Feb 22, 2012

U.S. Law Dictionary (C) continued

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CONSTITUTIONAL. That which is consonant to, and agrees with the constitu- tion.
2. When laws are made in violation of the constitution, they are null and void: but the courts will not declare such a law void unless there appears to be a clear and unequivocal breach of the constitution. 4 Dall. R. 14; 3 Dall. R. 399; 1 Cranch, R. 137; 1 Binn. R. 415 6 Cranch, R. 87, 136; 2 Hall's Law Journ. 96, 255, 262; 3 Hall's Law Journ. 267; Wheat. Dig. tit. Constitutional Law; 2 Pet. R. 522; 2 Dall. 309; 12 Wheat. R. 270; Charlt. R. 175, .235; 1 Breese, R. 70, 209; 1 Blackf. R. 206 2 Porter, R. 303; 5 Binn. 355; 3 S. & R. 169; 2 Penn. R. 184; 19 John. R. 58; 1 Cowen, R. 550; 1 Marsb. R. 290 Pr. Dec. 64, 89 2 Litt. R. 90; 4 Monr R. 43; 1 South. R. 192; 7 Pick. R. 466; 13 Pick. R. 60 11 Mass. R. 396; 9 Greenl. R. 60; 5 Hayw. R. 271; 1 Harr. & J. 236; 1 Gill & J. 473; 7 Gill & J. 7; 9 Yerg. 490; 1 Rep. Const. Ct. 267; 3 Desaus. R. 476; 6 Rand. 245; 1 Chip. R. 237, 257; 1 Aik. R. 314; 3 N. H. Rep. 473; 4 N. H. Rep. 16; 7 N. H. Rep. 65; 1 Murph. R. 58. See 8 Law Intell. 65, for a list of decisions made by the supreme court of the United States, declaring laws to be unconstitutional.
CONSTITUTOR, civil law. He who promised by a simple pact to pay the debt of another; and this is always a principal obligation. Inst. 4, 6, 9.
CONSTRAINT. In the civil and Scottish law, by this term is understood what, in the common law, is known by the name of duress.
2. It is a general rule, that when one is compelled into a contract, there is no effectual consent, thougb, ostensibly, there is the form of it. In such case the contract will be declared void.
3. The constraint requisite thus to annul a contract, must be a vis aut me us qui cadet in constantem virum, such as would shake a man of firmness and resolution. 3 Ersk. 1, 16; and 4, 1, 26; 1 Bell's Conn. B. 3, part 1, o. 1, s. 1, art. 1, page 295.
CONSTRUCTION, practice. It is defined by Mr. Powell to be "the drawing in inference by the act of reason, as to the intent of an instrument, from given circumstances, upon principles deduced from men's general motives, conduct and action." This definition may, perbaps, not be sufficiently complete, inasmuch as the term instrument generally implies something reduced into writing, whereas construction, is equally necessary to ascertain the meaning of engagements merely verbal. In other respects it appears to be perfectly accurate. The Treatise of Equity, defines interpretation to be the collection of the meaning out of signs the most probable. 1 Powell on Con . 370.
2. There are two kinds of constructions; the first, is literal or strict; this is uniformly the construction given to penal statutes. 1 Bl. Com. 88; 6 Watt's & Serg. 276; 3 Taunt. 377. 2d. The other is liberal, and applied, usually, to remedial laws, in order to enforce them according to their spirit.
3. In the supreme court of the United States, the rule which has been uniformly observed " in construing statutes, is to adopt the construction made by the courts of the country by whose legislature the statute was enacted. This rule may be susceptible of some modification when applied to British statutes which are adopted in any of these states. By adopting them, they become our own, as entirely as if they had been enacted by the legislature of the state.
4. The received construction, in England, at the time they are admitted to operate in this couutry - indeed, to the time of our separation from the British empire - may very properly be considered as accompanying the statutes themselves, and forming an integral part of them. But, however we may respect the subsequent decisions (and certainly they are entitled to great respect,) we do not admit their absolute authority. If the English courts vary their construction of a statute, which is common to the two countries, we do not hold ourselves bound to fluctuate with them. 5 Pet. R. 280.
5. The great object which the law has in all cases, in contemplation, as furnishing the leading principle of the rules to be observed in the construction of contracts, is, that justice is to be done between the parties, by enforcing the performance of their agreement, according to the sense in which it was mutually understood and relied upon at the time of making it.
6. When the contract is in writing, the difficulty lies only in the construction of the words; when it is to be made out by parol testimony, that difficulty is augmented by the possible mistakes of the witnesses as to the words used by the parties; but still, when the evidence is received, it must be assumed as correct, when a construction is to be put upon it. The following are the principal rules to be observed in the construction of contracts. When. the words used are of precise and unambiguous meaning, leading to no absurdity, that meaning is to be taken as conveying the intention of the parties. But should there be manifest absurdity in the application of such meaning, to the particular occasion, this will let in construction to discover the true intention of the parties: for example; 1st. When words are manifestly inconsistent with the declared purpose and object of the contract, they will be rejected; as if, in a contract of sale, the price of the thing sold should be acknowledged as received, while the obligation of the seller was not to deliver the commodity. 2 Atk. R. 32. 2d. When words are omitted so as to defeat the effect of the contract, they will be supplied by the obvious sense and inference from the context; as, if the contract stated that the seller, for the consideration of one hundred dollars, sold a horse, and the buyer promised to pay him for the said horse one hundred, the word dollars would be supplied. 1 3d. When the words, taken in one sense, go to defeat the contract, while they are susceptible of another construction which will give effect to the design of the parties, and not destroy it, the latter will be preferred. Cowp. 714.
8. - 2. The plain, ordinary, and popular sense of the words, is to be preferred to the more unusual, etymological, and recondite meaning or even to the literal, and strictly grammatical construction of the words, where these last would lead to any inefficacy or inconsistency.
9. - 3. When a peculiar meaning has been stamped upon the words by the usage of a particular trade or place in which the contract occurs, such technical or peculiar meaning will prevail. 4 East, R. 135. It is as if the parties in framing their contract had made use of a foreign language, which the court is not bound to understand, but which on evidence of its import, must be applied. 7 Taunt. R. 272; 1 Stark. R. 504. But the expression so made technical and appropriate, and the usage by which it has become so, must be so clear that the court cannot entertain a doubt upon the subject. 2 Bos. & P. 164; 3 Stark. Ev. 1036: 6 T. R. 320. Technical words are to be taken according to their approved and known use in the trade in which the contract is entered into, or to wbich it relates, unless they have manifestly been understood in another sense by the parties. Vide 16 Serg. & R. 126.
10. - 4. The place where a contract has been made, is a most material consideration in its construction. Generally its validity is to be decided by the law of the place where it is made; if valid there, it is considered valid every where. 2 Mass. R. 88; 1 Pet. R. 317 Story, Confl. of Laws, 2; 4 Cowen's R. 410, note; 2 Kent, p. 39, 457, in the notes 3 Conn. R. 253 , 472; 4 Conn. R. 517. Its construction is to be according to the laws of the place where it is made for example, where a note was given in China, payable eighteen months after date, without any stipulation as to the amount of interest, the court allowed the Chinese interest of one per centum per month from the expiration of the eighteen mouths. 1 Wash. C. C. R. 253 see 12. Mass. R. 4, and the article Interest for noney.
11. - 5. Previous conversations, and all that passes in the course of correspondence or negotiation leading to the contract, are entirely superseded by the written agreement. The parties having agreed to reduce the terms of their contract to writing, the document is constituted as the only true and final exposition of their admissions and intentions; and nothing which does not appear in the written agreement will be considered as a part of the contract. 5 Co. R. 26; 2 B. & C. 634; 4 Taunt. R. 779. But this rule admits of some exceptions; as, where a declaration is made before a deed is executed, showing the design with which it was to be executed, in cases of frauds; 1 S. & R. 464; 10 S. & R. 292; and trusts, though no trust was declared in the writing. 1 Dall. R. 426; 7 S. & R. 114.
12. - 6. All contracts made in general terms, in the ordinary course of trade, are presumed to incorporate the usage and custom of the trade to which they relate. The parties are presumed to know such usages, and not to intend to exclude them. But when there is a special stipulation in opposition to, or inconsistent with the custom, that will of course prevail. Holt's R. 95.
13. - 7 . When there is an ambiguity which impedes the execution of the contract, it is first, if possible, to be resolved, on a view of the whole contract or instrument, aided by the admitted views of the parties, and, if indispensable, parol evidence may be admitted to clear it, consistently with the words. 1 Dall. R. 426; 4 Dall. R. 34 0; 8 S. & R. 609.
14. - 8. When the words cannot be reconciled with any practicable or consistent interpretation, they are to be considered as not made use of " perinde sunt ac si scripts non essent."
15. It is the duty of the court to give a construction to all written instruments; 3 Binn. R. 337; 7 S. & R. 372; 15 S. & R. 100 4 S. & R. 279 8 S. & R. 381; 1 Watts. R. 425; 10 Mass. R. 384; 3 Cranch, R. 180 3 Rand. R. 586 to written evidence 2 Watts, R. 347 and to foreign laws, 1 Penna. R. 388. For general rules respecting the construction of contracts, see 2 Bl. Com. 379; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 658, 669; 2 Com. on Cont. 23 to 28 3 Chit. Com. Law, 106 to 118 Poth. Oblig. P. 1, c. 1, art. 7; 2 Evans' Poth. Ob. 35; Long on Sales, 106; 1 Fonb. Eq. 145, n. b Id. 440, n. 1; Whart. Dig. Contract, F; 1 Powell on Contr. 370 Shepp. Touchst. c. 5 Louis. Code, art. 1940 to 1957; Corn. Dig. Merchant, (E 2,) n. j.; 8 Com. Dig. tit. Contract, iv.; Lilly's Reg. 794; 18 Vin. Abr. 272, tit. Reference to Words; 16 Vin. Abr. 199, tit. Parols; Hall's Dig. 33, 339; 1 Ves. Jun. 210, n.; Vattel, B. 2, c. 17; Chit. Contr. 19 to 22; 4 Kent. Com. 419; Story's Const. 397-456; Ayl. Pa d. B. 1, t. 4; Rutherf. Inst. B. 2, c. 7, 4-11; 20 Pick. 150; 1 Bell's Com. 5th ed. 431; and the articles, Communings; Evidence; Interpretation; Parol; Pourparler. As to the construction of wills, see 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 21, 39, 56, 63, 228, 260, 273, 275, 364, 399; 1 United States Law Journ. 583; 2 Fonb. Eq. 309; Com. Dig. Estates by Devise. N 1; 6 Cruise's Dig. 171 Whart. Dig. Wills, D. As to the construction, of Laws, see Louis. Code, art. 13 to 21; Bac. Ab. Statutes, J; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 86-90; 3 Bin. 858; 4 Bin . 169, 172; 2 S. & R. 195; 2 Bin. 347 Rob. Digest, Brit. Stat. 370; 7 Term. Rep. 8 2 Inst. 11, 136; 3 Bin. 284-5; 3 S. & R. 129; 1 Peere Wms. 207; 3 Burr. Rep. 1755-6; 3 Yeates, 108; 11 Co. 56, b; 1 Jones 26; 3 Yeates, 113 117, 118, 120; Dwarris on Statutes.
16. The following words and phrases have received judicial construction in the cases referred to. The references may be useful to the student and convenient to the practitioner.
A and his associates. 2 Nott.& M'Cord, 400.
A B, agent. 1 Breese's R. 172.
A B, (seal) agent for C D. 1 Blackf. R. 242.
A case. 9 Wheat. 738.
A piece of land. Moor. 702; S. C. Owen, 18.
A place called the vestry. 3 Lev. R. 96; 2 Ld. Raym. 1471.
A slave set at liberty. 3 Conn. R. 467.
A true bill. I Meigs, 109.
A two penny bleeder. 3 Whart. R. 138.
Abbreviations. 4 C. & P. 51; S. C. 19 Engl. C. L. R. 268.
Abide. 6 N. H. Rep. 162.
About. 2 Barn. & Adol. 106; 22 E. C. L. R. 36; 5 Greenl. R. 482. See 4
    Greenl. 286. About _____ dollars. 5 Serg. & Rawles, 402. About $150. 9
    Shep. 121.
Absolute disposal. 2 Eden, 87; 1 Bro. P. C. 476; 2 Johns. R. 391; 12 Johns.
    R. 389.
Absolutely. 2 Pa. St. R. 133.
Accept. 4 Gill & Johns. 5, 129
Acceptance. There is your bill, it is all right. 1 Esp. 17. If you will
    send it to the counting-house again, I will give directions for its being
    accepted. 3 Camp. 179. What, not accepted ? We have had the money, and they
    ought to have been paid; but I do not interfere; you should see my partner.
    3 Bing. R. 625; S. C. 13 Eng. C. L. R. 78. The bill shall be duly honored,
    and placed to the drawer's credit. 1 Atk. 611. Vide Leigh's N. P. 420.
Accepted. 2 Hill, R. 582.
According to the bill delivered by the plaintiff to the defendant. 3 T. R. 575.
According to their discretion. 5 Co. 100; 8 How,. St. Tr. 55 n.
Account. 5 Cowen, 587, 593. Account closed. 8 Pick. 191. Account stated. 8
    Pick. 193. Account dealings. 5 Mann. & Gr. 392, 398.
Account and risk. 4 East, R. 211; Holt on Sh. 376.
Accounts. 2 Conn. R. 433.
Across. 1 Fairf. 391.
Across a country. 3 Mann. & Gr. 759.
Act of God. 1 Cranch, 345; 22 E. C. L. R. 36; 12 Johns. R. 44; 4 Add. Eccl.
    R. 490.
Acts. Platt on Cov. 334.
Actual cost. 2 Mason, R. 48, 393, 2 Story's C. C. R. 422.
Actual damagei. 1 Gall. R. 429.
Adhere. 4 Mod. 153.
Adjacent. Cooke, 129.
Adjoining. 1 Turn. R. 21.
Administer. 1 Litt. R. 93, 100.
Ad tunc et indem. I Ld. Raym. 576.
Advantage, priority or preference. 4 W. C. C. R. 447.
Adverse possession. 3 Watts, 70, 77, 205, 345; 3 Penna. R. 134; 2 Rawle's
    R. 305; 17 Serg. & Rawle, 104; 2 Penna. R. 183; 3 Wend. 337, 357; 4 Wend.
    507; 7 Wend. 62; 8 Wend. 440; 9 Wend. 523; 15 Wend. 597; 4 Paige, 178; 2
    Gill & John. 173; 6 Pet. R. 61, 291 11 Pet. R. 41; 4 Verm. 155; 14 Pick.
Advice. As per advice. Chit. Bills, 185.
Affecting. 9 Wheat. 855.
Aforesaid. Ld. Baym. 256; Id. 405.
After paying debts. 1 Ves. jr. 440; 3 Ves. 738; 2 Johns. Ch. R. 614; 1 Bro.
    C. C. 34; 2 Sch. & Lef. 188.
Afterwards to wit. 1 Chit. Cr. Laws, 174.
Against all risks. 1 John. Cas. 337.
Aged, impotent, and poor people. Preamble to Stat. 43 Eliz. c. 4; 17 Ves.
    @)73, in notes; Amb. 595; 7 Ves. 423; Scho. & Lef. 111; 1 P. Wims. 674; S.
    C. Eq. Cas. Ab. 192, pl. 9; 4 Vin. Ab. 485; 7 Ves. 98, note; 16 Ves. 206:
    Duke's Ch. Uses, by Bridgman, 361; 17 Ves. 371; Boyle on Charities, 31.
Agreed. 1 Roll's Ab. 519,
Agreement. 7 E. C. L. R. 331; 3 B. & B. 14; Fell on Guar. 262. Of a good
    quality and mode rate price. 1 Mo. & Malk. 483; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 363.
Aiding and abetting. Act of Congress of 1818, c. 86, 3; 12 Wheat. 460.
Aliments. Dig. 34, 1, 1.
All. 1 Vern. 3; 3 P. Wms. 56; 1 Vern. 341; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t. All
    debts due to me.; 1 Meriv. 541, n.; 3 Meriv. 434. All I am worth. 1 Bro. C.
    C. 487; 8 Ves. 604. All I am possessed of. 5 Ves. 816. All my clothes and
    linen whatsoever. 3 Bro. C. C. 311. All my household goods and furniture,
    except my plate and watch. 2 Munf. 234. All my estate. Cows, 299; 9 Ves.
    604. All my real property. 18 Ves. 193. All my freehold lands. 6 Ves. 642.
All and every other my lands, tenements, and hereditaments. 8 Ves. 256; 2
    Mass. 56; 2 Caines' R. 345; 4 Johns. R. 398. All the inhabitants. 2 Conn.
     R. 20. All sorts of. 1 Holt's N. P. R. 69. All business. 8 Wendell. 498; 23
    E. C. L. R. 398; 1 Taunt. R. 349; 7 B. & Cr. 278, 283, 284. All claims and
    demands whatsoever. 1 Edw. Ch. R. 34. All baggage is at the owner's risk.
    13 Wend. R. 611; 5 Rawle's R. 179; 1 Pick. R. 53; 3 Fairf R. 422; 4 Har. &
   John. 317. All civil suits. 4 S. & R. 76. All demands. 2 Caines' R. 320,
    327; 15 John R. 197; 1 Ld. Raym. 114. All lots I own in the town of F. 4
    Bibb, R, 288. All the buildings thereon. 4 Mass. R. 110; 7 John. R. 217.
All my rents. Cro. Jac. 104. All I am worth. 1 Bro. C. C. 437. All and
every other my lands, tenements, and hereditaments. 8 Ves. 246; 2 Mass. 56;
    2 Caines' R. 345; 4 John. Ch. 388.
All other articles perishable in their own nature. 7 Cowen, 202.
All and every. Ward on Leg. 105; Cox, R. 213.
All minerals, or magnesia of any kind. 5 Watts, 34.
All my notes. 2 Dev. Eq. R. 489.
All that I possess, in doors and out of doors. 3 Hawks, R. 74.
All timber trees and other trees, but not the annual fruit thereof. 8 D. &
    R. 657; S. ic. 5 B. & C, R. 942.
All two lots. 7 Gill & Johns. 227.
All action. 5 Binn. 457.
Also. 4 Rawle, R. 69; 2 Bayw. 161
Amongst. 9 Ves. 445; 9 Wheat. R. 164; 6 Munf. 352.
And, construed or. 3 Ves. 450; 7 Ves. 454; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 435; 2 Supp.
    to Ves. jr. 9, 43, 114; 1 Yeates, 41, 319; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 141. Vide
    Disjunction, Or.
And all the buildings thereon. 4 Mass. R. 110; 7 John R. 217.
And also. 1 Hayw. 161.
And so on, from year to year, until the tenancy hereby created shall be
    determined as hereinafter mentioned. 1 P. & D. 454; and see 2 Campb. R.
    573; 3 Campb. 510; 1 T. R. 378.
And the plaintiff doth the like. 1 Breese's R. 125.
Annual interest. 16 Verm. 44.
Annually, or in any way he may wish. 2 M'Cord's Ch. R. 281.
Any person or persons. 11 Wheat. R. 392; 3 Wheat. R. 631.
Any court of record. 6 Co. 19.
Any goods. 3 Campb. 321.
Any creditor. 5 B. & A. 869.
Any other fund. 1 Colly. R. 693.
Any other matter or thing from the beginning of the world. 4 Mason, 227.
Apartment. 10 Pick. 293.
Apparel. Goods and wearing apparel, in a will. 3 Atk. 61.
    apparatus. 9 Law Rep. 207.
Appeals. 1 Breese's R. 261.
Appear. 2 Bailey's R. 513.
Appellate. 1 Breese's R. 261
Appropriation. 1 Scam. R. 344.
Approved paper. 4 Serg. & Rawle, 1; 20 Wend. R. 431; 2 Campb. 532.
Appurtenances. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 169; 8 Johns. R. 47, 2d edit.; Com. Dig.
    Grant, E 9; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 110; Holt on Shipp. 404; 9 Pick. 293; 7 Mass.
    6; 12 Pick. 436.
Are. 2 B. & B. 223.
Arrears. Ward on Leg. 219; 2 Ves. 430.
Arrive. 17 Mass. 188.
Articles perishable in their own nature. 7 Cowen, 202.
As appears by the bond or by the books. 1 Wils. 339, 279, 121; 2 Str. 1157,
    1209, 1219.
As appears by the master's allocator. 2 T. R. 55.
As executors are bound in law to do. 2 Ohio R. 346.
As follows. 1 Chit. Cr. Law 233.
As this deponent believes. 2 M. & S. 563.
Ass. 2 Moody, C. C. 3.
Asses-Cattle. 1 R. & M. C. C. 3; 2 Russ. Cr. & M. 498.
Assent to. 4 Gill & Johns. 5, 129.
Assignment, actual or potential. 5 M. & S. 228.
Assings. 5 Co. 77 b.
At. 2 Caines' Err. 158.
At and from. 1 Marsh. Ins. 358, 261, a; 1 Caines' R. 75, 79; 1 New Rep. 23;
    4 East, R. 130.
At any port or places. 1 Marsh. Ins. 191.
At his will. Roll's Ab. 845; Bac. Ab. Estate for life and occupancy, A.
At least. 8 W. & S. 470.
At such time and manner. 19 Ves. 387.
At twenty-one. Payable at twenty-one. 6 Ves. 245.; 7 ves. 412; 9 Ves. 225;
    1 Bro. C. C. 91.
At the trial of the cause. 9 E. C. L. R. 202, 186.
At the wholesale factory price. 2 Conn. R. 69.
Attention, shall meet. 3 E. C. L. R. 407; 13 Id. 329.
Attest. 9 Mees. & W. 404.
Authority - Jurisdiction. 2 Bl. R. 1141.
Baggage. 6 Hill, N.Y. 586.
Baggage of Passengers at the risk of the owners. 19 Wend. 234, 251; 21
    Wend. 153; 26 Wend. 591; 17 Verm. 151.
Bank money. 5 Humph. R. 140.
Bank notes. 5 Mason's R. 549; 6 Wend. 346, 354.
Bankruptcy. 6 T. R. 684.
Bar-keeper. 3 S. & R. 351.
Bargain and sell. 4 Monr. R. 463.
Barley. 4 C. & P. 548.
Barrels. 7 Cowen, R. 681.
Beans. Bac. Ab. Merchant, &c. I. 1 Mood. C. C. 323.
Bearing Interest. 1 Stark. r. 452; 2 E.C. L.R. 466.
Beast. 1 Russ. C. & M. 568; 1 Russ. on Cr. 568; Bac. Ab. Sodomy.
Beef. 6 W. & S. 279.
Before the next term. 1 Binn. 76; 4 Yeates, 511.
Before the first day of the term after the action has been commenced. 4
    Dall. 433.
Before the sitting of the court. 5 Mass. R. 197.
Beginning to keep house. 6 Bing. R. 363; 19 Ves. 543.
Begotten. To be begotten. Co. Litt. 20 b, and n. 3; 3 Leon. 5.
Belongs - Belonging. 3 Conn. R. 467; 2 Bing. 76; Chit. Pr. 475 n.; 11 Conn.
    R. 240; 1 Coxe's R. 255.
Believe. 2 Wend. 298.
Belong. 3 Conn. R. 467.
