the nature of a clearance. (q. v.) Bouch. Inst. n. 812; Repert. de la Jurisp. du Notoriat, by Rolland de Villargues. Conge'.
CONGEABLE, Eng. law. This word is nearly obsolete. It is derived from the French conge', permission, leave; it signifies that a thing is lawful or lawfully done, or done with permission; as entry congeable, and the like. Litt. s. 279.
CONGREGATION. A society of a number of persons who compose an ecclesiastical body. In the ecclesiastical law this term is used to designate certain bureaux at Rome, where ecclesiastical matters are attended to. In the United States, by congregation is meant the members of a particular church, who meet in one place worsbip. See 2 Russ. 120.
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CONJECTURE. Conjectures are ideas or notions founded on probabilities without any demonstration of their truth. Mascardus has defined conjecture: "rationable vestigium latentis veritatis, unde nascitur opinio sapientis;" or a slight degree of credence arising from evidence too weak or too remote to produce belief. De Prob. vol. i. quoest. 14, n. 14. See Dict. de Trevoux, h. v.; Denisart, h. v.
CONJOINTS. Persons married to each other. Story, Confl. of L. 71; Wolff. Dr. de la Nat. 858.
CONJUGAL. Matrimonial; belonging, to marriage as, conjugal rights, or the rights which belong to the husband or wife as such.
CONJUNCTIVE, contracts, wills, instruments. A term in grammar used to designate particles which connect one word to another, or one proposition to another proposition.
2. There are many cases in law, where the conjunctive and is used for the disjunctive or, and vice versa.
3. An obligation is conjunctive when it contains several things united by a conjunction to indicate that they are all equally the object of the matter or contract for example, if I promise for a lawful consideration, to deliver to you my copy of the Life of Washington, my Encyclopaedia, and my copy of the History of the United States, I am then bound to deliver all of them and cannot be discharged by delivering one only. There are, according to Toullier, tom. vi. n. 686, as many separate obligations Is there are things to be delivered, and the obligor may discharge himself pro tanto by delivering either of them, or in case of refusal the tender will be valid. It is presumed, however, that only one action could be maintained for the whole. But if the articles in the agreement had not been enumerated; I could not, according to Toullier, deliver one in discharge of my contract, without the consent of the creditor; as if, instead of enumerating the, books above mentioned, I had bound myself to deliver all my books, the very books in question. Vide Disjunctive, Item, and the case, there cited; and also, Bac. Ab. Conditious, P; 1 Bos. & Pull. 242; 4 Bing. N. C. 463 S. C. 33 E. C. L. R. 413; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 687-8.
CONJURATION. A swearing together. It signifies a plot, bargain, or compact made by a number of persons under oath, to do some public harm. In times of ignorance, this word was used to signify the personal conference which some persons were supposed to have had with the devil, or some evil spirit, to know any secret, or effect any purpose.
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CONNIVANCE. An agreement or consent, indirectly given, that something unlawful shall be done by another.
2. The connivance of the husband to his wife's prostitution deprives him of the right of obtaining a divorce; or of recovering damages from the seducer. 4 T. R. 657. It may be satisfactorily proved by implication.
3. Connivance differs from condonation, (q. v.) though either may have the same legal consequences. Connivance necessarily involves criminality on the part of the individual who connives, condonation may take place without implying the slightest blame to the party who forgives the injury.
4. Connivance must be the act of the mind before the offence has been committed; condonation is the result of a determination to forgive an injury which was not known until after it was inflicted. 3 Hagg. Eccl. R. 350.
5. Connivance differs, also, from collusion (q. Y.); the former is generally collusion. for a particular purpose, while the latter may exist without connivance. 3 Hagg, Eccl. R. 130. Vide Shelf. on Mar. & Div. 449; 3 Hagg. R. 82; 2 Hagg. R. 376; Id. 278; 3 Hagg. R. 58, 107, 119, 131, 312; 3 Pick. R. 299; 2 Caines, 219; Anth. N.P. 196.
CONQUEST, feudal law. This term was used by the feudists to signify purchase.