Benefits of my real estate, construed, 4 Yates, 23.
Benevolent purposes. 3 Mer. 17; Amb. 585, n. (Blunt's Edit.)
Best of his knowledge and belief. 1 Paige, 404; 3 Id. 107, 212.
Between. 2 Saund. 158 b. n. 6; 1 Shipl. R. 201; 1 Mass. 91.
Between them. 2 Mer. R. 70.
Beyond sea. 3 Wheat. R. 541; 3 Cranch, R. 177; 14 Pet. C. 141; I Harr. &
    McHen. 89; 1 Har. & J. 350; 2 McCord, R. 331; 3 Mass. R. 271; 1 Pick. R.
    263; 9 Serg. & Rawle, 288; 2 Dall. 217; 1 Yeates, 329. Vide Beyond 8ea, in
    the body of the work.
Beyond seas. 3 Wheat. 343; 9 S. & R. 291.
Bien. 2 Ves. 163.
Big. 2 Dev. R. 115.
Blubber. 1 Story, R. 603.
Board, boarding. 2 Miles, R. 323.
Bag. Cro. Car. 511.
Boiler. Wright, 143.
Book. 2 Campb. 25, 28, n.; 11 East, 244.
Book debt-Book entries. 2 Miles, R. 101, 102; 3 Ired. R. 77, 443; 4 Ired. 110.
Bona fide. 1 Leigh. N. P. 326.
Boons. Sugd. Pow. 633, 671.
Bound by surety. 5 Serg. & Rawle, 329.
Bound with surety, 6 Binn. 53.
Bounded on the margin. 6 Cowen, 526.
Bounded on the road. 13 Mass. 259.
Breach of good-behaviour. 2 Mart. N. S. 683.
Brick factory. 21 Pick. R. 25.
Building. 16 John. R. 14; 13 John. R. 346; 9 Bing. 305; 5 Mann. & Gr. 9, 33.
Business. 1 M. & Selw. 95.
Butcher. 1 Barn. & A. 617; 6 Watts & Serg. 269, 277.
By act and operalion of law. 3 Caines' R. 64.
By surety. 5 Serg. & Rawle, 329.
By a certain time. Penna. R. 48.
By any other means. 2 Co. 46
By virtue of his office. 3 E. C. L. R. 425.
By a stream. 3 Sumn. R. 170.
By next November. 3 Pa. 48.
By the year. 2 Miles, R. 302.
Cabinet of curiosities. 1 Cox, R. 77; 1 Bro. C. C. 467.
Came by descent, gift, or devise. 2 Pet. 58.
Cargo. 4 Pick. 433; 2 Gill & John. 134, 162.
Case-suit. 2 Murph. 320.
Catchings. 1 Story, R. 603.
Cattle. 1 R. & M. C. C. 3; 2 Russ. C. & M. 498; R. & R. C. C. 77; 2 East,
    P. C. 1074; 1 Leach, C, C. 72; 2 W. Black. 721; 2 Moody, C: C. 3.
Cause. 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 510.
Cause of action. Wilk. on Lim. [49).
Cease. Coop. Ch. R. 14.5.
Cede. 1 liar. (N. J.) 181.
Certificate of deposit. 6 Watts & Sero,. 227.
Chamber or rooms. 3 Leon. 210.
Chambres. 5 Watts, R. 243,
Charged in execution. 4 T. R. 367.
Charges, costs, and expenses, 2 Wils. 267; 13 Serg. & Rawle, 79.
Charitable uses. Boyle on Charities, 281; 7 Ves. 79; 1 Mer. 86, 92, 93; 1
    Sim. & Stu. 69; 1 Myl. & Craig, 286; 4 Wheat. App. p. 6.
Charity. 9 Ves. 399.,
Cheat. 2 Hale's Hist. P. C. 183: Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 3.
Chiefest and discreetest. 13 Ves. 13.
Child, grandchild, issue, son; see Legatee; 1 Ves. 290; Id. 335; Ambl. 397;
    Id. 701; 5 Burr. 2703; Cowp. 314; 3 Anstr. 684; Lofft, 19; 7 T. R. 322; 1
    East, 120; 2 Eden, 194; 2 Bro. C. C. 33: 2 Ves. jr. 673; 3 Ves. 232; Id.
    421; 4 Ves. 437; Id. 692; 5 Ves. 530; 6 Ves. 43, Id. 345; 7 Ves. 522; 10
    Ves. 160, Id. 176; Id. 195; 13 Ves. 340; 1 Cox, 248; Id. 327; 2 Cox, 184; 1
    Ves. & Bea. 422, 462, 469; 2 Ves. & Bea. 213; 3 Ves. & Bea. 59, 67, 69,
    113; 1 Meriv. 654; 2 Meriv. 382; Dick. 344; 1 Eden, 64; 1 Bro. C. C. 530; 2
    Bro. C. C. 68, 230, 658; 3 Bro. C. C. 148, 347, 352, 434: 1 Bro. C. C. 55;
    19 Ves. 125; 1 Ball & B. 486; Com. Dig. App., Devise of real property, x.
    5, 6, 7, 8, 9; Id. Devise of personal property, viii. 13.
Child's part. 2 Roll. R. 104; Poph. 148; 1 Roll. R. 193; Cro. Jac. 417.
Children. 3 Paige, 10; 5 Ves. 530; 1 Ves. & Bea. 434; 4 Eng. Ch. R. 565; 5
Conn. R. 228.
    To such child or children, if more than one, as may happen to be enceinte
    by me. 17 Ves. 528.
    To the children which I may have by A, living at my decease. 1 Ves. & Bea. 422.
Chromate of iron. 5 Watts, 34.
Civil action. 6 Binn. 5; 1 Binn. 197.
Civil suit. 4 S. & R. 76.
Chuck-a-luck. 3 J. J. Marsh. 133.
Claim. 16 Pet. 538, 575, 576, 604, 615.
Clear. Ambl. 273; 2 Ves. 500. Ward on Leg. 222; 2 Atk. 376.
Clear of all charges and assessments whatever. 4 Yeates, 386.
Clear deed. 3 W. & S. 563, 565.
Closing an account. 7 Serg. & Rawle, 128; 8 Pick. 187.
Clothes. All my clothes and linen whatsoever. 3 Bro. C. C. 311.
Coal mine. Cro. Jac. 150; Noy, 121; Gilb. Ej. 61, 2d ed.; Rosc. R. Act. 486.
Coasting trade. 3 Cowen, R. 713,
Coffer. 2 Hale's Hist. P. C. 3; Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 3.
Cohabitation. 1 Add. R. 476; 3 Add. R. 277; 2 Tyrw. 76; 2 Cr. & J. 66;
    Rogers' Eccl. Law, tit. Marriage.
Collateral. Sugd. Pow. 76.
Collectable. 8 Watts, R. 361.
Come to. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 224; 2 Pet. R. 69, 94.
Commenced. 14 East, 539.
Commerce - Navigation. 9 Wheat. 1.
Commission and guaranty. 3 Whart. 288.
Commit. 3 Man. Gr. & Scott, 465, 477.
Commit suicide. 3 Man. Gr. & Scott, 477.
Commodities. 12 Mass 256.
Common law. 3 Pet. 447; 1 Gall. R. 19.
Complete Steam engine. 2 Hall, 3128.
Concealed. 12 Wheat. 493; 12 Wheat. R. 486.
Conclusive. 5 Binn. 387; 6 Binn. 128; 4 Yeates, 551.
Conditions performed. 1 Call. 567.
Confidence. Boyle on Char. 319; 2 Pa. St. R. 133.
Consent-Submission. 9 C. & P. 722.
Consentable lines. 10 Serg. & Rawles 110.
Construction. 3 Mont. 166.
Containing. 1 Murph. 348.
Contents unknown. 3 Taunt. R. 303.
Contrary to law. 1 Blackf. R. 318.
Convenieid speed, or as soon as convenient. 19 Ves. 336, 390, notes; 1 Ves.
    jr. 366.
Convey. 3 A. K. Marsh, 618.
Conveyance. 2 Serg. & Rawle, 498; 3 Mass. 487.
Convicted. 1 Wheat. 461; 15 East, R. 570; 7 Mann. & Gr. 481, 508.
Copper-fastened. 24 E. C. L. IR. 415.
Coppered, ship. 8 Pet. 557.
Corrupt. 1 Benth. Ev. 351.
Correcting-revising. 2 Shepl. 205.
Cost. 2 Wash. C. C. R. 498.
Costs. Wright, 121. Pay his own costs. 1 Hayw. 485.
Cotton in bales. 2 C. & P. 525.
Counly aforesaid. 2 Bl. R. 847.
Court of record. 5 Ohio R. 546. Vide 3 Wend. 267.
Cousins. 2 Bro. R. 125; Ward on Leg. 121.
Covenants. Provided always, and it is agreed that the lessor shall find
    great timber, Bac. Ab Covenant, A. I oblige myself to pay so much money.
    Hard. 178. I am content to give A ten pounds at Michaelmas, and ten pounds
    at Ladyday. 3 Leon. 119. With usual covenants. 15 Ves. 528; 3 Anstr. 700.
Covenants Performed absque hoc. 6 Penn. St. Rep. 398.
Credible. Com. R. 91; S. C. 1 Freem. 510.
Credible witness. 5 Mass. 219; 12 Mass. 358; 17 Pick. 134; 2 Bailey, R. 24;
     8 Conn. 254.
Credit. Mutual credit. 1 Atk. 228; 7 T. R. 378; Montag. on Set-off, 48; 8
   Taunt. 22; S. C. 4 Eng. Com. Law Rep. 4; 1 Marsh. R. 190; S. C. 4 Eng. C.
    L. 335.
Creditors and subsequent purchasers. 5  Cranch, 165.
Criminal proceeding. 2 Q. B. 1.
Cross. 5 Pick. 163.
Cruise of three months. 2 Gallis. 526.
Cultivation. 2 N. H. Rep. 56.
Curby hock. Oliph. on Horses, .10.
Currency. 1 Ohio R. 119.
Current money. 1 Dall. 126, 176.
Current rate of exchange to be added. 2 Miles, R. 442, 443.
Current lawful money. 1 Dall 175.
Current bank notes. 1 Hamm. R. 178. See also 1 Hamm. R. 531; 1 Breese, R.
    152; 3 Litt. R. 245; 19 John. R. 146; 1 Dall. 126, 176; 1 Ohio R. 119.
Current bank money. 5 Humph. R. 140.
Curricle. Anthon, 114.
Cutting. Russ. & Ry. Cr. Cas. 104.
Damages. 5 Cowen, 161.
Damna. Bac. Ab. Costs, (L.)
Dangerous weapon. 1 Baldw. 78.
Dangers of the navigation. 9 Watts, R. 87.
Date. Co. Litt. 46, b, note (8); Bulstr. n. 177; Stiles, 382; Com. Dig.
    Estates, G 8; Id. Bargain and Sale, B 8; Id. Temps, A; Vin. A.b. Estates, Z
    a; Id. Time, A.
Day. (fraction of,) 1 Cowen, 594; 6 Cowen, 611; I Nott & McC. 405; 3 Penna.
    R. 245.
Day of the date. Co. Litt. 46 b, note, (8); Powell on Powers, 498, et seq.
    to 533. Vide Dale, above.
Day time. 9 Mass. 154.
Days. Running days. Working days. 1 Bell's Com. 577, 5th ed.
Dealings. M. & M. 137; 3 C. & P. 85; S. C. 14 E. C. L. R. 219.
Death. Swanst. 161.
Debt, contracted. 2 B. & C. 762; 9 E. C. L. R. 236.
Debts due to me at my decease. 9 Sim. 16.
Debts now due. 3 Leigh, R. 389. See 4 Rawle, R. 307.
Declare. 3 Co. 82, b i Co. Litt. 76, a, 290, b; 3 T. R. 546.
Deed. A good and sufficient deed. Wright's R. 644.  A good and sufficient
    warranty deed. 15 Pick. R. 546.
Default. Platt on Cov. 335.
Definitive. 1 Watts, 257.
Delivered. 7 D. & R. 131; 16 E. C. L. R. 277.
Demands in full. 9 S. & R. 123.
Demise. 2 Caines' R. 188; 8 Cowan's R. 36; 4 Taunt. 329; 8 Mass. R. 201; 8
    Cowen, 36.
Depart (To). 3 M. & S. 461.
Depending. 5 Co. 47, 48; 7 Co. 30; 9 B. & C. 755; 4 Bing. 561; 8 B. & C. 635.
Deponent believes. 2 Str. 1209, 1226; 2 Burr. 655; 1 Wils. 231.
Descendants. 3 Bro. C. C. 367.
Descent. 2 Pet. R. 94; 1 S. & R. 224; 11 S. & R. 232.
Desire. 1 Caines' R. 84; 1 Bro. C. C. 489.
Deviation. 3 Ch. Com. L. 471.
Devise. All messuages, lands. 17 Ves. 64.
Devolve. 1 M. & K. 647.
Die by his own hands. 5 Mann. & Gr. 639.
Diligent inquiry. 1 Meigs, R. 70.
Discharge. Her receipt to be a sufficient discharge. 3 Bro. C. C. 362.
Discharge of all demands. Ward on Leo. 222; 2 Vern. 114, by Raithb.
Discount-Discounted. 15 Johns. 168; 8 Wheat. 338; 4 Yeates 223; 2 Cowen,
376; 19 Johns. 332.
Discounting. 5 Mann. & Gr. 590.
Disguring. Cheves, 157.
Disparagement. I lred. Eq. R. 232.
Dispose of. 1 Watts, 386; 3 Atk. 287; Rob. on Wills, 3, Appx. note 3; 14
Pet. R. 529.
Disposing mind and memory. 2 South. 454.
Distiller. Pet. C. C. R. 180; 2 Wheat. 248.
Distribute. 11 S. & R. 232.
Divide. Boyle on Charities, 291.
Division. 4 T. R. 224, 459.
Do the needful. 4 Esp. 65; 4 Esp. R. 66.
Doctor. 2 Campb. 441.
Domus. 4 Leon. 16.
Doth bargain and sell. 4 Mont. R. 463.
Down the said creek with the several meanders thereof. 2 Ohio R. 309.
Due. 3 Leigb, 389; 4 Rawle, 307.
Due A B. 2 Penn. R. 67.
Due A B $94 on demand. 5 Day, R. 337; and see 2 Cowen, R. 536.
Due course of law. 3 Cranch, 300; 5 Cranch, 363; 1 Wheat. 447.
Due security. Sax. Ch. R. 259.
Duly honored. 7 Taunt. 167; 2 E. C. L. R. 63; 7 Taunt. R. 164.
Dunce. Cro. Car. 382; 1 Roll. Ab. 55; Bac. Ab. Slander, I.
Dying without children. 5 Day, 617.
Dying by his own hands. 5 Mann. & Gr. 639.
Dying without issue. 12 East, 253; 3 East, 303, 491; 1 Ves. Jr. 562; 10
    Ves. 562; 17 Ves. 482.
Dying without lawful issue. 10 Johns. R. 12; 5 Day, 20; 2 Bro. C. C. 553.
Each. 1 B. & C. 682; 8 C. & R. 184; Watts, 51; 10 Serg. & R. 33.
Eadem. Co. Litt. 20 b.
Effects. 13 Ves. 39; 15 Ves. 326, 507; Cowp. 299; 1 Hill, S. C. 155.
Estates and effects. 1 Ves. & Beam. 406; 1 East. R. 53; 11 East, 290; Russ.
    & Ry. Cr. Cas. 66.
Emigrant laborers. 2 Man. & Gr. 574, 589; 40 E. C. L. R. 520, 528.
Ended. 10 S. & R. 391.
Engagement. 15 John. 395, 390.
Entreat. 2 Madd. 458; 2 Ves. & Bea. 378.
Equally. Cowp. 657; 3 Ves. 260; Dougl. 760; 9 East, 276.
Equally to be divided, this phrase construed. 1 Rop. Leg. 266; 1 Atk. 494;
    3 Bro. C. C. 25; 5 Ves. 510; Addis. 310; 3 S. & R. 135; 1 Wils. R. 341; 1
    Desaus. 329.
Erect. 8 Ves. 191; 3 Mad. R. 306; 2 Ves. 181; 2 Ves. 247; 1 Bro. C. C. 444;
    Amb. 751.
Erection. 9 Car. & P. 233.
Erection and improvements. 2 Man. & Gr. 756, 757; 40 E. C. L. R. 612.
Errors excepted. Gow an Partn. 136; 3 Bro. C. C. 266.
Establishing. 3 Madd. R. 306; Boyle on Char. 93; 2 Cox, 387; S. C. 4 Bro.
    C. C. 326.
Estate. 3 Cranch, 97; 3 Yeates, 187; 6 Binn. 97; 2 Binn. 20; 6 Johns. R.
    185; 1 Wash. R. 96; 1 Call, 127; 3 Call, 306; 2 Nott & M'Cord, 380; 1 Dall.
    226; 12 Serg. & Rawle, 54; 1 Yeates, 250, 380; 1 Salk. 236; 6 T. R. 610; 11
    East, 246; 2 Ves. & Bea. 222; 2 Atk. 38; 3 Atk. 486; Ambl. 155, 216; 12 Mod
    592; 1 T. R. 659, n.; 8 Ves. 604; 9 Veg. 137; 1 Cox, 362; 2 Ves. & Bea.
    225; 19 Ves. 195; 3 Ves. & Bea. 160.
Estates and effects. 1 Ves. & Bea. 406. Temporal estate. 8 Ves. 617. All
    the residue of my estate of every name and kind. 4 Law Rep. 256.
Every of them. 12 S. & R. 158.
Evidence. Conclusive Evidence. 1 Leigh's N. P. 307.
Except what shall be mentioned hereafter. Monr. 399.
Excepting. Perk. S. 439; Crabb on R. P. 157.
Execute. 2 Green's R. 350.
Exclusive of costs. 1 Edw. R. 483.
Expectation. Boyle on Char. 319.
Expenes. 15 Serg. & Rawle, 55.
Extend. 1 Paine's R. 385.
Fac similes. 7 Mann. & Gr. 399
Factory prices. 2 Conn. R. 69; 2 Mason, 89, 90.
Factum. 1 Leon. 310.
Faithful. 12 Pick. 303.
Falsely. 2 M. & Selw. 379; Noy. 35; Owen, 51.
Farcy. Oliph. on Horses, 42.
Family. Cooper's R. 317; 8 Ves. 604.
Farm. 6 T. R. 345.
Father, on the part of the. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 224.
Feeder. 13 Pick. 50.
Fifty pounds. (50 l) Sid. 151.
Filled. 1 Breese's R. 70.
Final. Final and conclusive. 5 Binn. 387; 6 Binn. 128.
Final judgment. 2 Pet. R. 264, 464.
Final decree. 8 Wend. 242.
Final settlement and decree. 4 Am. Dig. 283; 1 Halst. 195; 17 Serg. &
Rawle, 59, 340; 14 Serg. & Rawle, 396; 1 Penn. R. 282; 2 Pet. R. 464.
Final process. 16 Pet. 313.
Fine. 5 M. & W. 535.
Firmly. 4 S. & R. 135; 1 Browne, R. 258.
First born son. 1 Ves. 290.
First cousin or cousins german. 4 M. & C. 56.
First had and obtained. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 89.
First or sterling cost. 1 Stuart's (L. C.) R. 215.
Fixed furniture. 6 C. & P. 653.
Flats. 8 W. & S. 442.
Flock. Inst. 4, 3, 1.
Flock of sheep. Inst. 2, 20, 18.
Fold course. Touchs, 93; Co. Litt. 6.
For. Dougl. 688; 1 Saund. 320, n. 4; Willes, 157.
For and in consideration of dollars. 7 Verm. 522; 6 Verm. 411.
For such times as we think fit. 1 Chit. Com. Law. 495.
For value received. 18 John. 60; 8 D. & R. 163; S. C. 5 B. & C. 501.
For which he has not accounted. 4 Burr. 2126; 1 T. R. 716.
For whom it may concern. 1 Pet. R. 151.
Foreign bills. 19 John. R. 146.
Foreign part, place. 2 Gall. R. 4; 19 John. 375.
Foreign voyage. 1 Gall. R. 55, 142.
Foreign part. 19 Johns. 375; 4 Am. Law Journ. 101.
Foreign state. 5 Pet. 1.
Foreign vessel. 1 Gall. R. 58.
Foreigner. 1 Pet. R. 349.
Forever. 6 Cruise, 281; 4 Dane's Ab. c. 129, art. 2, 14.
Forthwith. I Mo. & Malk. 300; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 313; 9 C. & P. 706; S.
    C. 38 E. C. L. R. 299, 801; 12 Ad. & Ell. 672; S. C. 40 E. C. L. R. 158,
    160, 161, 162; 7 Mann. & Gr. 493.
Forards and backward. 2 New Rep. 434.
Four mills. 1 Mod. 90.
Fourth part of house in N. Cro. Eliz. 286; 1 Str. 695.
Fowl. 1 Russ. C. & M. 568.
Frame house filled with bricks. 7 Wend. 270.
Fraudulently. Willes, 584; 1 Chit. Pl. 376.
Free. 1 Wh. 335; 2 Salk. 637.
Free of average. 16 East, R. 214.
Free of particular average. 16 East, R. 14; 15 East, R. 559; Code de
    Commerce, art. 409.
Free on board a foreign ship. 3 Campb. R. 270.
Freely to be enjoyed. Cows. 352; 3 Burr. 1895; 11 East, R. 220.
Freight. 1 Mason, R. 11, 12.
From. 1 Marsh. Ins. 261, a; 2 Cowen, 605, 606, n. 518; 15 Mass. 193; 1 S. &
     R. 411; 8 S. & R. 496; 5 T. R. 283; 2 Saund. 158, b, n. 6; 5 Com. Dig. 335;
   4 Cruise, 72; Greenl. Cas. 9; 6 W. & S. 328.
From and after. 9 Cranch, 104; 2 Cowen, 606 n.; 4 T. R. 659.
From the day of the date. Cowper, 717, 725.
From the date, 15 S. & R. 135.
From 1000 to 3000 bushels of potatoes. 4 Greenl. 497.
From thenceforth. 2 Mer. R. 431.
From and after the passing of the act. 4 T. R. 660.
Front to the river. 6 M. R. 19, 228,229; 8 N. S. 576; 9 M. R. 656.
Full and free. 1 Wh. 335.
Full cargo. 7 Taunt. 272.
Fully. Pow. on Morts. 83, 858.
Fur. 7 Cowen, 202.
Furniture. Amb. 605; 3 Ves. 311; 1 John. Ch R. 3@9,
Furniture at ___  3 Madd. 276.
Future. 7 W. & S. 305; 2 Pa. St. R. 146.
Future increase. 3 Yerg. 546. See 2 Bibb, 76; 4 Hen. & Munf. 283.
Future conveyances. 2 P. St. R. 146.
Gamble. 2 Yerger, 472.
Geldings, cattle. 1 Leach, C. C. 73, n.
Gentlemen. 21Y. & C. 683; 21 Jurist, 152
Gift. I give thir, note to A. 4 Ves. 565. I return to A his bond. 3 Ves. 231.
Gelding-horse. 3 Humph. 323.
Give. 2 Caines' Rep. 188; 7 John. R. 255; 11 John. R. 122; 5 Greenl. R. 227.
Give and grant. 1 Hayw. R. 251.
Given. I Harr. (N. J.) R. 286.
Giving testimony in a suit. 3 Harr. Cond. Lo. R. 157.
Giving way. 10 (Eng.) Jur. 1065.
Glass with care, this side up. 11 Pick. R. 41.
Glass eye. Oliph. on Horses, 44.
Good. 5 M. & W. 535.
Good and lawful men. 1 Blackf. R. 396..
Good note. 7 Verm. 67.
Good custom cowhide. Brayt. 77.
Good and sufficient deed. Wright, 644.
Good and sufficient warranty deed. 15 Pick. 546; 20 John. 130; 4 Paige R.
628. Good merchantable goods. 3 Campb. R. 462.
Good work. Wright, R. 47 1.
Goods. 2 Ves. Jr. 163; 3 Atk. 63; 1 P. Wms. 267; 2 P. Wms. 302; 1 Atk. 171,
    177, 180, 182; 1 Ves. Jr. 237; 1 Bro. C. C. 127; 11 Ves. 666; 1 Marsh. Ins.
    319; 7 Taunt. 191; 2 B. & A. 327; 4 B. & A. 206; 9 East, 215; 5 Mason's R.
Goods and chattels. 2 B. & A. 335; 1 Leigh's N. P. 244; 1 Yeates, 101; 2
    Watts, 61; 8 Co. 33; 2 East, P. C. C  16, s. 37; 2 B. & A. 259, 327; 6
    Bing. 363; 4 Mo. & P. 36; 1 Ves. sen. 363; 1 Atk. 165.
Goods and movables. 1 Yeates, R. 101.
Government security. 3 Younge & C. 397.
Government or other securities. 9 Sim. 104.
Grange. Co. Litt. 5; Plowd. 197; Touch. 93.
Grant, bargain, sell, alien, and confirm. 2 Caines' R. 188; 7 Johns. R.
    258; Com. Dig. Guaranty, A.
Grant, bargain, sell. 4 Dall. 441; 2 Binn. 09; 1 Rawle, 377; 1 Serg. & R.
    50, 438; 4 Kent's Com. 460.
Grant and demise. 4 Wend. 502; 8 Cowen, 36; 9 Ves. 330.
Grantee. 1 Cowen, 509.
Ground. 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 510.
Ground-rents. I Meriv. 26; 2 Str. 1020; 1 Bro. C. C. 76.
Growi?tg. 4 Leon. 36.
Gutta serena. Oliph. on Horses, 44.
Habitable repair. 2 Mo. & Rob. 186
Half mile. 9 B. & C. 774.
Has bargained and sold. 4 Cowen, 225.
Have. 2 Bendl. 34.
Having. 2 Ves. 427; 11 Ad. & El. 273; 39 E. C. L. R. 80.
Having children. 7 T. R. 322; 7 Ves. 453.
He has re7wved la?id-7iiarks. 10 S. & R. 18. See Minor, 138.
He is perjured. 1 Caines, 347. 2 Caines, 91.
He is forsworn. 1 Caines, 347.
He is a corrupt old tory. 2 Port. 212.
He keeps false books, and I can prove it. 17 John. 217; 5 John. 476.
He paying thereout. Dick. 444; 3 East, 590.
He shall be well satisfied. 2 John. Rep. 395.
He swore a lie before the church session, and I can prove it. 1 Penna. 12.
He swore a false oath, and I can prove it. 2 Binn. 60; 4 Bibb, 99; 2 Dall. 58.
Heir male. 4 Ves. 794; Id. 326.
Heirs. 1 Car. Law Rep. 484.
Heirs at law. 4 Rand. R. 95.
Heirs of the body, 2 Bligh, 49. Vide 4 T. R. 300; Id. 88; 8 T. R. 373; 3
    Ves. jr. 257; 13 Ves. jr. 340.
Heirs female. Co. Litt. 24 b, n. 3; 5 Bro. Parl. Rep. 93; Goodtitle v.
Burtenshaw, Fearne, Rem. Appx. No. 1.
Heirs of the wife. 6 Yerg. R. 96.
Henceforth. 9 Serg. & Rawle, 133.
Her. 1 Desaus. R. 353.
Her increase. 1 Iredell, 460.
Her part aforesaid. 4 Dowl. & R. 387.
Hereinafter - Hereinbefore. 1 Sim. Rep. 173.
Hereditament. 1 Salk. 238 ,Mos. 242; 3 T. R. 358; 7 T. R. 558; 8 N. R. 505;
    2 B. & P. 247, 251; 6 Nev. & M. 441; 4 Ad. & Ell. 805.
Head of a family. 2 How. S. C. Rep. 581, 590.
Hides. 7 Cowen, 202.
High seas. Russ. & Ry. 243; 2 Leich, 109; 3 Mason's R. 290.
Him or His. 2 Ves. 213.
Hiring. 6 T. R. 452.
Holiday. 4 Clark & Fin. 234.
Homestead-Homestead farms. 7 N. H. Rep. 241; 15 John. R. 471.
Hope. Boyle on Char. 319.
Horse. 1 Scam. R. 304.
Horse-Gelding. 3 Humph. 323.
Horse, Mares and Colts - Cattle. 2 East, P. C. 1074; 1 Leach, C. C. 72.
Hotel keeper. 1 Carr. & Marsh. 458.
House. 7 Mann. & Gr.. 66, 122.
House I live in and garden to B. 2 T. R. 298.
Household goods. 3 Ves. jr. 310; 1 John. Ch. R. 329; 3 P. Wms. 335.
Household furniture. 2 Hall, R. 490.
I guaranty the payment of the within note at the insolvency of the drawers.
   5 Humph. 476.
I return A his bonds. 3 Ves. 231.
I warrant this note good. 14 Wend. 231.
If. Touchs. 123; Co, Lit. 204; Id. 214 b
Immediate. 2 Lev. 77; 7 Mann. & Gr. 493.
Immediately. 4 Younge & Col. 511.
Immovables. Ward on Leg. 210.
Impedimentum. Bac. Tr. 211.
Impelitio. Bac. Tr. 211.
Implements. 9 Law Reporter, 207.
Improvement. 4 Pick. 204.
In all the month of May. 3 W. C. C. R. 140.
In actual military service. 3 Curt. R. 522; 7 Eng. Eccl. R. 496.
In current bank notes. 1 Ham. R. 178. See also 1 Ham. R. 531; 1 Breese, R.
152, Litt. R. 245; 1 Ohio R. 119; 1 Dall. R. 126, 176; 19 John. R. 146.
In default of such issue. 7 East, R. 521; 3 T. R. 484.
In fullest confidence. T. & R. 143
In like manner. Ward on Leg. 246; 4 Ves. 732; 1 Sim. & St. 517.
In manner aforesaid. Ward on Leg. 246; 5 Ves. 465.
In the fullest confidence. Turn. & Russ. 157.
In money or negroes. 4 Bibb, R. 97.
In the occupation of. 2 Bing. R. 456. 1 B. & C. 350.
In case of the death. Swanst. 162.
Income. 9 Mass. R. 372; 1 Metc. 75.
Inde. Co. Litt. 82 b.
Indebted. 15 Serg. & Rawle, 142;. 3 Caines' R. 323; 17 S. & R. 285.
lndefeasible title. 3 Bibb, R. 317.
Indirect. 2 Gill & John. 382.
Indorse. 7 Pick. 117.
Infamous crime. 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 34, 38.
Inferior tradesmen. 1 Lord Raym. 149; Com. Rep. 26; 5 Mod. 307; Bac. Ab.
    Costs, B.
Inhabitants of a neighborhood. 10 Pick. R. 367.
Insolvent circumstances. 2 Harr. Dig. 202; Chit. on Bills, 120; McClel. &
    Yo. 407.
Istantly. 3 Perr. & Dav. 52; 8 Dowl. 157.
Intended to be recorded. 2 Rawle, 14.
Intent to defraud-Intent to deceive. Rob. Fr. Cony. 30; and see 8 John. R.
    446; 12 John. 120; 2 John. Ch. R. 35; 4 Wheat. R. 466.
Intents and purposes. To all intents and purposes. 11 Ves. 530.
Investment. 15 Johns. 384, 392
Irregularly. 1 Cowen, 73@'S, b.
Irreparable. 3 Mart. N. S. 25.
Is indebted to the plaintiff in trover. 1 H. Bl- 218.
Is indebted to the plaintiff upon promises. 2 Dougl. 467; and see Say, R. 109.
Issue. 3 Ves. & Bea. 67; 13 Ves. 340; 3 Ves. 421; 7 Ves. 522; 1 Dall. 47; 1
    Yeates, 332; 3 Ves. 257; 1 Cox, 38. Failure of issue. 1 B. B. 1. Die
    without issue. 17 Ves. 482.
Issuably. 3 Chit. Pr. 705.
It shall and may be lawful. 1 Edw. R. 84.
It shall be lawful. 8 N. S. 539.
It shall be lawful for the court. 1 John. Ch. R. 491.
Ita quod. Ld. Raym. 760.
Jewels. Ward on Leg. 221; Mos. 112.
Jewelry. 14 Pick. 370. Vide infra Trinkets.
Jockey. 8 Scott, N. S. 5S4. ,
Joint and equal proportions. Jointly. Ambl. 656; 1 Bro. C. C. 118; 2 Rop.
    Leg. 267. Joint and several. 2 Day, 442; 1 Caines' Cas. 122; 1 Consts. R.
    486; 1 Cox, 200; 4 Desaus. 148; 7 Serg. & Rawle, 356.
Judicial proceedings. 5 Ohio, 547; 3 M. R. 248; 4 M. R. 451; 6 M. R. 668; 7
    M. R. 325; 9 M. R. 204, 325; 10 M. R. 1; L. R. 438; 3 N. S. 551; 5 N. S.
Junior. 8 John. 549; 8 Conn. R. 293.
Just debts. 1 Binn. 209; 9 Mass. 62.
Justafiable cause. 1 Sumn. 194.
Kept. 4 Scamm. 168.
Kin. Next of kin. 15 Ves. 109; Id. 583; 3 Bro. C. C. 355. Next of kin or
    heir at law. 4 Ves. 469. Next of kin, in equal degree. 12 Ves. 433.
King's enemies. 1 Leigh's N. P. 509.
King and being privy to. Platt on Cov. 338.
Laborer. 1 Lo. Rep. 268.
Lamb-Mutton. 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 242; and see Russ. & Ry. 497.
Lampooner. 3 Lev. 248.
Last past-August last past. 3 Cowen, 70.
Last sickness. 20 John. 502.
Last will. 7 T. R. 138.
Law charges. 3 Mart. Lo. R. 282.
Law of the land. 2 Yerg. 554; 6 Penna. St. Rep. 87, 91; 4 Dev. 1.
Lawful. Lawful heir. 2 T. R. 720.
Lawful deed of conveyance. 2 Serg. & R. 499.
Lawful money. 1 Yeates, 349; 1 Dall. 126, 176.
Lawful, Shall be. 2 D. & R. 172; 4 B. & A. 271; 1 B. & C. 35, 8.
Lawful title. 1 Blackf. 380; 2 Greenl. R. 22; 10 John. R. 266.
Lawful deed. 2 S. & R. 498; Coxe, 106.
Lawful current money of Pennsylvania. 1 Dall. 124.
Lawfully demanded. 2 M. & S. 525.
Leaving children. 7 T. R. 332, and see 7 Ves. 453; 9 Ves. 204; 6 T. R. 307.
    Vide Having Children.
Leasehold ground rents. Ward on Leg. 222; 1 Bro. 76.
Legal representatives. 3 Ves. 486; 3 Bro. C. C. 224; 1 Yeates 213; 2
    Yeates, 585; 2 Dall. 205; 6 Serg. & Rawle, 83; 1 Anstr. 128.
Lend. 1 Hill's Ch. 37.
Lent.. Bac. Ab. Assumpsit F; 2 Wils. 141.
Let. 5 Whart. R. 278.
Level. 5 Ad. & El. 302; 4 Nev. & Man. 602.
Life estate. 500 to the sole use of N, or of her children, forever. 1 Cox,
    341; vide 12 Ves. 295; 1 Rose, 200; 13 Ves. 486; 13 Ves. 445; 2 Eden, 323;
    Amb. 499; 4 Bro. C. C. 541; 1 Bay, 447.
Limit and appoint. 5 D. & E. 124.
Limn. 3 Bro. C. C. 311.
Literary composition. Eden, Inj. 324.
Live and dead stock. Ward on Leg. 220; 3 Ves. 311.
Livelihood. 3 Atk. 399.
Living together. 1 Add. R. 476; 3 Add. R. 277; 2 Tyrw. 76; 2 Cr. & J. 66;
Rogers' Eccl. Law, tit. Marriages.
Loaded arm. 1 Carr. & Kirw. 530; S. C. 47 Eng. C. L. R. 530.
Lost or not lost. 1 Marsh. Ins. 332; Park, Ins. 25; 5 Burr. 2803; Wesk. 345.
Loaf sugar. 1 Sumn. R. 159.
Lot No. 54. 1 Verm. R. 336; 18 John. R. 107; 5 N. R. Rep. 58.
Lots. 4 Ohio, 5.
Lying at the wharf. 2 McCord, 105.
Made. 1 Cranch, 239. @
Made his note to the plaintiff for $760. 1 Breese's R. 122.
Magistrate. 13 Pick. 523.
Make over and grant. 18 John. 60; 3 John. R. 484.
Maintenance. 4 Conn. R. 558; 2 Conn. R. 155; 2 Sandf. Ch. R. 91. See Support.
Mange. Oliph. on Horses, 46.
Mankind. Fortescue. 91.
Mare. 1 Leach, 72; 2 W. Bl. 721; 2 East, P. C. 1074.
Manner or Seaman. 2 Curt. Eccl. R. 336.
Mark. Trade mark. See 19 Pick. 214.
Married. Dying unmarried; without being married, and having children. 1
    Rop. Leg. 412; 3 Ves. 450, 454; C, 7 Ves. 454.
Matter in controversy. 2 Yeates, 276; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 269; 5 Binn. 522; 3
    Dall. 404; 2 Dall. 260, n.
Matter in dispute. 3 Cranch, 159.
Matters in difference. 5 Mass. 334.
May. 1 Saund. 58, n. 1; 5 Johns. Ch. R. 101; 5 Cowen, 195; 14 Serg. &
Rawle, 429; 1 E. C. L. R. 46; 1 Pet. R. 46.
May assign. May suggest. Ib.; St 8 and 9 W. 3, c. 11, s. 8.
Meadows. 5 Cowen's R. 216; Co. Litt. 4, b.
Means. Platt. on Cov. 334-5.
Medals. Ward. on Leg. 221; 3 Atk. 201.
Merchandise. 8 Pet. 277.
Merchantable. 3 Campb. R. 462.
Merchantable quality. 20 Wend. R. 61.
Merits. 3 Watts & Serg. 273.
Mess. 2 Russ. C. & M. 360.
Mess Pork of Scott & Co. 2 Bing. N. C. 668.
Messuage and house. Cro. Eliz. 89; 2 Ch. Cas. 27; 2 T. R. 498; 1 Boss. &
Pull. 53.
Mill. 5 Serg. & Rawle, 107.
Mill privilege. 4 Shepl. R. 63.
Mill saw. 1 Fairf. R. 135.
Mill site. 15 Pick. 57; 6 Cowen, R. 677; 11 John. R. 191.
Minerals. 5 Watts, 34.
Misapply. 12 Ad. & Ell. 140; 40 E. C. L. R. 140.
Misnomer. 16 East, 110; 2 Stark. N. P. C. 29; Dunl. Pr. 238; 3 Camp. 29; 2
    Caines' R. 362; 13 John. 486.
Mobilier. 3 Harr. Cond. R. 430.
Molest. Mo. 402; S. C. Cro. Eliz. 421.
Money. 15 Ves. 319; 3 Meriv. 691; 1 John. Ch. R. 231.
Money only. 7 T. R. 539, 549.
Money - Moneys. 14 John. R. 12.
Money deposited in court. 2 Gall. R. 146.
Money in the funds. 5 Price, R. 217.
Moneys. 1 John. Ch. R. 231.
More or less. 2 Pow. Mortg. 445, a, note; 2 Hen. & Munf. 164; 1 Ves. & B.
    376; 2 Barn. & Adol. 106; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 36; 1 Yeates, 309; 6 Binn.
    102; 4 Serg. & Rawle, 493; 1 Serg. Rawle, 166; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 260; 1
Munf. 336; 2 Saund. 305, b, n.; 4 Mason's R. 418; Sudg. Vend. 231-2; Ow.
    133; 1 Campb. 337.
Mountain. 1 Str. 71; 1 Burr. 629.
Movables. Ward. on Leg. 210; Off. Ex. 252; Sir W. Jo. 225.
Mr. 3 C. & P. 59; S. C. 1 M. & M. 118.
Mrs. 3 C. & P. 59; S. C. 1 M. & M. 118.
Mutual credit. 8 Taunt. 499; 4 Burr. 2222; Cooke's Bankr. Laws, 536; 4 T.
    R. 211; 2 Smith's Lead. Cas. 178, and the cases there cited.
My fishing place. 1 Whart. R. 1.37.
My half part. 11 East, R. 163.
My inheritance. Hob. 2; 7 East, R. 97.
My seven children, naming only six. 2 Coxe, R. 164.
My property. 17 John. R. 281.
My house, and all that shall be in it at my death. 1 Bro. C. C. 129, n.; 11
    Ves. 662,
My right heirs on the part of my mother. 4 Ves. 766.
Name and blood. 15 Ves. 92.
Navicular disease. Oliph. on Horses, 47.
Navigable river. 6 Cowen, 528; 21 Pick. R. 344.
Necessary. 4 Wheat. 413, 418; 7 Cowen, 606 2 A. K. Marsh. R. 84.
Necessary charges. 3 Greenl. 191.
Necessary implication. 1 Ves. & B. 466.
Necessary tools of a tradesman. 2 Whart. 26.
Needful. 4 Esp. R. 66.
Nerving. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 47; R. & M. 290.
Neurotomy. Oliph. on Horses, 47; R. & M. 290.
Never. 2 Atk. 32; Bayl. Bills, 4; Chit. Bills, 54; 3 Q. B. 239, 242.
New Manufacture. 4 Mann. & Gr. 580.
Next. Stra. 394; Cro. Jac. 646, 677: Bac. Ab. Conditions, P. 3; 2 John.
    190; 9 Cowen, 255.
Next of kin. 15 Ves. 109; 15 Ves. 536; 3 Bro. C. C. 355; Id. 64; 14 Ves. 372.
Next of kin, or heir at law. 4 Ves. 469.
Next of kin, equal in degree. 12 Ves. 433.
Non-arrival. 2 B. & C. 564.
Non-resident. 4 L. R. 11.
Northerly. 1 John. 156. See 3 Caines, 293.
Northward. 3 Caines' R. 293; 1 John. R. 158.
Not liable for any damage to or from her sheathing. 20 Pick. 389.
Note or Notes. 7 Serg. & Rawle, 465.
Notes current in the city of New York. 19 John. R. 14 6.
Notice of action. 1 Holt's N. P. R. 27.
Now. 3 Penna. R. 288, 9; 4 Mann. & Gr. 99, 100.
Occupation. 7 W. & S. 330.
Occupied. 1 Breese's R. 70.
Of. 2 T. R. 431.
Of and concerning. 4 M. & Selw. 169; 3 Caines' R. 329; 5 Johns. R. 211; 7
    Johns. R. 264; Id. 359; 3 Binn. 517; 1 Binn. 337. 5 Binn. 218.
Offence. 9 Car. & P. 525; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 222.
Office, or public trust. 2 Cowen, 29 n.; 20 Johns. 492; 1 Munf. 468.
Office of trust. 6 Blackf. 529.
On. 2 T. R. 431.
On arrival. 2 Campb. R. 532; Id. 327.
On condition. 4 Watts & Serg. 302.
On shore. 1 Bos. & Pull. 187.
On a stream. 3 Sumn. R. 170.
On the trial. 2 Whart. 159.
On payment of costs. 6 Cowen, R. 582; 5 J. J. Marsh. 243.
One day after date. 2 P. S. R. 496.
One pair of boots. 3 Harring. 559.
One whole year. 12 Mass. 262.
Once a week. 4 Peters' R. 361; 2 Miles, R. 150, 151.
One thousand dollars to the children of. 9 Verm. R. 41.
Openly. 2 Inst. 57; Bac. Ab. Merchant, &c.
Or, construed and. 2 Rop. Leg. 290; 1 P. Wms. 483; 2 Cox, 213; 2 P. Wms.
3    83; 2 Atk. 643; 6 Ves. 341; 2 Ves. Sen. 67; 2 Str. 1175; Cro. Eliz. 525;
    Pollexf. 645; 1 Bing. 500; 3 T. R. 470; 1 Ves. Sen. 409; 3 Atk. 88, 85; 1
   Supp. to Ves. Jr. 485; 2 Id. 9, 43, 114; 1 Yeates, 41, 319; 1 Serg. &
    Rawle, 141; 1 Wend. 396; 6 Toull. n. 703 and 704. Vide Disjunctive.
Or any other person. 15 Wend. 147.
Or by any other person. 3 Marrh. 720.
Or elsewhere. 2 Gall. R. 477.
Or otherwise. 1 Chit. R. 205, 6; Hawk. c. 2 5, s. 4. 1
Orchard. Cro. Eliz. 854.
Ordained minister. 4 Conn. 134.
Order, in chancery pleading. 7 Sim. R. 17.
Original. 6 Wheat. 396; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 549. Vide Courts of the United States.
Orphan. 3 Mer. 48; 2 Sim. & Stu. 93.
Other. 1 Brock. R. 187.
Other offices. 1 B. & C. 237. See 5 T. R. 375, 379; 5 B. & C. 640; 8 D. &,
    R. 393.
Other writing. 1 Rawle, 231.
Otherwise. 1 Gall. R. 39.
Out of the State. 1 Johns. Cas. 76.
Out of the country. 3 Bibb, 510.
Out of their joint funds, according to the articles of association. 4 S. &
    R. 356.
Outfits. 1 Story, R. 603.
Out-house. 5 Day, 151; 4 Conn. 446.
Over the sea. Kirby, 299.
Overseers. 7 Mann. & Gr. 481,
Own use. 4 Rawle, R. 68.
Owned by them. 5 Cowen, 509.
Owner. 6 Nev. & M. 340.
Oxgang. Touchs. 93; Co. Litt. 5.
Oyster spat. 12 Ad. & Ell. 13; S. C. 40 E. C. L. R. 15.
Passage room. 2 Ld. Raym. 1470.
Passing through the town. 6 Ohio, R. 142.
Payable. 14 Ves. 470; 16 Ves. 172; 2 Supp to Ves. jr. 296; 13 Ves. 113; 3
    Ves. 13; 2 C. 305.
Paying. Roll. Ab. 411; Bac. Ab. Conditions, A; Lane, 56, 78.
Paying thereout. Pick. 444.
Paying yearly ard every year. 3 Lom. Dig. 187.
Pearls. Dig. 34, 2, 18.
Peas. Bac. Ab. Merchant, &c. 1.
Pencil, writing. 1 Eccl. R. 406, 7; 5 B. & C. 234; 7 Dowl. & R. 653; 1
    Stark. R. 267; 1 Phillim. R. 52, 53; 2 Phillim. R. 173.