CONQUEST, international law. The acquisition of the sovereignty of a country by force of arms, exercised by an independent power which reduces the vanquished to the submission of its empire.
2. It is a general rule, that where conquered countries have laws of their own, these laws remain in force after the conquest, until they are abrogated, unless they are contrary to our religion, or enact any malum in se. In all such cases the laws of the conquering country prevail; for it is not to be presumed that laws opposed to religion or sound morals could be sanctioned. 1 Story, Const. 150, and the cases there cited.
3. The conquest and military occupation of a part of the territory of the United States by a public enemy, renders such conquered territory, during such occupation, a foreign country with respect to the revenue laws of the United States. 4 Wheat. R. 246; 2 Gallis. R. 486. The people of a conquered territory change theirallegiance, but, by the modern practice, their relations to each other, and their rights of property, remain the same. 7 Pet. R. 86.
4. Conquest does not, per se, give the conqueror plenum dominium et utile, but a temporary right of possession and government. 2 Gallis. R. 486; 3 Wash. C. C. R. 101. See 8 Wheat. R. 591; 2 Bay, R. 229; 2 Dall. R. 1; 12 Pet. 410.
5. The right which the English government claimed over the territory now composing the United States, was not founded on conquest, but discovery. Id. 152, et seq.
CONQUETS, French law. The name given to every acquisition which the husband and wife, jointly or severally, make during the conjugal community. Thus, whatever is acquired by the husband and wife, either by his or her industry or good fortune, enures to the extent of one-half for the benefit of the other. Merl. Rep. mot Conquet; Merl. Quest. mot Conquet. In Louisiana, these gains are called aquets. (q. v.) Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2369.
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CONSCIENCE. The moral sense, or that capacity of our mental constitution, by which we irresistibly feel the difference between right and wrong.
2. The constitution of the United States wisely provides that "no religious test shall ever be required." No man, then, or body of men, have a right to control a man's belief or opinion in religious matters, or to forbid the most perfect freedom of inquiry in relation to them, by force or threats, or by any other motives than arguments or persuasion. Vide Story, Const. 1841-1843.
CONSENSUAL, civil law. This word is applied to designate one species of contract known in the civil laws; these contracts derive their name from the consent of the parties which is required in their formation, as they cannot exist without such consent.
2. The contract of sale, among the civilians, is an example of a consensual contract, because the moment there is an agreement between the seller and the buyer as to the thing and the price, the vendor and the purchaser have reciprocal actions On the contrary, on a loan, there is no action by the lender or borrower, although there may have been consent, until the thing is delivered or the money counted. This is a real contract in the sense of the civil law. Lec. El. Dr: Rom. 895; Poth. Ob. pt. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2; 1 Bell's Com. (5th ed.) 435. Vide Contract.
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CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, torts. Those damages or those losses which arise not from the immediate act of the party, but in consequence of such act; as if a man throw a log into the public streets, and another fall upon it and become injured by the fall or if a man should erect a dam over his own ground, and by that means overflow his neighbor's, to his injury.
2. The form of action to be instituted for consequential damages caused without force, is by action on the case. 3 East, 602; 1 Stran. 636; 5 T. R. 649; 5 Vin. Ab. 403; 1 Chit. Pl. 127 Kames on Eq. 71; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3484, et seq. Vide Immediate.
CONSERVATOR. A preserver, a protector.
2. Before the institution of the office of justices of the peace in England, the public order was maintained by officers who bore the name of conservators of the peace. All judges, justices, sheriffs and constables, are conservators of the peace, and are bound, ex officio, to be aiding and assisting in preserving older.
3. In Connecticut, this term is applied to designate a guardian who has the care of the estate of an idiot. 5 Conn. R. 280.
CONSIDERATIO CURLAE, practice. The judgment of the court. In pleadings where matters are determined by the court, it is said, therefore it is considered and adjudged by the court ideo consideratum est per curiam.
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CONSIDERATUM EST per curiam. It is considered by the court. This formula is used in giving judgments. A judgment is the decision or sentence of the law, given by a court of justice, as the result of proceedings instituted therein, for the redress of an injury. The language of the judgment is not, therefore, that " it is decreed," or " resolved," by the court; but that " it is considered by the court," consideratum est per curiam, that the plaintiff recover his debt, &c. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3298.