Per annum. Bac. Ab. Covenant, F
Percussit. 2 Virg. Car. 111.
Perishable articles. 7 Cowen, 202.
Permitting and suffering. 6 Barn. & Cres. 295; Platt on Cov. 338.
Perpetual. 2 Bro. & B. 27; S. C. 6 B. Moo. 159.
Person liable. Eden's Bankr. Law, 146.
Personal estate. 1 Ves. & Bea. 415; 4 Ves. 76; 1 M'Cord, 349; 1 Dall. 403;
    2 Rawle, 162; 5 Mason, 544.
Personal ornaments. 1 Beav. R. 189.
Personal representatives. 1 Anst. 128.
Person of color. 3 Iredell, 455.
Pigs - Cattle. Russ. & Ry. Cr. Cas. 76.
Pilfering. 4 Blackf. 499.
Piratical. 2 How. S. C. 210.
Place. Office. 1 Munf. 468.
Places. 5 T. R. 375,379; 5 B. & C. 640; 8 D. & R. 393. See 1 B. & B. C. 237.
Pladtum. Skin. 550, 554.
Plant. 1 Mo. & Malk. 341; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 330.
Plantation. 2 Humph. 315.
Planting. 7 Conn., 186.
Pleasure. At her pleasure. Boyle on Char. 307.
Pleasure carriage. 9 Conn. 371; 11 Conn. 185; 18 John. 128; 19 John. 442.
Plow land. Co. Litt. 5; Plowd. 167; Touchs. 93.
Plundered. 16 Pick. 1.
Poll-evil. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 49.
Poor. Poor kindred. Boyle on Char. 31; 17 Ves. 371; 1 Caines' R. 59.
Poor inhabilants. Ambl. 422.
Port. 2 B. & Ad. 43; S. C. 22 E. C - L. R. 23.
Port of destination. Port of discharge. 5 Mason, 404.
Possess 3. 1 Dev. & Bat. 452.
Posession. Coming into possession. 3 Br. C C. 180.
Postea. 1 Saund. 287.
Power coupled with an interest. 8 Wheat. 203; 2 Cowen, 196.
Power of attorney. 8 Pick. 490.
Praedict. Co. Litt. 20 b.
Preference. 1 Paine, 630.
Premises. AlI the premises. 17 Ves. 75; 1 East, R. 456.
Presented. 2 Hill, R. 582.
Price. A price clear of all expenses. 2 V. & B. 341.
Prime cost. 2 Mason, 53, 55.
Prior in date. 3 Day, 66.
Prison charges. 4 Greenl. 82.
Private charity. Turn. & Russ. 260.
Privileges and appurtenances. 14 Mass. 49; 17 Mass. 443.
Pro. A B, C D. 11 Mass. R. 97.
Proceed to tea. 9 Serg. & Rawle, 154; 2 Pet. Adm. Dec. 97, 93.
Procecding. 2 East, R. 213; 3 Com. Dig. 49, note; 1 Hall, 166; 8 Wend. 167.
Proceedings thereupon. 16 Pet. 303, 313.
Proceeds. 4 Mason, 529.
Procreatis-Procreandis. 1 M. & S. 124.
Procure. 1 Car. & Marsh. 458.
Procurement. Platt. on Cov. 337.
Produce of a farm. 6 Watts & Serg. 269, 280.
Profesion.  7 W. & S. 330.
Promise. "I don't consider the land as yours prove your right to it, and
    I'll pay you for it." 9. Dow.. & R. 480; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 394. " I
    promise never to pay." 2 Atk. 32; Bayl. Bills, 4; Chit, Bills, 54.
Promise to pay out of the proceeds of the next crop. 2 L. R. 259.
Prommisory note. Due A B three hundred and twenty-five dollars, payable on
    emand. 10 Wend. 675. To pay P D, or plaintiffs, or his or their order. 2
    B. & A. 417. "I, B C, promise to pay E F the sum of รด51 or his order,"
    signed, "B C or else H B." 4 B. & A. 679; 6 E. C. L. R. 563.
Proper county. 2 Yeates, 152; 7 Watts, 245.
Property. 6 Serg. & Rawle, 452; 17 Johns. R. 281; 6 Binn. 94; 18 Ves. 193;
    14 East, R. 370; 2 N. R. 214.
Property, personal and real. 1 Speers, Eq. Cas. 51, 56.
Property on board, 2 Metc. 1.
Proportion. Charge on estates in equal proportions. 3 Br. C. C. 286. In
    just and equal proportion. 7 Serg. & Rawle, 514.
Propietor. 6 Nev. & M. 340; Wordsw. Jo. St. Co. 338.
Prosecute with effect. 12 Mod. 380; 2 Selw. N. P. 1013, note.
Proviso. Com. Dig. Condition, A 2; Lit. s. 329; Id. 203, b; 2 Co. 71, b; 1
Roll. Ab. 410, l. 30
Public house. 4 Leigh, 680.
Public policy. 9 E. C. L. R. 452.
Public sale. 4 Watts, R. 258.
Public trust. 20 John. 492; 2 Cowen, 29, n.
Public trade. 3 Q. B. 39.
Publish. 2 Dev. 115.
Published. 3 M. & W. 461; 9 Bing. 605; 5 B. & Adol. 518: 6 M. & W. 473; 8
    D. P. C. 392.
Purchasing. 6 Ves. 404.
Quamdiu. Orl. Bridg. 202.
Quantity and boundary. 2 Caines' Rep. 146.
Quit. 2 N. H. Rep. 402.
Quotation. Eden. Inj. 327, 328.
Race-field. 9 Leigh, 648.
Raffie. 2 Rep. Const. Conn. 128.
Raise. 1 Atk. 421; 2 Vern. 153.
Rascal. 2 Rep. Const. Ct. 235.
Real action. 10 Pick. 473; and see 16 Mass. 448; 7 Mass. 476; 4 Pick. 169;
     8 Greenl. 106, 138.
Real cost. 2 Mason, 53, 55.
Realm. 1 Taunt. 270; 4 Campb. 289; Rose, 387.
Reasonable Notice. 1 Penn. R. 466. Vide Reasonable time, in the body of
   this work.
Rebuild. 3 Rawle, 482.
Receipts. 2 Gill & Johns. 511.
Received for record. 3 Conn. 544; 1 Root, R. 500; 2 Root, R. 298; Kirb. 72.
Received note in payment. 2 Gill & John. 511.
Recollect. 1 Dana, R. 56.
Recomm@ation. 2 Ves. jun. 333, 529; 3 Ves. 150; 9 Ves. 546; Jacob's R. 317;
    1 Sim. & Stu. 387.
Record and Docket. 1 Watts, 395.
Recovered in a suit. 5 Wend. R. 620.
Recovery. 2 Caines' R. 214; 1 Paine, 230,238.
Rectifier of spirits. 1 Pet. C. C. R. 180.
Refine. 1 Pet. C. C,. R. 113.
Refuse. Retounce. 3 Rawle, 398.
Refuse to execute. 10 E. C. L. R. 65; 1 Har. Dig. 442.
Relations, see Legatee. 2 Ch. Rep. 146, 394; Pr. Ch. 401; Cas. Temp. Talb.
    215; 1 P. Wms. 327; 2 Ves. jr. 527; Ambl. 70, 507, 595, 636; Dick. 50, 380;
    1 Bro. C. C. 31; 3 Bro. C. C. 64, 234; 2 Vern. 381; 3 Ves. 231; 19 Ves.
    323; 1 Taunt. 163; 3 Meriv. 689; 5 Ves. 529; 16 Ves. 206; Coop. R. 275;
    Com. Dig. App. Devise of personal property, viii. 30, 31, 32; 9 Ves. 323; 3
    Mer. 689. Next relations, as sisters, nephews and nieces. 1 Cox, 264. Poor
    relations. Dick. 380.
Release and forever quit claim. 10 Johns. R. 456.
Remaining untried. 5 Binn. 390.
Rents. 2 Penn. St. R. 165.
Rents and profits. 2 Ves. & Bea. 67; 6 Johns. Ch. R. 73; 1 Sand. Uses and
    Trusts, 318; 1 Ves. 171; 2 Atk. 358.
Repairs. 1 M 'Cord, 517.
Reprises. 1 Yeates, 477; 3 Penna. 477
Request. 2 Bro. C. C. 38; 3 Ver. & Bea. 198; 5 Madd. 118; 18 Ves. 41; 1
    Moody Cr. Cas. 300.
Resident. 20 John. R. 211; 2 Pet. Adm. R. 450; 2 Scam. R. 377; 20 John.
    208; 7 Mann. & Gr. 9.
Reidence. 8 Wend. 45.
Residuary. 11 Ves. 92.
Residue. surplus, &c. 2 Atk. 168; 11 Ves. 330; 14 Ves. 364; 15 Ves. 406; 18
    Ves. 466; Dick. 477; 1 Bro. C. C. 189; 4 Bro. C. C. 207; 1 Ves. jr. 63; 1
    Wash. 45, 262; 3 Cal. 507; 3 Munf 76; 2 Des. Ch. R. 573; Prec. Ch. 264; 2
    Vern. 690; Boyle on Char. 399, 8 Ves. 25-6.
Respective, Respectively. 2 Atk. 121; 3 Bro. C C. 404; 1 Meriv. 358; 2
    East, 41; Cowd. 34.
Rest. Alleyn, 28; 3. P. Wms. 63, n.
Rest and Residue. 2 Lee's Eccl. R. 270; 6 Eng. Eccl. Rep. 122; 11 East, R. 164.
Retained. 5 D. & E. 143,
Reversion. If the reversion should never fall to the testator. 10 Ves. 453.
Revising-correcting. 2 Shepl. 205.
Revoked. 1 Cowen, R. 335; 16 John. R. 205.
Rice. 5 B. & P. 213.
Right. 2 Caines' R. 345.
Right and title in the deed. 2 Ham. 221.
Right, title, and interest. 4 Pick. 179.
Ringbone. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 48, 50.
River-feeder. 13 Pick. 50.
Rolling-mill. 2 Watts & Serg. 390.
Roots. 7 John. R. 385.
Running days. 1 Bell's Com. 577, 5th ed.
Said-saith. 3 Dowl. P. C. 455; 5 Tyr. 391 1 Gale, 47.
Said 1 Chit. Cr. Law, *174; 2 Car. Law Rep. 75.
    To sail. 3 M. & S. 461,
Sail from. 3 B. & C. 501.
Same. Cro. Eliz. 838.
Sand crack. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 13.
Sanguini Suo. Bac. Ab. Legacies and Devises, c 1.
Sans recourt. Chit. Bills, 266; 1 Leigh's N. P. 405.
Sarsaparilla. 7 John. R. 385.
Satisfied. 1 M'Cord, Ch. 53; 2 John. 395.
Satisfactory proof. 10 John. R. 167.
Saving. 2 Roll. Ab. 449.
School. 1 M. & S. 9.5; Vin. Ab. h. t.
Schools of learning. Wilm. Opin. & Judgm. 14; 2 Vern. 387; 14 Ves. 7; Sim.
    109; Jac. 474.
Sea stores. 1 Baldw. R. 504.
Sealed. Harp. R. 1.
Security. 13 John. 481; 3 Blackf. 431.
Secured to be paid. 1 Paine's R. 518; 12 Wheat. 487.
See him paid. Fell on Guar. 36-7; 1 Ld. Raym. 224; Cows. 227; 2 T. R. 86.
Seised. Bac. Ab. Uses and Trusts, part 1, D.
Sell. To sell. Boyle on Char. 307; 9 Greenl. 128.
Sell and convey. 3 Fairf. 460. See also 2 Greenl. 22.
Sell for at the pits mouth. 7 T. R. 676; S. C. 1 B. & P. 524; 5 T. R. 564.
Seen. 2 Hill, R, 582. ,
Semini suo. Bac. Ab. Legacies and Devises, C 1.
Servant. 5 Lo. Rep. 15.
Served. 6 S. & R. 281.
Settled. 2 Leach, 910.
Setting fire. 2 East, P. C. 1020.
Seventh child. 3 Bro. C. C. 148; S. C. 2 Cox, 258.
Seventy acres, being and lying in the southwest corner of section. 2 Ham.
    327; see 4 Monr. 63.
Shall. 1 Vern. 153.
Shall be lawful. 2 D. R. 172; 4 B. & A. 271; 1 B. & C. 35; 2 T. R. 172; 1
B. & C. 85; 4 B. & A. 271; 3 N. S. 532.
Shall and may. 1 E. C. L. R. 46; 5 John. Ch. R. 101; 5 Cowen, 193; 1 Cr. &
    Mees. 355; 3 Tyrrw. 272.
Shall sell at the pit's mouth. 7 T. R. 676.
Share. 3 Mer. 348.
Share and share alike. 3 Desaus. 143.
Ship damage. Abbott on Shipm. 204; Bac. Ab Merchant, &c. H.
Shop. 5 Day, 131; 4 Conn. 446.
Shovel plough. 3 Brev. 5.
Should be secured. 5 Binn 496.
Signing. I, A B, do make this my will. 18 Ves. 183.
Silks. 1 Carr. & Marsh. 45.
Silver dollars - Good, wares, and mercandise 2 Mason, R. 407.
Sitfasts. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 53; 9 M. & W. 670
Six handkerchief. 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 25.
Sixty pounds in specie, or tobacco at specie specie. Mart. S. C. R. 20.
Skins. 7 John. R. 385; 7 Cowen, R. 202.
So long as wood grows or water runs. 1 Verm. 303.
Sold. 3 Wend. R. 112.
Sold and conveyed. 2 Serg. & Rawle, 473.
Sole. 1 Madd. R. 207; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 410; 4 Rawle, 66; 10 Serg. &
    Rawle, 209; 4 W. C. C. R. 241; 3 Penna. R. 64, 201.
Solvent. 10 Ves. 100; Gow on Partn. 409.
Soon as convenient. 1 Ves. jr. 366; 19 Ves. 387.
Southwest corner of _________ section. 2 Ham. 327.
Spawn. 12 Add. & Ell. 13; S. C. 40 E. C. L. R. 15.
Specially. 1 Dall. 208; 1 Binn. 254.
Specifically. 16 Ves. 451.
Splint. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 55; 1 M. & Sco. 622.
Stab, stick and thrust. 2 Virg. Cas. 111.
Stable. 1 Lev. R. 58; 3 M. & R. 475.
Stage. Stage, coach. 8 Adol. & Ell. 386; 35 E. C. L. R. 409; 9 Con. 371; 11
    Conn. 385.
Steam boiler. Wright, R. 143.
Sterling. 1 Carr. & P. 286.
Stock in the funds. 5 Price, R. 217.
Stock in trade. Bunb. 28.
Store. 10 Mass. 153. See 4 John. 424; 1 N. & M. 583; 2 N. H. Rep. 9.
Straw. 4 C. & P. 245; S. C. 19 Eng. Com. Law Rep. 367; 1 Moody, C. C. 239.
Stretching along the bay. 2 John. R. 357; Harg. Law Tracts, 12.
Strict settlement. 4 Bing. N. C. 1.
Stringhalt. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 56.
Subject to the payment of rent. 5 Penn. St. Reps. 204.
Subject to incumbrancs. 2 P. Wms. 385; 1 Atk. 487; 2 P. Wms. 659, note by Cox.
Submission - consent. 9 C. & P. 722; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 306.
Subscriber. 6 B. & Cr. 341.
Subscription list. 2 Watts, 112.
Substantial inhabitants. 2 M. & R. 98; S. C. 8 B. & Cr. 62.
Such. 2 Atk. 292.
Suit at law. 23 Pick. 10
Sum in controverty. 9 Serg. & Rawle, 301.
Summit of a mountain. 3 Watts & Serg. 379.
Superfine flour. 9 Watts, R. 121.
Supersede. 1 Pick. R. 261.
Superstitious use. 1 Watts, 224.
Support. A decent and comfortable support and maintenance out of my estate,
    in sickness and in health during my natural life. 2 Sandf. Ch. R. 91.
Surety. 1 Scam. R. 35.
Surplus. 18 Ves. 466; 3 Bac. Ab. 67; 2 Pa. St. R. 129.
Survivors. 17 Ves. 482; 5 Ves. 465.
Survivor and survivors. 3 Burr. 1881; 8 B. & Cr. 231.
Suine. 15 Mass. 205.
Take. 2 Pet. R. 538.
Take and fill shares. 1 Fairf. 478.
Taken out of the state. 1 Hill, 150.
Tapering. 2 Stark. N. P,. C. 249.
Taxes and other public dues. 2 Leigh, R. 178.
Tea kettle and appurtenances. Ward on Leg. 222; Mos. 47; 1 Eq. Ab. 201.
Ten acres of pease. 1 Brownl. 149.
Terra. Cro. Jac. 573; Palm. 102; 4 Mod. 98; Cowp. 349.
Testamentary estate. 2 H. Bl. 444; Vide 6 B. Moo. 268; S. C. 3 Bro. & B. 85.
That is to say. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 141.
The county aforesaid. 2 Bl. R. 847.
The dangers of the river excepted. 1 Miss. R. 81; 2 Bailey's R. 157.
The said defendant. 2 Marsh. R. 101; S. C. 6 Taunt. R. 122, 406.
The said E. R. 9 C. & P. 215; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 87.
The said N. 2 Car. Law Repos. 75.
The said property. 3 Mann & Gr. 356.
The parties shall abide by the award of arbitrators, 6 N. H. Rep. 162.
The said plaintiff. 2 Marsh. R. 101; S. C. 6 Taunt. R. 122, 406.
The same rents and covenants. 1 Bro. P. C. 522; 3 Atk. 83; Cowp. 819; 2
    Bro. Ch. R. 639, note.
Them. 9 Watts, R. 346; Orl. Bridg. 214.
Them or any of them. 3 Serg. & Rawle, 393.
    Then. Then and there. 2 Atk. 398; 4 Ves. 698, 1 P. Wms. 594; 1 Brown's C.
C. 190; Ld. Raym. 577; Id. 1,23.
Then next. 9 Cowen, 255.
Thereabouts. Moll. 232.
Thereafter. 13 L. R. 556.
Thereafter built. 2 Leigh, 721.
Thereinbefore mentioned. Ward. on Leg. 105, 344; 7 Ves. 391.
Thereafterwards continuing his said assault. 2 Mass. 50.
Therefore the defendant is indebted. 1 T. R. 716; 2 B. & P. 48.
Thing patented. 1 How. U. S. 202.
Thereunto belonging. 22 E. C. L. R. 171.
This indenture. 2 Wash. 58.
Things. 11 Ves. 666.
Third parties. 1 N. S. 884.
This demise. 2 Bl. R. 973.
Thrush. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 59.
Thousand. 3 B. & Ad. 728.
Through. 7 Pick. R. 274.
To be kept by the secretary. 1 Scott's N. R. 215.
Timber. 7 Johns. R. 234; 1 Madd. Ch. 140, n.
Time. Till she arrives. From her beginning to load. On the ship's arrival.
    And is there moored twenty-four hours in good safety. 8 Chit. Com. Law,
    462. Within four days. 15 Serg. & Rawle, 43. Time being. Ang. Corp. 284.
Title. An indefeasable title in fee simple, such as the state makes. 3
    Bibb, R. 317; 4 Shepl. R. 164.
To a stream. 3 Sumn. R. 170.
To be begotten. 1 M. & S. 124.
To be by her freely possessed and enjoyed. 12 S. & R. 56; Cows. 352.
To be signed and published by her, in the presence of, and to be attested
    by two or more credible witnesses. Curt. Eccl. R. 1.
To be paid when in funds. Minor's R. 173; 7 Greenl. R. 126.'
To them. 9 Watts, 351, 352.
To do the needful. 4 Esp. R. 66.
To, from or by. 1 Shepley's R. 198.
To settle. 2 Miles, R. 1.
To his knowledge and belief. 1 H. Bl. 245.
To the best of his knowledge and belief. 8 T. R. 418; 1 Wils. 232.
To the legatees above named. 17 S. & R. 61.
To the order. 1 Watts. & Serg. 418.
To render a fair and perfect account, in writing, of all sums received. 1
    Dougl. R. 382
To sue. 3 B. & C. 178, 1083.
To wait awhile. 1 Penna. R. 385.
Toll. 2 Show,. 34.
Took the oath in such case required by the act of congress. 5 Leigh's R. 743.
Tools. 2 Whart. 26.
Touch and stay. 1 Marsh. Ins. 188; 1 Esp. N. R. 610; Wesk. Ins. 548.
Transact all business. 22 E. C. L. R. 397; 1 Taunt. R. 349; 5 B. & Ald.
    204, 210, 211; 1 Yo. & Col. 394.
Transaction. 7 Mann. & Gr. 538.
Treasonable practices. 1 Stuart's L. C. R. 4.
Tree. 2 Dev. 162.
Trees, woods, coppice - wood grounds, of what kind or growth soever. 4
Taunt. 316.
True value. 17 Wheat. R. 419; 1 Stuart's L. C. R. 419.
Trifling. 1 W. & S. 328; 14 S. & R. 349.
Trinkets. 1 Carr. & Marsh. 45.
Truly. 2 Brock. R. 484, 5.
Tunc. 5 Mann. & Gr. 696.
Turnpike Road. 20 Johns. R. 742.
Two years after demand. 8 D. & R. 347.
Unavoidable accident. 1 Brock. R. 187.
Understood. 2 Cox's Ch. R. 16.
Underwood. 2 Rolle's R. 485.
Unexecuted writ. 1 Barr. N. J. Rep. 154.
Unless. Boyle on Char. 291; 1 Mer. 102; 3 Id. 65, 79; 3 Burr. 1550.
Unmarried. 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 43; 2 Barn. & Ald. 452. Without being
    married. 7 Ves. 458.
Until. Cows. 571; 5 East, 250; Cas. t. Hard. 116. Until she hath moored at
    anchor twenty-four hours in good safety. Park, Ins. 35; 1 Marsh. Ins. 262;
    2 Str. 1248; 1 Esp. Rep. 412.
Unto and amongst. 9 Ves. 445.
Up the creek. 1 Wilc. R. 508.
Used. 1 Chit. Pr. 214.
Use till paid. Kirb. 145.
Useful invention. 1 Mason, R. 302; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 9.
Usque. 2 Mod. 280.
Usual clauses. 2 Chit. Com. Law, 227; 1 Mer. R. 459.
Usual covenants. Platt on Cov. 430.
Usual terms. 8 Mod. 308; Barnes, 330; 3 Chit. Pr. 705.
Usurped power. 2 Marsh. Ins. 700; 2 Wils. 363.
Usury. Vide 2 Rick. (2d ed.) 152, n. 1; 5 Mass. R. 53; 7 Mass. R. 36; 10
    Mass. R. 121; 13 Mass. R. 443; 4 Day, R. 37; 2 Com. R. 341; 7 Johns. R.
    402; S. C. 8 Johns. R. 218; 4 Dall. R. 216; 2 Dall. R. 92; 6 Munf. R. 430,
    433; 3 Ohio R. 18; 1 Blackford's R. 336; 1 Fairfield, R. 315; 2 Chit. Cr.
    Law, *549; 3 Ld. Raym. 36; Trem. P. C. 269; Co. Entr. 394, 435; Rast. Entr.