CONSIGNATION, contracts. In the civil law, it is a deposit which a debtor makes of the thing that he owes, into the hands of a third person, and under the authority of a court of justice. Poth. Oblig. P. 3, c. 1, art. 8.
2. Generally the consignation is made with a public officer it is very similar to our practice of paying money into court.
3. The term to consign, or consignation, is derived from the Latin consignare, which signifies to seal, for it was formerly the practice to seal up the money thus received in a bag or box. Aso & Man. Inst. B. 2, t. 11, c. 1, 5. See Burge on Sur. 138.
CONSIGNEE, contracts. One to whom a consignment is made.
2. When the goods consigned to him are his own, and they have been ordered to be sent, they are at his risk the moment the consignment is made according to his direction; and the persons employed in the transmission of the goods are his agents. 1 Liverm. on Ag, 9. When the goods are not his own, if he accept the consignment, he is bound to pursue the instructions of the consignor; as if the goods be consigned upon condition that the consignee will accept the consignor's bills, he is bound to accept them; Id. 139; or if he is directed to insure, he must do so. Id. 325.
3. It is usual in bills of lading to state that the goods are to be delivered to the consignee or his assigns, he or they paying freight; in such case the consignee or his assigns, by accepting the goods, by implication, become bound to pay the freight, Abbott on Sh. p. 3, c. 7, 4; 3 Bing. R, 383.
4. When a person acts, publicly as a consignee, there is an implied engagement on his part that he will be vigilant in receiving goods consigned to his care, so as to make him responsible for any loss which the owner may sustain in consequence of his neglect. 9 Watts & Serg. 62.
CONSIGINMENT. The goods or property sent by a common carrier from one or more persons called the consignors, from one place, to one or more persons, called the consignees, who are in another. By this term ig also understood the goods sent by one person to another, to be sold or disposed of by the latter for and on account of the former.
CONSIGNOR, contracts. One who makes a consignment to another.
2. When goods are consigned to be sold on commission, and the property remains in the consignor; or when goods have been consigned upon a credit, and the consignee has become a bankrupt or failed, the consignor has a right to stop them in transitu. (q. v.) Abbot on Sh. p. 3, c.
3. The consignor is generally liable for the freight or the hire for the carriage of goods. 1 T. R. 6 5 9.
CONSILIUM, or dies consilii, practice. A time allowed for the accused to make his defence, and now more commonly used for a day appointed to argue a demurrer. In civil cases, it is a special day appointed for the purpose of hearing an argument. Jer. Eq. Jur. 296; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3753.
CONSIMILI CASU. These words occur in the Stat. West. 21 C. 24, 13 Ed. 1. wbich gave authority to the clerks in chancery to form new writs in consimili casu simili remedio indigente sicut prius fit breve. In execution of the powers granted by this statute, many new writs were formed by the clerk's in chancery, especially in real actions, as writs of quod permittat prosternere, against the alienee of land after the erection of a nuisance thereon, according to the analogy of the assize of nuisance, writs of juris utrum, c. &c. In respect to personal actions, it has, long been the practice to issue writs in consimili casu, in the most general form, e. g. in trespass on the case upon promises, leaving it to the plaintiff to state fully, and at large, his case inthe declaration the sufficiency of which in point of law is always a question for the court to consider upon the pleadings and evidence. See Willes, Rep. 580; 2 Lord Ray. 957; 2 Durnf. & East, 51; 2 Wils. 146 17 Serg. & R.. 195; 3 Bl. Com. 51 7 Co. 4; F. N. B. 206; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3482.
CONSISTENT. That which agrees with something else; as a consistent condition, which is one which agrees with all other parts of a contract, or which can be reconciled with every other part. 1 Bouv. Just. n. 752,
CONSISTORY, ecclesiastical law. An assembly of cardinals convoked by the pope. The consistory is public or secret. It is vublic, when the pope receives princes or gives audience to ambassadors; secret, when he fills vacant sees, proceeds to the canonization of saints, or judges and settles certain contestations submitted to him.