    689; Cro. C. C. 743; Com. Dig. Usury, C; 4 Bl. Com. 158; Hard. 420.
Vacancies. 2 Wend. 273.
Vacancy. 1 Breese's R. 70.
Valuable things. 1 Cox, t7; 1 Bro. C. C. 467.
Value received. 3 M. & S. 351; 5 M. & S. 65; 5 B. & C. 360; S. C. 11 Engl.
    C. L. R. 252; 3 Kent, Com. 50; Maxw. L. Dict. h. t.; 1 Hall, 201; 1 Blackf.
    R. 41; 2 M'Lean, R. 213. True value. 11 Wheat. 419.
Vegetable production. 1 Mo. & Mal. 341.
Victual. 3 Inst. 195; Hale's P. C. 152; Cro. Car. 231 Bac. Ab.
    Forestalling, B; 1 East, R. 169.
Victualler. 9 E. & E. 406; 6 Watts & Serg. 278.
Videlicet. 8 Ves. 194.
Village or town. Co. Litt. 5; Plowd. 168; Touchst. 92.
Voluntary assignment. 3 Sumn. R. 345.
Wantonness. 1 Wheel. Cr. Cas. 365; 4 W. C. C. R. 534; 1 Hill, 46, 363.
Warbles. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 53; 9 M. & W. 670.
Warehouse. Cro. Car. 554; Gilb. Ej. 57; 2 Rosc. R. Act. 484; 8 Mass. 490.
Waste. 1 Ves. 461; 2 Ves. 71.
Watch. Ward on Leg. 221; Mos. 112.
Water lots. 14 Pet. R. 302.
Way. In, through, and along. 1 T. R. 560.
Well and truly execules the duties of his office. 1 Pet. R. 69.
Well and truly to administer. 9 Mass. 114, 119, 370; 13 John. 441; 1 Bay, 328.
Well and truly to administer according to law. 1 Litt. R. 93, 100.
What I may die possessed of. 8 Ves. 604; 3 Call, 225.
What remains. 11 Ves. 330.
Wharf. 6 Mass. 332.
Wheat. An unthrashed parcel of wheat. 1 Leach, 494; 2 East, P. C. 1018; 2
    T. R. 255.
Wheezing. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 61.
When. 6 Ves. 239; 11 Ves. 489; 3 Bro. C. C. 471.
When able. 3 Esp. 159; 3 E. C. L. R. 264, note; 4 Esp. 36.
When received. 13 Ves. 325.
When the same shall be recovered. lb.
When or if. 1 Hare, R. 10.
When paid. 15 S. & R. 114.
Wherefore he prays judgment, &c. 2 John. Cas. 312.
Whereupon. 6 T. R. 573.
Whilst. 7 Fast, 116.
Wholesale factory prices. 2 Conn. R. 69.
Widows and Orphans. 2 Sim. & Stu. 93.
Wife. 3 Ves. 570.
Wilful. 1 Benth. Ev. 351.
Wilful and corrupt. 1 Benth. Rat. Jud. Ev. 351.
Wilfully. 8 Law Rep. 78.
Will. He will change. 2 B. & B. 223.
With. 2 Vern. 466; Prec. Ch. 200; 1 Atk. 469; 2 Sch. & Lef. 189; 3 Mer.
    437; 2 B. & Ald. 710; 2 B. & P. 443.
With all faults. 5 B. & A. 240; 7 E. C. L. R. 82; 3 E. C. L. R. 475.
With surety. 6 Binn. 53; 12 Serg. & Rawle, 112.
With the prothonotary. 5 Binn. 461.
With all usual and reasonable covenauts. 12 Ves. 179, 186; 3 Bro. C. C.
    632; 15 Ves. 528; 3 Anstr. 700.
With sureties. 2 Bos. & Pull. 443.
With effect. 2 Watts & Serg. 33.
With liberty. 8 Gill & John. 190.
Within four days. 15 Serg. & Rawle, 43.
Within ___ days after. 3 Serg. & Rawle, 395.
Without fraud, deceit or oppression. 6 Wend. 454.
Without prejudice. 2 Chit. Pr. 24, note (x); 3 Mann. & Gr. 903.
Without recourse. 1 Cowen, 538; 3 Cranch, 193; 7 Cranch, 159; 12 Mass. 172;
    14 Serg. & Rawle, 325; 8 W. & S. 353; 2 Penn. St. R. 200. Vide article Sans
    Recours, in the body of this work.
Without reserve. 5 Mass. R. 34.
Wm. William. 1 Scam. R. 451.
Wood. Cro. Jac. 166.
Wood-land. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 169.
Woods. 4 Mass. 268.
Working days. 1 Bell's Com. 577, 5th ed
Worldly labor. 4 Bing. 84; S. C. 13 R. 351.
Worth and value. 3 B. & C. 516.
Writing. 14 John. 484; 8 Ves. 504; 2 M. & S. 286; 17 Ves. 459.
Writing in pencil. 1 Eng. Eccl. Rep. 406.
Yard lane. Touchs. 93; Co. Litt. 5.
Yearly meeting of Quakers. 6 Conn. 393.
Yearly meeting. 6 Conn. 292.
You. 2 Dowl. R. 145; S. C. 6 Leg. Obs. 138.
CONSTRUCTIVE. That which is interpreted.
2. Constructive presence. The commission of crimes, is, when a party is not actually present, an eye-witness to its commission but, acting with others, watching while another commits the crime. 1 Russ. Cr. 22.
3. Constructive larceny. One where the taking was not apparently felonious, but by construction of the prisoner's acts it is just to presume he intended at the time of taking to appropriate the property feloniously to his own use; 2 East, P. C. 685; 1 Leach, 212; as when he obtained the delivery of the goods animo furandi. 2 N. & M. 90. See 15 S. & R. 93; 4 Mass. 580; I Bay, 242.
4. Constructive breaking into a house. In order to commit a burglary, there must be a breaking of the house; this may be actual or constructive. A constructive breaking is when the burglar gains an entry into the house by fraud, conspiracy, or threat. See Burglary, A familiar instance of constructive breaking is the case of a burglar who coming to the house under pretence of business, gains adiuittance, and after being admitted, commits such acts as, if there had been an actual brooking, would have amounted to a burglary Bac. Ab. Burglary, A. See 1 Moody Cr. Cas. 87, 250.
5. Constructive notice. Such a notice, that although it be not actual, is sufficient in law; an example of this is the recording of a deed, which is notice to all the world, and so is the pendancy of a suit a general notice of an equity. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3874. See Lis pendens.
6. Constructive annexation. The annexation to the inheritance by the law, of certain things which are not actually attached to it; for example, the keys of a house; and heir looms are constructively annexed. Shep. Touch. 90; Poth- Traits des Choses, 1.
7. Constructive fraud. A contract or act, which, not originating in evil design and contrivance to perpetuate a positive fraud or injury upon other persons, yet, by its necessary tendency to deceive or mislead them, or to violate a public or private confidence, or to impair or injure public interest, is deemed equally reprehensible with positive fraud, and therefore is prohibited by law, as within the same reason and mischief as contracts and acts done malo animo. 1 Story, Eq. 258 to 440.
CONSUETUDINES FEUDORUM. The name of an institute of the feudal system and usages, compiled about the year 1170, by authority of the emperor Frederic, surnamed Barbarossa. Ersk. Inst. B. 2, t. 3, n. 5. CONSUL, government, commerce. Consuls are commercial agent's appointed by a government to reside in the seaports of a foreign country, and commissioned to watch over the commercial rights an@ privileges of the nation deputing them. A vice-consul is one acting in the place of a consul.
2. Consuls have been greatly multiplied. Their duties and privileges are now generally limited, defined and secured by commercial treaties, or by the laws of the countries they represent. As a general rule, it may be laid down that they represent the subjects or citizens of their own nation, not otherwise represented. Bee, R. 209 3 Wheat. R. 435; 6. Wheat. R., 152; 10 Wheat. 66; 1 Mason's R. 14.
3. This subject will be considered by a view, first, of the appointment, duties, powers, rights, and liabilities of American consuls; and secondly, of the recognition, duties, rights, and liabilities of foreign consuls.
4. - 1. Of American consuls. First. The president authorized by the Constitution of the United States, art. 2, s. 2, el. 3, to nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, appoint consuls.
5. - Secondly. Each consul and vice-consul is required, before he enters on the execution of his office, to give bond, with such sureties as shall be approved by the secretary of state, in a sum not less than two thousand nor more than ten thousand dollars, conditioned for the true and faithful discharge of the duties of his office, and also for truly accounting for all moneys, goods and effects which may come into his possession by virtue of the act of 14th April, 1792, which bond is to be lodged in the office of the secretary of State. Act of April 14, 1792, sect. 6.
6. - Thirdly. They have the power and are required to perform many duties in relation to the commerce of the United States and towards masters of ships, mariners, and other citizens of the United States; among these are the authority to receive protests or declarations which captains, masters, crews, passengers, merchants, and others make relating to American commerce; they are required to administer on the estate of American citizens, dying within their consulate, and leaving no legal representatives, when the laws of the country permit it; [see 2 Curt. Ecc. R. 241] to take charge and secure the effects of stranded American vessels in the absence of the master, owner or consignee; to settle disputes between masters of vessels and the mariners; to provide for destitute seamen within their consulate, and send them to the United States, at the public expense. See Act of 14th April, 1792; Act of 28th February, 1803, ch. 62; Act of 20th July, 1840, Ch. 23. The consuls are also authorized to make certificates of certain facts in certain cases, which receive faith and credit in the courts of the United States. But those consular certificates are not to be received in evidence, unless they are given in the performance of a consular function; 2 Cranch, R. 187; Paine, R. 594; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 478; 1 Litt. R. 71; nor are they evidence, between persons not parties or privies to the transaction, of any fact, unless, either expressly or impliedly, made so by statute. 2 Sumn. R. 355.
7. - Fourthly. Their rights are to be protected agreeably to the laws of nations, and of the treaties made between the nation to which they are sent, and the United States. They are entitled, by the act of 14th April, 1792, s. 4, to receive certain fees, which are there enumerated. And the consuls in certain places, as London, Paris, and the Barbary states, receive, besides, a salary.
8. - Fifthly. A consul is liable for negligence or omission to perform, seasonably, the duties imposed upon him, or for any malversation or abuse of power, to any injured person, for all damages occasioned thereby; and for all malversation and corrupt conduct in office, a consul is liable to indictment, and, on conviction by any court of competent jurisdiction, shall be fined not less than one, nor more than ten thousand dollars; and be imprisoned not less than one nor more than five years. Act of July 20, 1840, ch. 23, cl. 18. The act of February 28, 1803, ss. 7 and 8, imposes heavy penalties for falsely and knowingly certifying that property belonging to foreigners is the property of citizens of the United States; or for granting a passport, or other paper, certifying that any alien, knowing him or her to be such, is a citizen of the United States.
9. The duties of consuls residing on the Barbary coast are prescribed by a particular statute. Act of May 1, 1810, S. 4.
10. - 2. Of foreign consuls. First. Before a consul can perform any duties in the United States, he must be recognized by the president of the United States, and have received his exequatur. (q. v.)
11. - Secondly. A consul is clothed only with authority for commercial purposes, and he has a right to interpose claims for the restitution of property belonging to the citizens or subjects of the country he represents; 10 Wheat. R. 66; 1 Mason R. 14; See, R. 209; 6 Wheat. R. 152; but he is not to be considered as a minister or diplomatic Agent, entrusted by virtue of his office to represent his sovereign in negotiations with foreign states. 3 Wheat, R. 435.
12. - Thirdly. Consuls are generally invested with special privileges by local laws and usages, or by international compact; but by the laws of nations they are not entitled to the peculiar immunities of ambassadors. In civil and criminal cases, they are subject to the local laws in the same manner with other foreign residents owing a temporary allegiance to the state. Wicquefort, De l'Ambassadeur, liv. 1, 5; Bynk. cap. 10 Martens, Droit des Gens, liv. 4, c. 3, 148. In the United States, the act of September 24th, 1789, s. 13 gives to the supreme court original, but not exclusive jurisdiction of all suits in which a consul or vice-consul shall be a party. The act last cited, section 9, gives to the district courts of the United States, jurisdiction exclusively of the courts of the several states, of all suits against consuls or vice-consuls, except for offences where whipping exceeding thirty stripes, a fine exceeding one hundred dollars, or a term of imprisonment exceeding six months, is inflicted. For offences punishable beyond these penalties, the circuit has jurisdiction in the case of consuls. 5 S. & R. 545. See 1 Binn. 143; 2 Dall. 299; 2 N. & M. 217; 3 Pick. R. 80; 1 Green, R. 107; 17 Johns. 10; 6 Pet. R. 41; 7 Pet. R. 276; 6 Wend. 327.
13. - Fourthly. His functions may be suspended at any time by the government to which he is sent, and his exequatur revoked. In general, a consul is not liable, personally, on a contract made in his official capacity on account of his government. 3 Dall. 384.
14. During the middle ages, the term consul was sometimes applied to ordinary judges; and, in the Levant, maritime judges are yet called consuls. 1 Boul. Paty, Dr. Mar. Tit. Prel. s. 2, p. 57.
15. Among the Romans, consuls were chief magistrates who were annually elected by the people, and were invested with powers and functions similar to those of kings. See, generally, Abbott on Ship. 210; 2 Bro. Civ. Law, 503; Merl. Repert. h. t.; Ayl. Pand. 160; Warden on Consuls; Marten on Consuls; Borel, de l'Origine, et des Fonctions des Consuls; Rawle on the Const. 222, 223; Story on the Const. 1654 Serg. Const. Law, 225; Azuni, Mar. Law, part 1, c. 4, art. 8, 7.
CONSULTATION, practice. A conference between the counsel or attorneys engaged on the same side of a cause, for the purpose of examining their case, arranging their proofs, and removing any difficulties there may be in their way.
2. This should be had sufficiently early to enable the counsel to obtain an amendment of the pleadings, or further evidence. At these consultations the exact course to be taken by the plaintiff in exhibiting his proofs should be adopted, in consultation, by the plaintiff's counsel. In a consultation on a defendant's case, it is important to ascertain the statement of the defence, and the evidence which may be depended upon to support it; to arrange the exact course of defence, and to determine on the cross-examination of the plaintiff's witnesses; and, above all, whether or not evidence shall be given on the part of the defendant, or withheld, so as to avoid a reply on the part of the plaintiff. The wishes of the client should, in all cases, be consulted. 3 Chit. Pr. 864.
CONSULTATION, Eng. law. The name of a writ whereby a cause, being formerly removed by prohibition out of an inferior court into some of the king's courts in Westminster, is returned thither again for if the judges of the superior court, comparing the proceedings with the suggestion of the party, find the suggestion false or not proved, and that therefore the cause was wrongfully called from the inferior court, then, upon consultation and deliberation, they decree it to be returned, where upon this writ issues. T. de la Ley.
CONSULTATION, French law. The opinion of counsel, on a point of law submitted to them. Dict. de Jur. h. t.
CONSUMATE. What is completed. A right is said to be initiate, when it is not complete; and when it is perfected, it is consummated.
CONSUMMATION. The completion of a thing; as the consummation of marriage; (q. v.) the consummation of a contract, and the like.
2. A contract is said to be consummated, when everything to be done in relation to it, has been accomplished. It is frequently of great importance to know when a contract has been consummated, in order to ascertain the rights of the parties, particularly in the contract of sale. Vide Delivery, where the subject is more fully examined. It is also sometimes of consequence to ascertain where the consummation of the contract took place, in order to decide by what law it is to be governed.
3. It has been established as a rule, that when a contract is made by persons absent from each other, it is considered as consummated in, and is governed by the law of, the country where the final assent is given. If, therefore, Paul in New Orleans, order goods from Peter in London, the contract is governed by the laws of the latter place. 8 M. R. 135; Plowd. 843. Vide Conflict of Laws;, Inception; Lex Loci Contractus; Lex Fori; Offer.
CONSUMMATION OF MARRIAGE. The first time that the husband and wife cobabit together, after the ceremony of marriage has been performed, is thus called.
2. The marriage, when otherwise legal, is complete without this; for it is a maxim of law, borrowed from the civil, law, that consensus, non concubitus, facit nuptias. Co. Litt. 33; Dig. 50, 17, 30; 1 Black. Com. 434.
CONTAGIOUS DISORDERS, police, crim. law. Diseases which are capable of being transmitted by mediate or immediate contact.
2. Unlawfully and injuriously to expose persons infected with the smallpox or other contagious disease in the public streets where persons are passing, or near the habitations of others, to their great danger, is indictable at common law. 1 Russ. Cr. 114. Lord Hale seems to doubt whether if a person infected with the plague, should go abroad with intent to infect another, and another should be infected and die, it would not be murder; and he thinks it clear that though there should be no such intent, yet if another should be infected, it would be a great misdemeanor. 1 Pl. Cor. 422. Vide 4 M. & S. 73, 272; Dane's Ab. h. t.
CONTEMPORANEOUS EXPOSITION. The construction of a law, made shortly after its enactment, when the reasons for its passage were then fresh in the minds of the judges, is considered as of great weight: contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege. 1 Cranch, 299.
CONTEMPT, crim. law. A wilful disregard or disobedience of a public authoritoy.
2. By the Constitution of the United States, each house of congress may determine the rules of its proceeding's, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. The same provision is substantially contained in the constitutions of the several states.
3. The power to make rules carries that of enforcing them, and to attach persons who violate them, and punish them for contempts. This power of punishing for contempts, is confined to punishment during the session of the legislature, and cannot extend beyond it; 6 Wheat. R. 204, 230, 231 and, it seems this power cannot be exerted beyond imprisonment.
4. Courts of justice have an inherent power to punish all persons for contempt of their rules and orders, for disobedience of their process, and for disturbing them in their proceedings. Bac. Ab. Courts and their jurisdiction in general, E; Rolle's Ab. 219; 8 Co. 38 11 Co. 43 b.; 8 Shepl. 550; 5 Ired. R. 199.
5. In some states, as in Pennsylvania, the power to punish for contempts is restricted to offences committed by the officers of the court, or in its presence, or in disobedience of its mandates, orders, or rules; but no one is guilty of a contempt for any publication made or act done out of court, which is not in violation of such lawful rules or orders, or disobedience of its process. Similar provisions, limiting the power of the courts of the United States to punish for contempts, are incorporated in the Act March 2, 1831. 4 Sharsw. cont. of Stor. L. U. S. 2256. See Oswald's Case, 4 Lloyd's Debates, 141,. et seq.
6. When a person is in prison for a contempt, it has been decided in New York that he cannot be discharged by another judge, when brought before him on a habeas corpus; and, according to Chancellor Kent, 3 Com. 27, it belongs exclusively to the court offended to judge of contempts, and what amounts to them; and no other court or judge can, or ought to undertake, in a collateral way, to question or review an adjudication of a contempt made by another competent jurisdiction. This way be considered as the establisbed doctrine equally in England as in this country. 3 Wils. 188 14 East, R. 12 Bay, R. 182 6 Wheat. R. 204 7 Wheat. R. 38; 1 Breese, R. 266 1 J. J. Marsh. 575; Charlt. R. 136; 1 Blackf. 1669 Johns. 395 6 John. 337.
CONTENTIOUS JURISDICTION, eccl. law. In those cases where there is an action or judicial process, and it consists in hearing and determining the matter between party and party, it is said there is contentious jurisdiction, in contradistinction to voluntary jurisdiction, which is exercised in matters that require no judicial proceeding, as in taking probate of wills, granting letters of administration, and the like. 3 Bl. Com. 66.
CONTESTATIO LITIS, civil law. The joinder of issue in a cause. Code of Pr. of Lo. art. 357.
CONTESTATION. The act by which two parties to an action claim the same right, or when one claims a right to a thing which the other denies; a controversy. Wolff, Dr. de la Nat. 762.
CONTEXT. The general series or composition of a law, contract, covenant, or agreement.
2. When, there is any obscurity in the words of an agreement or law, the context must be considered in its construction, for it must be performed according to the intention of its framers. 2 Cowen, 781,; 3 Miss. 447 1 Harringt. 154; 6 John. 43; 5 Gill & John. 239; 3 B. & P. 565; 8 East, 80 1 Dall. 426; 4 Dall. 340; 3 S. & R. 609 See Construction; Interpretation.
CONTINGENT. What may or may not happen;. what depends upon a doubtful event; as, a contingent debt, which is a debt depending upon some uncertain event. 9 Ves. It. 110; Co. Bankr. Laws, 245; 7 Ves. It. 301; 1 Ves. & Bea. 176; 8 Ves. R. 334; 1 Rose, R. 523; 3 T. R. 539; 4 T. R. 570. A contingent legacy is one which is not vested. Will. on Executors, h. t. See Contingent Remainder; Contingent Use.
CONTINGENT DAMAGES. Those given where the issues upon counts to which no demurrer has been filed, are tried, before demurrer to one or more counts in the same declaration has been decided. 1 Str. 431.
CONTINGENT ESTATE. A contingent estate depends for its effect upon an event which may or may not happen: as an estate limited to a person not in esse or not yet born. Crabb on Real Property, b. 3, c. 1, sect. 2. 946.
CONTINGENT REMAINDER, estates. An estate in remainder which is limited to take effect, either to a dubious and uncertain person, or upon a dubious and uncertain event, by, which no present or particular interest passes to the remainder-man, so that the particular estate may chance to be determined and the remainder never take effect. 2, Bouv. Inst. n. 1832. Vide Remainder.
CONTINGENT USE, estates. A use limited in a deed or conveyance of land which may or may not happen to vest, according to the contingency expressed in the limitation of such use. A contingent use is such as by possibility may happen in possession, reversion or remainder. 1 Rep. 121 Com. Dig. Uses, K. 6.
CONTINUAL CLAIM, English law. When the feoffee of land is prevented from taking possession by fear of menaces or bodily harm, he may make a claim -to the land in the presence of the vares, and if this claim is regularly made once every year and a day, which is then called a continual claim, it preserves to the feoffee his rights, and is equal to a legal entry. 3 Bl. Com. 175; 2 Bl. Com. 320; 1 Chit. Pr. 278 (a) in note; Crabbe's Inst. E. L. 403.
CONTINUANCE, practice. The adjournment of a cause from one day to another is called a continuance, an entry of which is made upon the record.
2. If these continuances are omitted, the cause is thereby discontinued, and the defendant is discharged sine die, (q. v.) without a day, for this term. By his appearance he has obeyed the command of the writ, and, unless he be adjourned over to a certain day, he is no longer bound to attend upon that summons. 3 Bl. Com. 316.
3. Continuances may, however, be entered at any time, and if not entered, the want of them is aided or cured by the appearance of the parties; and Is a discontinuance can never be objected to pendente placito, so after the judgment it is cured by the statute of jeofails. Tidd's Pr. 628, 835.
4. Before the declaration the continuance is by dies datus prece partium; after the declaration and before issue joined, by imparlance; after issue joined and before verdict, by vicecomes non misit breve; and after verdict or demurrer by curia advisare vult. 1 Chit. Pl. 421, n. (p); see Vin. Abr. 454; Bac. Abr. Pleas, &c. P; Bac. Abr. Trial, H.; Com. Dig. Pleader, V. See, as to the origin of continuances, Steph. Pl. 31; 1 Ch. Pr. 778, 779.