2. A court which was formerly held among protestants, in which the bishop presided, assisted by some of his clergy, also bears this name. It is now held in England, by the bishop's chancellor or commissary, and some other ecclesiastical officers, either in the cathedral, church, or other place in his diocese, for the determination of ecclesiastical cases arising in that diocese. Merl. Rep. h. t.; Burns' Dict. h. t.
CONSOLATO DEL MARE, (IL). The name of a code of sea laws compiled by order of the ancient kings of Aragon. Its date is not very certain, but it was adopted on the continent of Europe, as the code of maritime law, in the course of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. It comprised the ancient ordinances of the Greek and Roman emperors, and of the kings of France and Spain; and the laws of the Mediterranean islands, and of Venice and Genoa. It was originally written in the dialect of Catalonia, as its title plainly indicates, and it has been translated into every language of Europe. This code has been reprinted in the second volume of the " Collection de Lois Maritimes Anterieures au XVIII. Siecle, par J. M. Pardessus, (Paris, 1831)." A collection of sea laws, which is very complete.
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CONSOLS, Eng. law. This is an abbreviation for consolidated annuities. Formerly when a loan was made, authorized by government, a particular part of the revenue was appropriated for the payment of the interest and of the principal. This was called the fund, and every loan had its fund. In this manner the Aggregate fund originated in 1715; the South Sea fund, in 1717; the General fund, 1617 and the Sinking fund, into which the surplus of these three funds flowed, which, although destined for the diminution of the national debt, was applied to the necessities of the government. These four funds were consolidated into one in the year 1787, under the name of consolidated fund.
2. The income arises from the receipts on account of excise, customs, stamps, and other, perpetual taxes. The charges on it are the interest on and the redemption of the public debt; the civil list; the salaries of the judges and officers of state, and the like.
3. The annual grants on account of the army and navy, and every part of the revenue which is considered temporary, are excluded from this fund. 4. Those persons who lent the money to the government, or their assigns, are entitled to an annuity of three per cent on the amount lent, which, however, is not to be returned, except at the option of the government so that the holders of consols are simply annuitants.
CONSORT. A man or woman married. The man is the consort of his wife, the woman is the consort of her husband.
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CONSTABLEWICK. In England, by this word is meant the territorial jurisdiction of a constable. 5 Nev. & M. 261.
CONSTAT, English law. The name of a certificate, which the clerk of the pipe and auditors of the exchequer make at the request of any person who intends to plead or move in the court for the discharge of anything; and the effect of it is, the certifying what constat (appears) upon record touching the matter in question.
2. A constat is held to be superior to an ordinary certificate, because it contains nothing but what is on record. An exemplification under the great seal, of the enrolment of any letters-patent, is called a constat. Co. Litt. 225. Vide Exemplification; Inspeximus.
3. Whenever an officer gives a certificate that such a thing appears of record, it is called a constat; because the officer does not say that the fact is so, but it appears to be as he certifies. A certificate that it appears to the officer that a judgment has been entered, &c., is insufficient. 1 Hayw. 410.
CONSTITUENT. He who gives authority to another to act for him. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 893.
2. The constituent is bound with whatever his attorney does by virtue of his authority. The electors of a member of the legislature are his constituents, to whom he is responsible for his legislative acts.
CONSTITUIMUS. A Latin word which signifies we constitute. Whenever the king of England is vested with the right of creating a new office, he must use proper words to do so, for example, erigimus, constituimus, c . Bac. Ab. Offices, &c. E.
TO CONSTITUTE, contr. To empower, to authorize. In the common form of letters of attorney, these words occur, I nominate, constitute and appoint."
CONSTITUTED AUTHORITIES. Those powers which the constitution of each people has established to govern them, to cause their rights to be respected, and to maintain tliose of eacli of its members.
2. They arc called constituted, to distinguish them from the constituting authority which has created or organized them, or has delegated to an authority, which it has itself created, the right of establishing or regulating their movements. The officers appointed under the constitution are also collectively called the constituted authorities. Dall. Dict. mots Contrainte par corps, n. 526.

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