CONTINUANDO, plead. The Dame of an averment sometimes contained in a declaration in trespass, that the injury or trespass has been continued. For example, if Paul turns up the ground of Peter and tramples upon his grass, for three days together, and Peter desires to recover damages, as well for the subsequent acts of treading down the grass and subverting the soil, as for the first, he must complain of such subsequent trespasses in his actions brought to compensate the former. This he may do by averring that Paul, on such a day, trampled upon the herbage and turned up the ground, " continuing the said trespasses for three days following." This averment seems to impart a continuation of the same identical act of trespass; it has, however, received, by continued usage, another interpretation, and is taken, also, to denote a repetition of the same kind of injury. When the trespass is not of the same kind, it cannot be averred in a continuando; for example, when the injury consists in killing and carrying away an animal, there remains nothing to which a similar injury may again be offered. 1 Wms. Saund. 24, n. 1.
2. There is a difference between he continuando and the averment diversis diebus et temporibus, on divers days and times. In the former, the injuries complained of have been committed upon one and the same occasion; in the latter, the acts complained of, though of the same kind, are distinct and unconnected, See Gould, Pl. ch. 3, 86, et seq.; Ham. N. P. 90, 91 Bac. A. Trespass, I 2, n. 2.
CONTINUING CONSIDERATION. A continuing consideration is one which in point of time remains good and binding, although it may have served before to Support a contract. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 628; 1 Saund. 320 e, note (5.)
CONTINUING DAMAGES. Those which are continued at different times, or which endure from one time to another. If a person goes upon successive day's and tramples the grass of the plaintiff, he commits continuing damages; or if one commit a trespass to the possession, and it is in fact injurious to him who has the reversion or remainder, this will be continuing damages. In this last case the person in possession may have an action of trespass against the wrong doer to his possession, and the reversioner has an action against him for an injury to the reversion. 1 Chit. Pr. 266, 268, 385; 4 Burr. 2141 , 3 Car. & P. 817.
CONTRA. Over; against; opposite to anything: as, such a case lays down a certain principle; such other case, contra.
CONTRA BONOS MORES. Against good morals.
2. All contracts contra bonos mores, are illegal. These are reducible to Several classes, namely, those which are, 1. lncentive to crime. A claim cannot be sustained, therefore, on. a bond for compounding a crime; as, for example, a prosecution for perjury; 2 Wils. R. 341, 447; or for procuring a pardon. A distinction has been made between a contract made as a reparation for an injury to the honor of a female, and one which is to be the reward of future illicit cohabitation; the former is good and valid, and the latter is illegal. 3 Burr. 1568; 1 Bligh's R. 269.
3. - 2. Indecent or mischievous consideration. An obligation or engagement prejudicial to the feelings of a third party; or offensive to decency or morality; or which has a tendency to mischievous or pernicious consequences, is void. Cowp. 729; 4 Campb. R. 152; Rawle's R. 42; 1 B. & A. 683; 4 Esp. Cas. 97; 16 East R. 150; Vide Wagers.
4. - 3. Gaming. The statutes against gaming render all contracts made for the purpose of gaming, void. Vide Gaming; Unlawful; Void.
CONTRA FORMAM STATUTI. Contrary to the form of the statute.
2.- 1. When one statute prohibits a thing and another gives the penalty, i n an action for the penalty, the declaration should conclude contra fornam statutorum. Plowd. 206; 2 East, R. 333; Esp. on Pen. Act. 111; 1 Gallis. R. 268. The same rule applies to informations and indictments. 2 Hale, P. C. 172; 2 Hawk. c. 25, 117 Owen, 135.
3. - 2. But where a statute refers to a former one, and adopts and, continues the provisions of it, the declaration or indictment should conclude contraformam statuti. Hale, P. C, 172; 1 Lutw. 212.
4. - 3. Where a thing is prohibited by several statutes, if one only gives the action, and the others are explanatory and restrictive, the conclusion should be contra formam statuti. Yelv. 116; Cro. Jac. 187 Noy, 125, S. C.; Rep. temp. Hard. 409 Andr. 115, S. C.; 2 Saund. 377.
5. - 4. When the act prohibited was not an offence or ground of action at common law, it is necessary both in criminal and civil cases to conclude against the form of the statute or statutes. 1 Saund, 135, c.; 2 East, 333; 1 Chit. Pl. 358; 1 Saund. 249; 7 East, 516; 2 Mass. 116; 7 Mass. 9; 11 Mass. 280; 10 Mass. 36; 1 M'Cord, 121; 1 Gallis. 30.
6. - 5. But if the act prohibited by the statute is an offence or ground of action at common law, the indictment or action may be in the common law form, and the statute need not be noticed, even though it prescribe a form of prosecution or of action-the statute remedy being merely cumulative. 2 Inst. 200; 2 Burr.-803; 4 Burr. 2351; 3 Burr. 1418; 2 Wils. 146; 3 Mass. 515.
7. - 6. When a statute only inflicts a punishment on that which was an offence at common law, the offence prescribed may be inflicted, though the statute is not noticed in the indictment. 2 Binn. 332.
8. - 7. If an indictment for an offence at common law only, conclude "against the form of the statute in such case made and provided;" or " the form of the statute" generally, the conclusion will be rejected as surplusage, and the indictment maintained as at common. law. 1 Saund. 135, 3.
9. - 8. But it will be otherwise if it conclude against the form of "the statute aforesaid," when a statute has been previously recited. 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 266, 289. See further, Com. Dig. Pleader C 76; 5 Vin. Abr. 552, 556 1 Gallis. 26, 257; 9 Pick. 162 5 Pick. 128 2 Yerg. 390; 1 Hawks. 192; 3 Conn. 1 11 Mass. 280; 5 Greenl. 79.
CONTRA PACEM, pleadings. Against the peace.
2. In actions of trespass, the words contra pacem should uniformly accompany the allegation of the injury; in some cases they are material to the foundation of the action. Trespass to lands in a foreign country cannot be sustained. 4 T. R. 503 2 Bl. Rep.. 1O58.
3. The conclusion of the declaration, in trespass or ejectment, should be contra pacem , though these are now mere words of form, and not traversable, and the omission of that allegation will be aided, if not specially demurred to. 1 Chit. Pl. 375, 6 vide Arch. Civ. Pl. 169; 5 Vin. Ab. 557 Com. Dig. Action upon the case, C 4 Pleader, 3, M 8; Prohibition, F 7.
CONTRABAND, mar. law. Its most extensive sense, means all commerce which is carried on contrary to the laws of the state. This term is also used to designate all kinds of merchandise which are used, or transported, against the interdictions published by a ban or solemn cry.
2. The term is usually applied to that unlawful commerce which is so carried on in time of war. Merlin, Repert. h. t. Commodities particularly useful in war are contraband as arms, ammunition, horses, timber for ship building, and every kind of naval stores. When articles come into use as implements of war, which were before innocent, they may be declared to be contraband. The greatest difficulty to decide what is contraband seems to have occurred in the instance of provisions, which have not been held to be universally contraband, though Vattel admits that they become so on certain occasions, when there is an expectation of reducing an enemy by famine.
3. In modern times one of the principal criteria adopted by the courts for the decision of the question, whether any particular cargo of provisions be confiscable as contraband, is to examine whether tbose provisions be in a rude or manufactured state; for all articles, in such examinations, are treated with greater indulgence in their natural condition than when wrought tip for the convenience of the enemy's immediate use. Iron, unwrought, is therefore treated with indulgence, though anchors, and other instruments fabricated out of it, are directly contraband. 1 Rob. Rep. 1 89. See Vattel, b. 3, c. 7 Chitty's L. of Nat. 120; Marsh. Ins. 78; 2 Bro. Civ., Law, 311; 1 Kent. Com. 135; 3 Id. 215. 4. Contraband of war, is the act by which, in times of war, a neutral vessel introduces, or attempts to introduce into the territory of, one of the belligerent parties, arms, ammunition, or other effects intended for, or which may serve, hostile operations. Merlin, Repert. h. t. 1 Kent, Com. 135; Mann. Comm. B. 3, c. 7; 6 Mass. 102; 1 Wheat. 382; 1 Cowen, 56 John. Cas. 77, 120.
CONTRACT. This term, in its more extensive sense, includes every description of agreement, or obligation, whereby one party becomes bound to another to pay a sum of money, or to do or omit to do a certain act; or, a contract is an act which contains a perfect obligation. In its more confined sense, it is an agreement between two or more persons, concerning something to be, done, whereby both parties are hound to each other, *or one is bound to the other. 1 Pow. Contr. 6; Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1754; Code Civ. 1101; Poth. Oblig. pt. i. c. 1, S. 1, 1; Blackstone, (2 Comm. 442,) defines it to be an agreement, upon a sufficient consideration, to do or not to do a particular thing. A contract has also been defined to be a compact between two or more persons. 6 Cranch, R. 136.
2. Contracts are divided into express or implied. An express contract is one where the terms of the agreement are openly uttered and avowed at the time of making, as to pay a stated price for certain goods. 2 BI . Com. 443.
3. Express contracts are of three sorts 1. BI parol, or in writing, as contradistinguished from specialties. 2. By specialty or under seal. 3. Of record.
4. - l. A parol contract is defined to be a bargain or voluntary agreement made, either orally or in writing not under, seal, upon a good consideration, between two or more persons capable of contracting, to, do a lawful act, or to omit to do something, the performance whereof is not enjoined by law. 1 Com. Contr. 2 Chit. Contr. 2.
5. From this definition it appears, that to constitute a sufficient parol agreement, there must be, 1st. The reciprocal or mutual assent of two or more persons competent to contract. Every agreement ought to be so certain and complete, that each party may have an action upon it; and the agreement would be incomplete if either party withheld his assent to any of its terms. Peake's R. 227; 3 T. R. 653; 1 B. & A. 681 1 Pick. R. 278. The agreement must, in general, be obligatory on both parties, or it binds neither. To this rule there are, however, some exceptions, as in the case of an infant's contract. He may always sue, though he cannot be sued, on his contract. Stra. 937. See other instances; 6 East, 307; 3 Taunt. 169; 5 Taunt. 788; 3 B. & C. 232.
6. - 2d. There must be a good and valid consideration, motive or inducement to make the promise, upon which a party is charged, for this is of the very essence of a contract under seal, and must exist, although the contract be reduced to writing. 7 T. R. 350, note (a); 2 Bl. Coin. 444. See this Dict. Consideration; Fonb. Tr. Eq. 335, n. (a) Chit. Bills. 68.
7. - 3d. There must be a thing to be done, wbicb is not forbidden; or a thing to be omitted, the performance of which is not enjoined by law. A fraudulent or immoral contract, or one contrary to public policy is void Chit. Contr. 215, 217, 222: and it is also void if contrary to a statute. Id. 228 to 250; 1 Binn. 118; 4 Dall. 298 4 Yeates, 24, 84; 6 Binn. 321; 4 Serg & Rawle, 159; 4 Dall. 269; 1 Binn. 110 2 Browne's R. 48. As to contracts which are void for want of a compliance with the statutes of frauds, see Frauds, Statute of.
8. - 2. The second kind of express contracts are specialties, or those which are made under seal, as deeds, bonds, and the like; they are not merely written, but delivered over by the party bound. The solemnity and deliberation with whicb, on account of the ceremonies to be observed, a deed or bond is presumed to be entered into, attach to it an importance and character which do not belong to a simple contract. In the case of a specially, no consideration is necessary to give it validity, even in a court of equity. Plowd. 308; 7 T. R. 477; 4 B. & A. 652; 3 T. R. 438; 3 Bingh. 111, 112; 1 Fonb. Eq, 342, note When, a contract by specialty has been changed by a parol agreement, the whole of it becomes a parol contract. 2 Watts, 451; 9 Pick. 298; see 13 Wend. 71.
9. - 3. The highest kind of express contracts are those of record, such as judgments, recognizances of bail, and in England, statutes merchant and staple, and other securities of the same nature, cutered into with the intervention of some public authority. 2 Bl. Com. 465 . See Authentic Facts.
10. Implied contracts are such as reason and justice dictates, and which, therefore, the law presumes every man undertakes to perform; as if a man employs another to do any business for him, or perform any work, the law implies that the former contracted or undertook to pay the latter as much as his labor is worth; see Quantum merwit; or if one takes up goods from a tradesman, without any agreement of price, the law concludes that he contracts to pay their value. 2 Bl. Com. 443. See Quantum valebant; Assumpsit. Com. Dig. Action upon the case upon assumpsit, A 1; Id. Agreement.
11. By the laws of Louisiana, when considered as to the obligation of the parties, contracts are either unilateral or reciprocal. When the party to whom the engagement is made, makes no express agreement on his part, the contract is called unilateral, even in cases where the law attaches certain obligations to his acceptance. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1758. A loan for use, and a loan of money, are of this kind. Poth. Ob. P. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2. A reciprocal contract is where the parties expressly enter into mutual engagements such as sale, hire, and the like. Id.
12. Contracts, considered in relation to their substance, are either commutative or independent, principal or accessory.
13. Commutative contracts, are those in which what is done, given or promised by one party, is considered as equivalent to, or in consideration of what is done, given or promised by the other. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 17GI.
14. Independent contracts are those in which the mutual acts or proniises have no relation to each other, either as ecluivalents or as considerations. Id. art. 1762.
15. A principal contract is one entered into by both parties, on their accounts, or in the several qualities they assume.
16. An accessory contract is made for assuring the performance of a prior contract, either by the same parties or by others, such as suretyship, mortgage, and pledges. Id. art. 1764. Poth. Obl. p. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2, n. 14.
17. Contracts, considered inrelation to the motive for. making them, are either gratuitous or onerous. To be gratuitous, the object of a contract must be to benefit the person with whom it is made, without any profit or advantage, received or promised, as a consideration for it. It is not, however, the less gratuitous, if it proceed either from gratitude for a benefit before received, or from the hope of receiving one hereafter, although such benefits be of a pecuniary nature. Id. art. 1766. Any thing given or promised, as a consideration for the engagement or gift; any service, interest, or condition, imposed on what is given or promised, although unequal to it in value, makes a contract onerous in its nature. Id. art. 1767.
18. Considered in relation to their effects, contracts are either certain or hazardous. A contract is certain, when the thing to be done is supposed to depend on the will of the party, or when, in the usual course of events, it must happen in the manner stipulated. It is hazardous, when the performan ce.of that which is one of its objects, depends on an uncertain event. Id. art. 1769. 19. Pothier, in his excellent treatise on Obligations, p. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2, divides contracts under the five following heads:
20.- 1. Into reciprocal and unilateral.
21. - 2. Into consensual, or those which are formed by the mere consent of the parties, such as sale, hiring and mandate; and those in which it is necessary there should be something more than mere consent, such as loan of money, deposite or pledge, which from their nature require a delivery of the thing, (rei); whence they are called real contracts. See Real Contracts.
22.-3. Into-first, contracts of mutual interest, which are such as are entered into for the reciprocal interest and utility of each of the parties, as sales exchange, partnership, and the like.
23.-2d. Contracts of beneficence, which are those by which only one of the contracting parties is benefited, as loans, deposit and mandate. 3d. Mixed contracts, which are those by which one of the parties confers a benefit on the other, receiving something of inferior value in return, such as a donation subject to a charge,
24. - 4. Into principal and accessory.
25. - 5. Into those which are subjected by the civil law to certain rules and forms, and those which ate regulated by mere natural justice. See, generally, as to contracts, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Chitty on Contracts; Comyn on Contracts; Newland on Contracts; Com. Dig. titles Abatement, E 12, F 8; Admiralty, E 10, 11; Action upon the Case upon Assumpsit; Agreement; Bargain and Sale; Baron and Feme, Q; Condition; Dett, A 8, 9; Enfant, B 5; Idiot, D 1 Merchant, E 1; Pleader, 2 W, 11, 43; Trade D 3; War, B 2; Bac. Abr. tit. Agreement; Id. Assumpsit; Condition; Obligation; Vin. Abr. Condition; Contracts and Agreements; Covenants; Vendor, Vendee; Supp. to Ves. jr. vol. 2, p. 260, 295, 376, 441; Yelv. 47; 4 Ves. jr., 497, 671; Archb. Civ. Pl. 22; Code Civ. L. 3, tit. 3 to 18; Pothier's Tr. of Obligations Sugden on Vendors and Purchasers; Story's excellent treatise on Bailments; Jones on Bailments; Toullier, Droit Civil Francais, tomes 6 et 7; Ham. Parties to Actions, Ch. 1; Chit. Pr. Index, h. t.; and the articles Agreement; Apportionment; Appropriation; Assent; Assignment; Assumpsit; Attestation; Bailment; Bargain and sale; Bidder; Bilateral contract; Bill of Exchange; Buyer; Commodate; Condition; Consensual contract; Conjunctive; Consummation; Construction; Contracto of benevolence; Covenant; Cumulative contracts; Debt; Deed; Delegation. Delivery; Discharge Of a contract; Disjunctive; Equity of a redemption; Exchange; Guaranty; Impairing the obligation of contracts; Insurance; Interested contracts; Item; Misrepresentation; Mortgage; Mixed contract; Negociorum gestor; Novation; Obligation; Pactum constitutae, pecuniae; Partners; Partnership; Pledge; Promise; Purchaser; Quasi contract; Representatian; Sale; Seller; Settlement; Simple contract; Synallagmatic contract; Subrogation; Title; Unilateral contract.
CONTRACT or BENEVOLENCE, Civil law. One which is made for the benefit of only one of the contracting parties; such as loan for use, deposit, and mandate. Poth. Obl. n. 12. See Contracts.
CONTRACTION. An abbreviation; a mode of writing or printing by which some of the letters of a word are omitted. See Abbreviations.
CONTRACTOR. One who enters into a contract this term is usually applied to persons who undertake to do public work, or the work for a company or corporation on a large scale, at a certain fixed price, or to furnish goods to another at a fixed or ascertained price. 2 Pardess. n. 300. Vide 5 Whart. 366.
CONTRADICTION. The incompatibility, contrariety, and evident opposition of two ideas, which are the subject of one and the same proposition.
2. In general, when a party accused of a crime contradicts himself, it is presumed he does so because he is guilty for truth does not contradict itself, and is always consistent, whereas falsehood is in general inconsistent and the truth of some known facts will contradict thefalsehood of those which are falsely alleged to be true. But there must still be much caution used by the judge, as there may be sometimes apparent contradictions which arise either from the timidity, the ignorance, or the inability of the party to explain himself, when in fact he tells the truth.
3. When a witness contradicts himself as to something which is important in the case, his testimony will be much weakened, or it may be entirely discredited and when he relates a story of facts which he alleges passed only in his presence, and he is contradicted as to other facts which are known to others, his credit will be much impaired.
4. When two witnesses, or other persons, state things directly opposed to each other, it is the duty of the judge or jury to reconcile these apparent contradictions; but when this cannot be done, the more improbable statement must be rejected; or, if both are entitled to the same credit, then the matter is as if no proof had been given. See Circumstances.
CONTRAFACTION, crim. law. Counterfeiting, imitating. In the French law contrafaction (contrefacon) is the illegal reprinting of a took for which the author or his assignee has a copyriglit, to the prejudice of the latter. Merl' Repert. mot Contrefacon.
CONTRAVENTION, French law. An act which violates the law, a treaty or an agreement which the party has made. The Penal Code, art. 1, denominates a contravention, that infraction of the law punished by a fine, which does not exceed fifteen francs, and an imprisonment not exceeding three days.
CONTRECTATION. The ability to be removed. In order to commit a larceny, the property must have been removed. When, from its nature, it is incapable of contrectation, as real estate, there can be no larceny. Bowy. Mod. Civ. Law, 268. See Larceny Furtum est contrectatio rei fraudulosa. Dig. 47, 2. See Taking.
CONTREFACON, French law. Counterfeit. This is a bookseller's term, which signifies the offence of those who print or cause to be printed, without lawful authority, a book of which the author or his assigns have a copyright. Merl. Rep. h. t.
CONTRIBUTION, civil law. A partition by which the creditors of an insolvent debtor divide, among themselves the proceeds of his property, proportionably to the amount of their respective credits. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 2522, n. 10. It is a division pro rata. Merl. Rep. h. t.
CONTRIBUTION, contracts. When two or more persons jointly owe a debt, and one is compelled to pay the whole of it, the others are bound to indemnify him for the payment of their shares; this indemnity is called a contribution. 1 Bibb. R. 562; 4 John. Ch. R. 545; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3935-6.
2. The subject will be considered by taking a view, 1. Of right of the creditors where there are several debtors. 2. Of the right of the debtor who pays the whole debt. 3. Of the liabilities of the debtors who are liable to contribution. 4. Of the liability of land owned by several owners, when it is subject to a charge. 5. Of the liability of owners of goods in a vessel, when part is thrown overboard to save the rest.
3. - 1. The creditor of several debtors, jointly bound to him, has a right to compel the payment by any he may choose; but hecannot sue them severally, unless they are severally bound.
4. - 2. When one of several debtors pays a debt, the creditor is bound in conscience, if not by contract, to give to the party paying the debt all his remedies against the other debtors. 1 Cox, R. 318 S. C. 2 B. & P. 270 2 Swanst. R. 189, 192; 3 Bligh, 59 14 Ves. 160; 1 Ves. 31 12 Wheat. 596 1 Hill, Ch. R. 844, 351 1 Term. St. It. 512, 517; 1 Ala. R. 23, 28; 11 Ohio It. 444, 449 8 Misso. It. 169, 175.
5.- 3. A debtor liable to contribution is not responsible upon a contract, but is so in equity. But courts of common law, in modern times, have assumed a jurisdiction to compel contribution among sureties, in the absence of any positive contract, on the ground of an implied assumpsit, and each of the sureties may be sued for his respective quota or proportion. White's L. C. in Eq. 66. The remedyin equity is, however, much more effective. For example, a surety who pays an entire debt, can, in equity, compel the solvent sureties to contribute towards the payment of the entire debt. 1 Chan. R. 34 1 Chan. Cas. 246; Finch, R. 15, 203. But at law he can recover no more than an aliquot part of the whole, regard being had to the number of co-sureties. 2 B. & P. 268; 6 B. & C. 697.
6. - 4. When land is charged with the payment of a legacy, or an estate with the portion of a posthumous child, every part is bound to make contribution. 3 Munf. R. 29; 1 John. Ch. R. 425 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1301.
7. - 5. Contribution takes place in another case; namely, when in order to save a ship or cargo, a part of the goods are cast overboard, the ship and cargo are liable to contribution in order to indemnify the owner of the goods lost, except his just proportion. No contribution can be claimed between joint wrong doers. Bac. Ab. Assumpsit A; Vide 3 Com. Dig. 143; 8 Com. Dig. 373; 5 Vin. Ab. 561; 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 159, 343; 3 Ves. jr. 64; Wesk. Ins. 130; 10 S. & R. 75; 5 B. & Ad. 936; S. C. 3 N. & M. 258; Rast. Entr. 161; 2 Ventr. 348; 2 Vern. 592; 2 B. & P. 268; 3 B. & P 235; 5 East, 225; 1 J. P. Smith 411 5 Esp. 194; 3 Campb. 480; Gow, N. P. C. 13; 2 A. & E. 57; 4 N. & M. 64; 6 N. & M. 494.
CONTRIBUTIONS, public law. Taxes or money contributed to the support of the government.
2. Contributions are of three kinds, namely: first, those which arise from persons on account of their property, real or personal, or which are imposed upon their industry - those which are laid on and paid by real estate without regard to its owner; and - those to which personal property is subject, in its transmission from hand to hand, without regard to the owner. See Domat, Dr. Publ. 1. 1, t. 5, s. 2, n. 2.
3. this is a generic term which includes all kinds of impositions for the public benefit. See Duties; Imports; Taxes.
4. By contributions is also meant forced levy of money or property by a belligerent in a hostile country which he occupies, by which means the country is made to contribute to the support of the army of occupation. These contributions are usually taken instead of pillage. Vatt. Dr. des Gens, liv. 3, 9, 165; Id. liv. 4, c. 3, 29.
CONTROLLERS. Officers who are appointed, to examine the accounts of other officers. More usually written comptrollers. (q. v.)
CONTROVER, obsolete. One who invents false news. 2 Inst. 227.
CONTROVERSY. A dispute arising between two or more persons. It differs from case, which includes all suits criminal as well as civil; whereas controversy is a civil and not a criminal proceeding. 2 Dall. R. 419, 431, 432; 1 Tuck. Bl. Com. App. 420, 421; Story, Const. 1668.
2. By the constitution of the United States the judicial power shall extend to controversies to which the United States shall be a party. Art. 2, 1. The meaning to be attached to the word controversy in the constitution , is that above given.
CONTUBERNIUM, civ. law. As among the Romans, slaves had no civil state, their marriages, although valid according to natural law, when contr acted with the consent of their masters, and when there was no legal bar to them, yet were without civil effects; they having none except what arose from natural law; a marriage of this kind was called contubernium. It was so called whether both or only one of the parties was a slave. Poth. Contr. de Mariage, part 1, c. 2, 4. Vicat, ad verb.
CONTUMACY, civil law. The refusal or neglect of a party accused to appear and answer to a charge preferred against him in a court of justice. This word is derived from the Latin contumacia, disobedience. 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 455; Ayl. Parer. 196; Dig. 50, 17, 52; Code Nap. art. 22.
2. Contumacy is of two kinds, actual and presumed: actual contumacy is when the party before the court refuses to obey some order of the court; presumed contumacy is the act of refusing or declining to appear upon being cited. 3 Curt. Ecc. R. 1.
CONTUMAX, civ. law. One accused of a crime who refuses to appear and answer to the charge. An outlaw.
CONTUSION, med. jurisp. An injury or lesion, arising from the shock of a body with a large surface, which presents no loss of substance, and no apparent wound. If the skin be divided, the injury takes the name of a contused wound. Vide 1 Ch. Pr, 38; 4 Carr. & P. 381, 487, 558, 565; 6 Carr. & P. 684; 2 Beck's Med. Jur. 178.
CONUSANCE, CLAIM OF, English law. This is defined to be an intervention by a third person, demanding judicature in the cause against the plaintiff, who has chosen to commence his action out of claimant's court. 2 Wilson's R. 409.
2. It is a question of jurisdiction between the two courts Fortesc. R. 157; 5 Vin. Abr. 588; and not between the plaintiff and defendant, as in the case of plea to the jurisdiction, and therefore it must be demanded by the party entitled to conusance, or by his representative, and not by the defendant or his attorney. Id. ibid. A plea to the jurisdiction must be pleaded in person, but a claim of conusance may be made by attorney. 1 Chit. Pl. 403.
3. There are three sorts of conusance. 1. Tentere placita, which does not oust another court of its jurisdiction, but only creates a concurrent one. 2. Cognitio placitorum, when the plea is commenced in one court, of which conusance belongs to another. 3. A conusance of exclusive jurisdiction; as that no other court shall hold pica, &c. Hard. 509 Bac. Ab. Courts, D.
CONUSANT. One who knows as if a party knowing of an agreement in which he has an interest, makes no objection to it, he is said to be conusant. Co. Litt. 157.
CONUSOR. The same as cognizor; one who passes or acknowledges a fine of lands or tenements to another. See Consignor. CONVENE, civil law. This is a technical term, signifying to bring an action.
CONVENTIO, canon law. The act of convening or calling together the parties, by summoning the defendant. Vide Reconvention. When the defendant was brought to answer, he was said to be convened, which the canonists called conventio, because the plaintiff and defendant met to contest. Sto. Eq. Pl. 402; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4117.
CONVENTION, contracts, civil law. A general term which comprehends all kinds of contracts, treaties, pacts, or agreements. It is defined to be the consent of two or more persons to form with each other an engagement, or to dissolve or change one which they had previously formed. Domat, Lois Civ. 1. 1, t. 1, s. 1 Dig. lib. 2, t. 14, 1. 1 Lib. 1, t. 1, 1. 1, 4 and 5; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 100.
CONVENTION, legislation. This term is applied to a selecting of the delegates elected by the people for other purposes than usual legislation. It is mostly used to denote all assembly to make or amend the constitution of, a state, but it sometimes indicates an assembly of the delegates of the people to nominate officers to be supported at an election.
CONVERSANT. One who is in the habit of being in a particular place, is said to be conversant there. Barnes, 162.
CONVERSION. torts. the uulawful turning or applying the personal goods of another to the use of the taker, or of some other person than the, owner; or the unlawful destroying or altering their nature. Bull. N. P. 44; 6 Mass. 20; 14 Pick. 356; 3 Brod. & Bing. 2; Cro. Eliz. 219 12 Mod. 519; 5 Mass. 104; 6 Shepl. 382; Story, Bailm. 188, 269, 306; 6 Mass. 422; 2 B. & P. 488; 3 B. & Ald. 702; 11 M. & W. 363; 8 Taunt. 237; 4 Taunt. 24.
2. When a party takes away or wrongfully assumes the right to goods which belong to another, it will in general be sufficient evidence of a conversion but when the original taking was, lawful, as when the party found the goods, and the detention only is illegal, it is absolutely necessary to male a demand of the goods, and there must be a refusal to deliver them before the conversion will, be complete. 1 Ch. Pr. 566; 2 Saund. 47 e, note 1 Ch. Pl. 179; Bac. Ab. Trover, B 1 Com. Dig. 439; 3 Com. Dig. 142; 1 Vin. Ab. 236; Yelv. 174, n.; 2 East, R. 405; 6 East, R. 540; 4 Taunt. 799 5 Barn. & Cr. 146; S. C. 11 Eng. C. L. Rep. 185; 3 Bl. Com. 152; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3522, et seq. The refusal by a servant todeliver the goods entrusted to him by his master, is not evidence of a conversion by his master. 5 Hill, 455.
3. The tortious taking of property is, of itself, a conversion 15 John. R. 431 and any intermeddling with it, or any exercise of dominion over it, subversive of the dominion of the owner, or the nature of the bailment, if it be bailed, is, evidence of a conversion. 1 Nott & McCord, R. 592; 2 Mass. R. 398; 1 Har. & John. 519; 7 John. R. 254; 10 John. R. 172 14 John. R. 128; Cro. Eliz. 219; 2 John. Cas. 411. Vide Trover.
CONVERSION, in equity, The considering of one thing as changed into another; for example, land will be considered as converted into money, and treated as such by a court of equity, when the owner has contracted to sell his estate in which case, if he die before the conveyance, his executors and not his heirs will be entitled to the money. 2 Vern. 52; S., C. 3 Chan. R. 217; 1 B1. Rep. 129. On the other hand, money is converted into land in a variety of ways as for example, when a man agrees to buy land, and dies before he has received the conveyance, the money he was to pay for it will be considered as converted into lands, and descend to the heir. 1 P. Wms. 176 2 Vern. 227 10 Pet. 563; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CONVEYANCE, contracts. The transfer of the title to land by one or more persons to another or others. By the term persons is here understood not only natural persons but corporations. The instrument which conveys the property is also called a conveyance. For the several kinds of conveyances see Deed. Vide, generally, Roberts on Fraud. Conv. passim; 16 Vin. Ab. 138; Com. Dig. Chancery, 2 T 1; 3 M 2; 4 S 2; Id. Discontinuance, C 3, 4, 5; Id. Guaranty, D; Id. Pleader, C 37; Id. Poiar, C 5; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. The whole of a conveyance, when it consists of different parts or instruments, must be taken together, and the several parts of it relate back to the principal part; 4 Burr. Rep. 1962; as a fine; 2 Burr. R. 704; or a recovery; 2 Burr. Rep. 135. 2. When there is no express agreement to the contrary, the expense of the conveyance falls upon the purchaser; 2 Ves. Jr. 155, note; who must prepare and tender the conveyance but see contra, 2 Rand. 20. The expense of the execution of the conveyance is, on the contrary, always borne by the vendor. Sugd. Vend. 296; contra, 2 Rand. 20; 2 McLean, 495. Vide 5 Mass. R. 472; 3 Mass. 487; Eunom. Dial. 2, 12; Voluntary Conveyance.
CONVEYANCE OF VESSELS. The act of congress, approved the 29th July, 1850, entitled an act to provide for recording the conveyances of vessels and for other purposes, enacts that no bill of sale, moortgage, hypothecation or conveyance of any vessel, or part of any vessel of the United States, shall be valid against any person, other than the grantor or mortgagor, his heirs and devisees, and persons having actual notice thereof, unless such, bill of sale, mortgage, hypothecation or conveyance be recorded in the office of the collector of the customs, where such vessel is registered or enrolled. Provided, that the lien by bottomry on any vessel, created during her voyage, by a loan of money or materials necessary to repair or enable such vessel to prosecute a voyage, shall not lose its priority or be in any way affected by the provisions of the act. See. 2 enacts, that the collectors of the customs shall record all such bills of sale, mortgages, hypothecations or conveyances, and also all certificates for discharging and cancelling any such conveyances, in a book or books to be kept for that purpose, in the order of their reception; noting in said book or books, and also on the bill of sale, mortgage, hypothecation or conveyance, the time when the same was received; and shall certify on the bill of sale, mortgage, hypothecation or conveyance, or certificate of discharge or cancellation, the number of the book and page where recorded and shall receive, for so recording such instrument of conveyance or certificate of discharge, fifty cents. Sec. 3 enacts, that the collectors of the customs shall keep an index of such records, inserting alphabetically the names of the vendor or mortgagor, and of the vendee or mortgagee, and shall permit said index and books of 'records to be inspected during office hours, under such reasonable regulations as they may establish and shall, when required, furnish to any person a certificate setting forth the names of the owners of any vessel registered or enrolled, the parts or proportions owned by each, if inserted in the register or enrollment, and also the material facts of any existing bill of sale, mortgage, hypothecation, or other incumbrance upon such vessel, recorded since the issuing of the last register or enrollment; viz. the date, amount of such incumbrance, and from and to whom or in whose favor made. The collector shall receive for each such certificate one dollar. Sec. 4. By this section it is enacted, that the collectors of the customs shall furnish certified copies of such records, on the receipt of fifty cents for each bill of sale, mortgage, or other conveyance. Sect. 5. This section provides that the owner or agent of the owner of any vessel of the United States, applying to a collector of the customs for a register or enrollment of a vessel, shall, in addition to the oath now prescribed by law, set forth, in the oath of ownership, the part or proportion of such vessel belonging to each owner, and the same shall be inserted in the register of enrollment; and that all bills of sale of vessels registered or enrolled shall set forth the part of the vessel owned by each person selling, and the part conveyed to each person purchasing.
CONVEYANCER. One who makes it his business to draw deeds of conveyance of lands for others., 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2422.
2. It is usual also for conveyancers to act as brokers for the seller. In these cases the conveyancer should examine with scrupulous exactness into the title of the lands which are conveyed by his agency, and, if this be good, to be very cautious that the estate be, not encumbered. In cases of doubt he should invariably propose to his employer to take the advice of his counsel.
3. Conveyancers also act as brokers for the loan of money on real estate, Secured by mortgage. The same care should be observed in these cases.
CONVICIUM, civil law. The name of a species of slander, or, in the meaning of the civil law, injury, uttered in pubic, and which charged some one with some act contra bonos mores. Vicat, ad verb; Bac. Ab. Slander.
CONVICT. One who has been condemned by a competent court. This term is wore commonly applied to one who has been convicted of a crime or misdemeanor. There are various local acts which punish the importation of convicts.
CONVICTION, practice. A condemnation. In its most extensive sense this word signifies the giving judgment against a defendant, whether criminal or civil. In a more limited sense, it means, the judgment given against the criminal. And in its most restricted sense it is a record of the summary proceedings upon any penal statute before one or more justices of the peace, or other persons duly authorized, in a case where the offender has been convicted and sentenced: this last is usually termed a summary conviction.
2. As summary. convictions have been introduced in derogation of the common law, and operate to the exclusion of trial by jury, the courts have required that the strict letter of the statute should be observed 1 Burr. Rep. 613 and that the magistrates should have been guided by rules similar to those adopted by the common law, in criminal prosecution, and founded in natural justice; unless when the statute dispenses with the form of stating them.
3. The general rules in relation to convictions are, first, it must be under the hand and seal of the magistrate before whom it is taken; secondly, it must be in the present tense, but this, perhaps, ought to extend only to the judgment; thirdly, it must be certain; fourthly, although it is well to lay the offence to be contra pacem, this is not indispensable; fifthly, a conviction cannot be good in part and bad in part.
4. A conviction usually consists of six parts; first, the information; which should contain, 1. The day when it was taken. 2. The place where it was taken. 3. The name of the informer. 4. The name and style of the justice or justices to whom it was given. 5. The name of the offender. 6. The time of committing the offence. 7. The place where the offence was committed. 8. An exact decription of the offence.
5. Secondly, the summons.
6. Thirdly, the appearance or non-appearance of the defendant.
7. Fourthly, his defence or confessions.
8. Fifthly, the evidence. Dougl. 469; 2 Burr. 1163; 4 Burr. 2064.
9. Sixthly, the judgment or adjudication, which should state, 1. That the defendant is convicted. 2. The forfeiture or penalty. Vide Bosc. on Conviction; Espinasse on Penal Actions; 4 Dall. 266; 3 Yeates, 475; 1 Yeates, 471. As to the effect of a conviction as evidence in a civil case, see 1 Phil. Ev. 259; 8 Bouv. Inst. 3183.
CONVOCATION, eccles. law. This word literally signifies called together. The assembly of the representatives of the clergy. As to the powers of convocations, see Shelf. on M. & D. 23., See Court of Convocation.
CONVOY, mar. law. A naval force under the command of an officer appointed by government, for the protection of merchant ships and others, during the whole voyage, or such part of it as is known to require such protection. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 9, s. 5 Park. Ins. 388.
2. Warranties are sometimes inserted in policies of insurance that the ship shall sail with convoy. To comply with this warranty, five things are essential; first, the ship must sail with the regular convoy appointed by the government; secondly, she must sail from the place of rendezvous appointed by government; thirdly, the convoy must be for the Voyage; fourthly, the ship insured must have sailing instructions; fifthly, she must depart and continue with the convoy till the end of the voyage, unless separated by necessity. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 9, s. 5.
CO-OBLIGOR, contracts. One who is bound together with one or more others to fulfil an obligation. As to what will constitute a joint obligation, see 5 Bin. 199; Windham's Case, 5 Co. 7; 2 Ev. Poth. 63; Ham. Parties, 29, 20, 24; 1 Saund. 155; Saunders, Arguendo and note 2; 5 Co. 18 b, 19 a, Slingsly's Case. He may be jointly, or severally bound.
2. When obligors are jointly and not severally bound to pay a joint debt, they must be sued jointly during their joint lives, and after the death of some of them, the survivors alone can be sued; each is bound to pay the whole debt, having recourse to the others for contribution. See 1 Saund. 291, n. 4; Hardress, 198; 2 Ev. Poth. 63, 64, 66. Yet an infant co-obligor need not be joined, for his infancy may be replied to a plea of non-joinder in abatement. 3 Esp. 76; 5 Esp. 47; also, see 5 Bac. Abr. 163-4; 2 Vern. 99; 2 Moss. Rep. 577; 1 Saund. 291 b, n. 2; 6 Serg. & R. 265, 266; 1 Caines' Cases in Err. 122.
3. When co-obligors are severally bound, each may be sued separately; and in case of the death of any one of them, his executors or administrators may be sued.
4. On payment of the obligation by any one of them, when it was for a joint debt, the payer is entitled to contribution from the other co-obligors.
COOL BLOOD. A phrase sometimes used to signify tranquillity, or calmness; that is, the condition of one who has the calm and undisturbed use of his reason. In cases of homicide, it frequently becomes necessary to. ascertain whether the act of the person killing was done in cool blood or not, in order to ascertain the degree of his guilt. Bac. Ab. Murder, B; Kiel 56 Sid. 177 Lev. 180. Vide Intention; Murder; Manslaughter; Will.
CO-OPTATION. A concurring choice. Sometimes applied to the act of the members of a corporation, in choosing a person to supply a vacancy. in their body.
COPARCENERS, estates. Persons on whom lands of inheritance descend from their ancestor. According to the English law, there must be no males; that is no the rule in this country. Vide Estates in Coparcenary, and 4 Kent, Com. 262; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 187 L-2.
COPARTNER. One who is a partner with one or more other persons; a member of a partnership.
COPARTNERSHIP. This word is frequently used in the sense of partnership. (q. v.)
CO-PLAINTIFF. One who is plaintiff in an action with another.
COPULATIVE TERM. One which is placed between two or more others to join them together: the word and is frequently used for this purpose. For example, a man promises to pay another a certain sum of money, and to give his note for another sum: in this case he must perform both.
2. But the copulative may sometimes be construed into a disjunctive, (q. v.) as, when things are copulated which cannot possibly be so; for example, " to die testate and intestate." For examples of construction of disjunctive terms, see the cases cited at the word Disjunctive, and Ayl. Pand. 55; 5 Com. Dig. 338; Bac. Ab. Conditions, P 5; Owen, 52; Leon. 74; Golds. 71; Roll. Ab. 444; Cro. Jac. 594.
COPY. A copy is a true transcript of an original writing.
2. Copies cannot be given in evidence, unless proof is made that the originals, from which they are taken, are lost, or in the power of the opposite party; and in the latter case, that notice has been given him to produce the original. See 12 Vin. Abr. 97; Phil. Ev. Index, h. t.; Poth. Obl. Pt. 4, c. 1, art. 33 Bouv. Inst. n. 3055. 3. To prove a copy of a record, the witness must be able to swear that he has examined it, line for line, with the original, or has examined the copy, while another person read the original. 1 Campb. R. 469. It is not requisite that the persons examining should exchange, papers, and read them alternately. 2 Taunt. R. 470. Vide, generally, 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3106-10; 1 Stark. R. 183; 2 E. C. L. Rep. 183; 4 Campb. 372; 2 Burr.1179; B.N.P.129; 1 Carr. & P. 578. An examined copy of the books of unincorporated banks are not, per se, evidence. 12 S. & R. 256. See 13 S. & R. 135, 334; 2 N. & McC. 299.
COPYRIGHT. The property which has been secured to the author of a book, map, chart, or musical composition, print, cut or engraving, for a limited time, by the constitution and laws of the United States. Lord Mansfield defines copy, or as it is now termed copyright, as follows: I use the word copy in the technical sense in which that name or term has been used for ages, to signify an incorporeal right to the sole printing and publishing of something intellectual, communicated by letters. 4 Burr. 3296; Merl. Repert. mot Contrefacon.
2. This subject will be considered by taking a view of, 1. The legislation of the United States. 2. Of the persons entitled to a copyright. 3. For what it is granted. 4. Nature of the right. 5. Its duration. 6. Proceedings to obtain Such right. 7. Requisites after the grant. 8. Remedies. 9. Former grants.
3. - 1. The legislation of the United States. The Constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 8, gives power to congress "to promote the progress of science, and the useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. In pursuance of this constitutional autbority, congress passed the act of May 31, 1790; 1 Story's L. U. S. 94, and the act of April 29, 1802, 2 Story's L. U. S. 866, but now repealed by the act of February 3, 1831, 4 Shars. Cont. of Story, 2221, saving, always such rights as may have been obtained in conformity to their provision. By this last mentioned act, entitled " An act to amend the several acts respecting copyrights," the subject is now regulated.
4.- 2. Of the persons entitled to a copyright. Any person or persons, being a citizen or citizens of the United States, or resident therein, who is the author or authors of any book or books, map, chart, or musical composition, or who has designed, etched, engraved, worked, or caused to be engraved, etched or worked from his own design, any print or engraving, and the executors, administrators, or legal representatives of such person or persons. Sect. 1, and sect. 8.
5. - 3. For what work the copyright is granted. The copyright is granted for any book or books, map, chart, or musical composition, which may be now, (February 3, 1831, the date of the act,) made or composed, and not printed or published, or shall hereafter be made or composed, or any print or engraving, which the author has invented, designed, etched, engraved or worked, or caused to be engraved, etched or worked from his own design. Sect. 1.
6.- 4. Nature of the right. The person or persons to whom a copyrigbt has been lawfully granted, have the sole right and liberty of printing, reprinting, publishing and vending such book or books, map, chart, musical composition, print, out or engraving, in whole or in part. Sect. 1.
7.- 5. Duration of the copyright. The right extends for the term of twenty-eight Years from the time of recording the title of the book, &c., in the office of the clerk of the court, as directed by law. Sect. 1.
8. But this time may be extended by the following provisions of the act.
9. Sect. 2. If, at the expiration of the aforesaid term of years, such author, inventor, designer, engraver, or any of them, where the work had been originally composed and made by wore than one person, be still living, and a citizen or citizens of the United States, or resident therein, or being dead, shall have left a widow, or child, or children, either or all then living, the same exclusive right shall be continued to such author, designer, or engraver, or if dead, then to such widow and child, or children, for the further term of fourteen years: Provided, that the title of the work so secured shall be a second time recorded, and all such other regulations as are herein required in regard to original copyrights, be complied with in respect to such renewed copyright, and that within six months before the expiration of the first term.
10. Sect. 3. In all cases of renewal of copyright under this act, such author or proprietor shall, within two months from the date of, said renewal, cause a copy of the record thereof to be published in one or more of the newspapers printed in the United States, for the space of four weeks.
11. - Sect. 16. Whenever a copyright has been heretofore obtained by an author or authors, inventor, designer, or engraver, of any book, map, chart, print, cut, or engraving, or by a proprietor of the same; if such author or authors, or either of them such inventor, desiginer, or engraver, be living at the passage of this act, then, such author or authors, or the survivor of them, such inventor, engraver, or designer, shall continue to have tbe same exclusive right to his book, chart, map, print, cut or engraving, with the benefit of each and all the provisions of this act, for the security thereof, for such additional period of time as will, together with the tune which shall have elapsed from the first entry of such copyright, make up the term of twenty-eight years, with the same right to his widow, child, or children, to renew the copyright, at the expiration thereof, as is provided in relation to copyrights originally secured under this act. And if such author or authors, inventor, designer, or engraver, shall not be living at the passage of this act, then, his or their heirs, executors and administrators, shall be entitled to the like exclusive enjoyment of said copyright, with the benefit of each and all the provisions of this act for the security thereof, for the period of twenty-eight years from the first entry of said copyright with the like privilege of renewal to the widow, child, or children, of author or authors, designer, inventor, or engraver, as is provided in relation to copyrights originally secured under this act.
12. - 6. Proceedings to obtain a copyright. No person shall be entitled to the benefit of this act, unless he shall, before publication, deposit a printed copy of the title of such book, or books, map, chart, musical composition, print, out, or engraving, in the clerk's office of the district court of the district wherein the author or proprietor shall reside, and the clerk of such court is hereby directed and required to record the same therein forthwith, in a book to be kept for that purpose, in the words following (giving a copy of the title under the seal of the court, to the said author or proprietor, whenever he shall require the same:) " District of_____to wit: Be it remembered, that on the _____ day of ______ Anno Domini, A. B. of the said district, hath deposited in this office the title of a book, (map, chart, or otherwise, as the case may be,) the title of which is in the words following, to wit; (here insert the title;) the right whereof he claims as author (or proprietor, as the case may be in conformity with an act of congress, entitled 'An act to amend the several acts respecting copyrights.' C. D. clerk of the district." For which record, the clerk shall be entitled to receive from the person claiming such right as aforesaid, fifty cents; and the like sum for every copy, under seal, actually given to such person or his assigns. The act to establish the Smithsonian Institution, for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men, enacts, section 10, that the author or proprietor of any book, map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, or engraving, for, which a copyright shall be secured under the existing acts of congress, or those 'which shall hereafter be enacted respecting copyrights, shall, within three months from the publication of said book, etc., deliver or cause to be delivered, one copy of the same to the librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, and one copy to the librarian, of Congress Library, for the use of the said libraries.
13.- 7. Requisites after the grant. No person shall be entitled to the benefit of this act, unless he shall give information of copyright being secured, by-causing to be inserted, in the several copies of each and every edition published during the term secured, on the title page, or the page immediately following, if it be a book, or, if a map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, or engraving, by causing to be impressed on the face thereof, or if a volume of maps, charts, music or engravings, upon the title or frontispice thereof, the following words, viz: " Entered according to act of congress, in the year by A. B., in the clerk's office of the district court of ___________________" (as the case may be.)
14. The author or proprietor of any such book, map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, or engraving, shall, within three months from the publication of said book, map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, or engraving, deliver or cause to be delivered a copy. of the same to the clerk of said district. And it shall be the duty of the clerk of each district court, at least once in every year, to transmit a certified list of all such records of copyright, including the titles so recorded, and the date of record, and also all the several copies of books or other works deposited in his office, according to this act, to the secretary of state, to be preserved in his office.
15.- 8. The remedies may be considered with regard, 1. To the penalties wbich may be incurred. 2. The issue in actions under this act. 3. The costs. 4. The Iimitation.
16. - 1. The penalties imposed by this act relate, first, to the violation of the copyright of books secondly, the violation of the copyright of prints, outs or engravings, maps, charts, or musical compositions thirdly, the printing or publishing of any manuscripts without the consent of the author or legal proprietor; fourthly, for inserting in any book, &c., that the copyright has been secured contrary to truth.
17. - First. If any other person or persons, from and after recording the title of any book or books, according to this act, shall, within the term or terms herein limited, print, publish, or import, or cause to be printed, published, or imported, any copy of such book or books, without the consent of the person legally entitled to the copyright thereof, first had and obtained in writing, signed in presence of two or more credible witnesses, or shall, knowing the same to be so printed or imported, publish, sell, or expose to sale, or cause to be published, sold, or exposed to sale, any copy of such book, without such consent in writing, then such offender Shall forfeit every copy of such book to the person legally, at the time, entitled to the copyright thereof and shall also forfeit and pay fifty cents for every such sheet which may be found in his possession, either printed or printing, published, imported, or exposed to sale, contrary tor the intent of this act; the one moiety thereof to such legal owner of the copyright as aforesaid, and the other to the use of the United States; to be recovered by action of debt in any court having competent jurisdiction thereof.
18. - Secondly. If any person or persons, after the recording the title of any print, cut or engraving, map, chart, or musical composition, according to the provisions of this act, shall, within the term or terms limited by this act, engrave, etch, or work, sell, or Copy, or cause to be engraved, etched, worked, or sold, or copied, either on the whole, or by varying, adding to, or diminisbing the main design, with intent to evade the law, or shall print or import for sale, or cause to be printed or imported for sale, any such map, cbart, musical composition, print, cut, or engraving, or any parts thereof, without the consent of the proprietor or proprietors of the copyright thereof, first obtained in writing, signed in the presense of two credible witnesses; or, knowing the same to be so printed or imported, without such consent, shall publish, sell, or expose to sale, or in any manner dispose of any such map, chart, musical composition, engraving, cut, or print, without such consent, as foresaid; then such offenders shall forfeit the plate or plates on which such map, chart, musical composition, engraving, cut, or print, shall be copied, and also all and every sheet thereof so copied or printed, as aforesaid, to the proprietor or proprietors of the copyright thereof; and shall further forfeit one dollar for every sheet of such map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, or engraving, which may be found in his or their possession, printed or published, or exposed to sale, contrary to the true intent and meaning of this act; the one moiety thereof to the proprietor or proprietors, and the other moiety to the use of the United States, to be recovered in any court having competent jurisdiction thereof.
19. Nothing in this act shall be construed to extend to prohibit the importation or vending, printing or publishing, of any map, chart, book, musical composition, print, or engraving, written, composed, or made by any person not being a citizen of the United States, nor resident within the jurisdiction thereof.
20. Thirdly. Any person or persons, who shall print or publish any manuscript whatever, without the consent of the author or legal proprietor first obtained as aforesaid, (if such author or proprietor be a citizen of the United States, or resident therein,) shall be liable to suffer and pay to the author or proprietor all damages occasioned by such injury, to be recovered by a special action on the case founded upon this act, in any court having cognizance thereof; and the several courts of the United States empowered to grant injunctions to prevent the violation of the rights of authors and inventors, are hereby empowered to grant injunctions, in like manner, according to the principles of equity, to restrain such publication of any manuscript, as aforesaid.
21.-Fourthly. If any person or persons, from and after the passing of this act, shall print or publish any book, map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, or engraving, not having legally acquired the copyright thereof, and shall insert or impress that the same hath been entered according to act of congress, or words purporting the same, every person so offending shall forfeit and pay one hundred dollars; one moiety thereof to the person who shall sue for the same, and the other to the use of the United States, to be re-covered by action of debt, in any court of record leaving cognizance thereof.
22. - 2. The issue. If any person or persons shall be sued or prosecuted, for any matter, act or thing done under or by virtue of this act, he or they may plead the general issue, and give the special matter in evidence.
23. - 3. The costs. In all recoveries under this act, either for damages, forfeitures, or penalties, full costs shall be allowed thereon, anything in any former act to the contrary notwithstanding.
24. - 4. The limitation of actions is regulated as follows. No action or prosecution shall be maintained in any case of forfeiture or penalty under this act, unless the same shall have been commenced within two years after the cause of action shall have arisen.
25. - 9. Former grants. All and several the provisions of this act, intended for the protection and security of. copyrights, and providing remedies, penalties, and forfeitures in case of violation thereof, shall be held and construed to extend to the benefit of the legal proprietor or proprietors of each and every copyright heretofore obtained, according to law, during the term thereof, in the same manner as if such copyright had been entered and secured according to the directions of this act. And by the 16th section it is provided that this act shall not extend to any copyright heretofore secured, the term of which has already expired.
26. Copyrights are secured in most countries of Europe. In Great Britain, an author has a copyright in his work absolutely for twenty-eight years, and if he be living at the end of that period, for the residue of his life. In France, the copyright of an author extends to twenty years after his death. In most, if not in all the German states, it is perpetual; it extends only over the state in which it is granted. In Russia, the right of an author or translator continues during his life, and his heirs enjoy the privilege twenty-five years afterwards. No manuscript or printed work of an author can be sold for his debts. 2 Am. Jur. 253, 4. Vide, generally, 2 Am. Jur. 248; 10 Am. Jur. 62; 1 Law Intell. 66; and the articles Literary property; Manuscript.
COPYHOLD, estate in the English law. A copyhold estate is a parcel of a manor, held at the will of the lord, according to the custom of the manor, by a grant from the lord, and admittance of the tenant, entered on the rolls of the manor court. Cruise, Dig. t. 10, c. 1, s. 3. Vide Ch. Pr. Index, h. t.
CORAM. In the presence of; before. Coram nobis, before us; coram vobis, before you; coram non judice, is said of those acts of a court which has no jurisdiction, either over the person, the, cause, or the process. 1 Con. 40. Such acts have no validity. Where a thing is required to be done before a particular person, it would not be considered as done before him, if he were asleep or non compos. Vide Dig. 4, 8, 27, 5; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 5 Harr. & John. 42; 8 Cranch, 9; Paine's R. 55; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CORD, measures. A cord of wood must, when the wood is piled close, measure eight feet by four, and the wood must be four feet long. There are various local regulations in our principal cities as to the manner in which wood shall be measured and sold.
CORN. In its most comprehensive sense, this term signifies every sort of grain, as well as peas and beans, this is its meaning in the memorandum usually contained in policies of insurance. But it does not include rice. 1 Park. Ins. 112; Marsh. Ins. 223, note; Stev. on Av. part 4, art. 2; Ben. on Av. eh. 10; 1 Marsh. Ins. 223; Park on Ins. 112; Wesk. Ins. 145. Vide Com. Dig. Biens, G 1.
CORNAGE. The name of a species of tenure in England. The tenant by cornage was bound to blow a horn for the sake of alarming the country on the approach of an enemy. Bac. Ab. Tenure, N.
CORNET. A commissioned officer in a regiment of cavalry.
CORODY, incorporeal hereditaments. An allowance of meat, drink, money, clothing, lodging, and such like necessaries for sustenance. 1 Bl. Com. 282; 1 Ch. Pr. 225.
CORONER. An officer whose principal duty it is to hold an inquisition, with the assistance of a jury, over the body of any person who may have come to a violent death, or who has died in prison. It is his duty also, in case of the death of the sheriff, or when a vacancy happens in that office, to serve all the writs and process which the sheriff is usually bound to serve. The chief justice of the King's Bench is the sovereign or chief coroner of all England, although it is not to be understood that he performs the active duties of that office in any one count. 4 Rep. 57, b. Vide Bac. Ab. h. t.; 6 Vin. Ab.242; 3 Com. Dig. 242; 5 Com. Dig. 212; and the articles Death; Inquisition.
2. The duties of the coroner are of the greatest consequence to society, both for the purpose of bringing to punishment murderers and other offenders against the lives of the citizens, and of protecting innocent persons from criminal accusations. His office, it is to be regretted, is regarded with too much indifference. This officer should be properly acquainted with the medical and legal knowledge so absolutely indispensable in the faithful discharge of his office. It not unfrequently happens that the public mind is deeply impressed with the guilt of the accused, and when probably he is guilty, and yet the imperfections of the early examinations leave no alternative to the jury but to acquit. It is proper in most cases to procure the examination to be made by a physician, and in some cases, it is his duty. 4 Car. & P. 571.
CORPORAL. An epithet for anything belonging to the body, as, corporal punishment, for punishment inflictedon the person of the criminal; corporal oath, which is an oath by the party who takes it being obliged to lay his hand on the Bible.
CORPORAL, in the army. A non-commissioned officer in a battalion of infantry.
CORPORAL TOUCH. It was once decided that before a seller of personal property could be said to have stopped it in transitu, so as to regain the possession of it, it was necessary that it should come to his corporal touch. 3 T. R. 466 5 East, 184. But the contrary is now settled. These words were used merely as a figurative expression. 3 T. R. 464 5 East, 184.
CORPORATION. An aggregate corporation is an ideal body, created by law, composed of individuals united under a common name, the members of which succeed each other, so that the body continues the same, notwithstanding the changes of the individuals who compose it, and which for certain purposes is considered as a natural person. Browne's Civ. Law, 99; Civ. Code of Lo. art. 418; 2 Kent's Com. 215. Mr. Kyd, (Corpor. vol. 1, p. 13,) defines a corporation as follows: " A corporation, or body politic, or body incorporate, is a collection of many; individuals united in one body, under a special denomination, having perpetual succession under an artificial form, and vested by the policy of the law, with a capacity of acting in several respects as an individual, particularly of taking and granting property, contracting obligations, and of suing and being sued; of enjoying privileges and immunities in common, and of exercising a variety of political rights, more or less extensive, according to the design of its institution, or the powers conferred upon it, either at the time of its creation, or at any subsequent period of its existence." In the case of Dartmouth College against Woodward, 4 Wheat. Rep. 626, Chief Justice Marshall describes a corporation to be "an artificial being, invisible, intangible, and existing only in contemplation of law. Being the mere creature of law," continues the judge, "it possesses only those properties which the charter of its creation confers upon it, either expressly or as incidental to its very existence. These are such as are supposed best calculated to effect the object for which it was created. Among the most important are immortality, and if the expression may be allowed, individuality properties by which a perpetual succession of many persons are considered, as the same, and may act as the single individual, They enable a corporation to manage its own affairs, and to hold property without the perplexing intricacies, the hazardous and endless necessityof perpetual conveyance for the purpose of transmitting it from hand to hand. It is chiefly for the purpose of clothing bodies of men, in succession, with these qualities and capacities, that corporations were invented, and are in use." See 2 Bl. Corn. 37.
2. The words corporation and incorporation are frequently confounded, particularly in the old books. The distinction between them is, however, obvious; the one is the institution itself, the other the act by which the institution is created.
3. Corporations are divided into public and private.
4. Public corporations, which are also called political, and sometimes municipal corporations, are those which have for their object the government of 'a portion of the state; Civil Code of Lo. art. 420 and although in such case it involves some private interests, yet, as it is endowed with a portion of political power, the term public has been deemed appropriate.
5. Another class of public corporations are those which are founded for public, though not for political or municipal purposes, and the, whole interest in which belongs to the government. The Bank of Philadelphia, for example, if the whole stock belonged exclusively to the government, would be a public corporation; but inasmuch as there are other owners of the stock, it is a private corporation. Domat's Civil Law,- 452 4 Wheat. R. 668; 9 Wheat. R. 907 8 M'Cord's R. 377 1 Hawk's R. 36; 2 Kent's Corn. 222.
6. Nations or states, are denominated by publicists, bodies politic, and are said to have their affairs and interests, and to deliberate and resolve, in common. They thus become as moral persons, having an understanding and will peculiar to themselves, and are susceptible of obligations and laws. Vattel, 49. In this extensive sense the United States may be termed a corporation; and so may each state singly. Per Iredell, J. 3 Dall. 447.
7. Private corporations. In the popular meaning of the term, nearly every corporation is public, inasmuch as they are created for the public benefit; but if the whole interest does not belong to the government, or if the corporation is not created for the administration of political or municipal power, the corporation is private. A bank, for instance, may be created by the government for its own uses; but if the stock is owned by private persons, it is a private corporation, although it is created by the government, and its operations partake of a private nature. 9 Wheat. R. 907. The rule is the same in the case of canal, bridge, turnpike, insurance companies, and the like. Charitable or literary corporations, founded by private benefaction, are in point of law private corporations, though dedicated to public charity, or for the general promotion of learning. Ang. & Ames on Corp. 22.
8. Private corporations are divided into ecclesiastical and lay.
9. Ecclesiastical corporations, in the United States, are commonly called religious corporations they are created to enable religious societies to manage with more facility and advantage, the temporalities belonging to the church or congregation.
10. Lay corporations are divided into civil and eleemosynary. Civil corporations are created for an infinite variety of temporal purposes, such as affording facilities for obtaining loans of money; the making of canals, turnpike roads, and the like. And also such as are established for the advancement of learning. 1 Bl. Com. 471.
11. Eleemosynary corporations are such as are instituted upon a principle of charity, their object being the perpetual distribution of the bounty of the founder of them, to such persons as he has directed. Of this kind are hospitals for the relief of the impotent, indigent and sick, or deaf and dumb. 1 Kyd on Corp. 26; 4 Conn. R. 272; Angell & A. on Corp. 26.
12. Corporations, considered in another point of view, are either sole or agregate.
13. A sole corporation, as its name implies, consists of only one person, to whom and his successors belongs that legal perpetuity, the enjoyment of which is denied to all natural persons. 1 Black Com. 469. Those corporations are not common in the United States. In those states, however, where the religious establishment of the church of England was adopted, when they were colonies, together with the common law on that subject, the minister of the parish was seised of the freehold, as persona ecclesiae, in the same manner as in England; and the right of his successors to the freehold being thus established was not destroyed by the abolition of the regal government, nor can it be divested even by an act of the state legislature. 9 Cranch, 828.
14. A sole corporation cannot take personal property in succession; its corporate capacity of taking property is confined altogether to real estate. 9 Crancb, 43.
15. An aggregate corporation cousists of several persons, who are' united in one society, which is continued by a succession of members. Of this kind are the mayor or commonalty of a city; the heads and fellows of a college; the members of trading companies, and the like. 1 Kyd on Corp. 76; 2 Kent's Com. 221 Ang. & A. on Corp. 20. See, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CORPORATOR. One who is a member of a corporation.
2. In general, a corporator is entitled to enjoy all the benefits and rights which belong to any other member of the corporation as such. But in some corporations, where the rights are of a pecuniary nature, each corporator is entitles to those rights in proportion to his interest; he will therefore be entitled to vote only in proportion to the amount of his stock, and be entitled to dividends in the same proportion.
3. A corporator is not in general liable personally for any act of the corporation, unless he has been made so by the charter creating the corporation.
CORPOREAL PROPERTY, civil law. That which consists of such subjects as are palpable. In the common law, the term to signify the same thing is properly in possession. It differs from incorporeal property, (q. v.) which consists of choses in action and easements, as a right of way, and the like.
CORPSE. The dead body (q. v.) of a human being. Russ. & Ry. 366, n.; 2 T. R. 733; 1 Leach, 497; 16 Eng. Com. L. Rep. 413; 8 Pick. 370; Dig. 47, 12, 3, 7 Id. 11, 7, 38; Code, 3, 441.
2. As a corpse is considered as nullius bonis, or the property of no one, it follows that stealing it, is not, at common law, a larceny. 3 Inst. 203.
CORPUS. A Latin word, which signifies body; as, corpus delicti, the body of the offence, the essence of the crime; corpus juris canonis, the body of the canon law; corpus juris civilis, the body of the Civil law.
CORPUS COMITATUS. The body of the county; the inhabitants or citizens of a whole county, used in contradistinction to a part of a county, or a part of its citizens. See 5 Mason, R. 290.
CORPUS JURIS CIVILIS. The body of the civil law. This, is the name given to a collection of the civil law, consisting of Justinian's Institutes, the Pandects or Digest, the Code, and the Novels.
CORPUS CUM CAUSA, practice. The writ of habeas corpus cum causa (q. v.) is a writ commanding -the person to whom it is directed, to have the body, together with the cause for which he is committed, before the court or judge issuing the same.
CORPUS DELICTI. The body of the offence; the essence of the crime
2. It is a general rule not to convict unless the corpus delicti can be established, that is, until the dead body has been found. Best on Pres. 201; 1 Stark. Ev. 575, See 6 C. & P. 176; 2 Hale, P. C. 290. Instances have occurred of a person being convicted of having killed another, who, after the supposed criminal has been put to death for the supposed offence, has made his appearance - alive. The wisdom of the rule is apparent; but it has been questioned whether, in extreme cases, it may not be competent to prove the basis of the corpus delicti by presumptive evidence. 3 Benth. Jud. Ev. 234; Wills on Circum. Ev. 105; Best on Pres. 204. See Death.
CORPUS JURIS CANONICI. The body of the canon law. A compilation of the canon law bears this name. See Law, canon.
CORRECTION,punishment. Chastisement by one having authority of a person who has committed some offence, for the purpose of bringing him to legal subjection.
2. It is chiefly exercised in a parental manner, by parents, or those who are placed in loco parentis. A parent may therefore justify the correction of the child either corporally or by confinement; and a schoolmaster, under whose care and instruction a parent has placed his child, may equally justify similar correction; but the correction in both, cases must be moderate, and in proper manner. Com. Dig. Pleader, 3 M. 19; Hawk. c. 60, s. 23, and c. 62, s. 2 c. 29, s. 5.
3. The master of an apprentice, for disobedience, may correct him moderately 1 Barn. & Cres. 469 Cro. Car. 179 2 Show. 289; 10 Mart. Lo. It. 38; but he cannot delegate the authority to another. 9 Co. 96.
4. A master has no riglit to correct his servants who are not apprentices.
5. Soldiers are liable to moderate correction from their superiors. For the sake of maintaining their discipline on board of the navy, the captain of a vessel, either belonging to the United States, or to private individuals, may inflict moderate correction on a sailor for disobedience or disorderly conduct. Abbott on Shipp. 160; 1 Ch . Pr. 73; 14 John. R. 119; 15 )lass. 365; 1 Bay, 3; Bee, 161; 1 Pet. Adm. Dec. 168; Molloy, 209; 1 Ware's R. 83. Such has been the general rule. But by a proviso to an act of congress, approved the 28th of September, l850, flogging in the navy and on board vessels of commerce was abolished.
6. Any excess of correction by the parent, master, officer, or captain, may render the party guilty of an assault and battery, and liable to all its consequences. In some prisons, the keepers have the right to correct the prisoners.
CORREGIDOR, Spanish law. A magistrate who took cognizance of 'various misdemeanors, and of civil matters. 2 White's Coll. 53.
CORRELATIVE. This term is used to designate those things, one of which cannot exist without another; for example, father and child; mountain and valley, &c. Law, obligation, right, and duty, are therefore correlative to each other.
CORRESPONDENCE. The letters written by one to another, and the answers thereto, make wbat is called the correspondence of the partie's.
2. In general, the correspondence of the parties contains the best evidence of the facts to which it relates. See Letter, contracts; Proposal.
3. When an offer to contract is made by letter, it must be accepted unconditionally for if the precise terms are changed, even in the slightest degree, there is no contract. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 904. See, as to the power of revoking an offer made by letter, 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 933.
CORRUPTION. An act done with an intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of others. It includes bribery, but is more comprehensive; because an act may be corruptly done, though the advantage to be derived from it be not offered by another. Merl. Rep. h. t.
2. By corruption, sometimes, is understood something against law; as, a contract by which the borrower agreed to pay the lender usurious interest. It is said, in such case, that it was corruptly agreed, &c.
CORRUPTION OF BLOOD,, English crim. law. The incapacity to inherit, or pass an inheritance, in consequence of an attainder to which the party has been subject
2. When this consequence flows from an attainder, the party is stripped of all honors and dignities he possessed, and becomes ignoble.
3. The Constitution of the United States, Amendm. art. 5, provides, that no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval, forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger" and by art. 3, s. 3, n. 2, it is declared tbat " no attainder of treason shall work. corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted."
4. The Constitution of Pennsylvania, art. 9, s. 19, directs that " no attainder shall work corruption of blood." 3 Cruise, 240, 378 to 381, 473 1 Cruise, 52 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 740; 4 Bl. Com. 388.
CORSNED, ancient Eng. law. This was a piece of accursed bread, which a person accused of a crime swallowed to test his innocence. It was supposed that, if he was guilty, it would choke him.
CORTES. The name of the legislative assemblies of Spain and Portugal.
COSENAGE, torts. Deceit, fraud: that kind of circumvention and wrong, which has no other specific name. Vide Ayl. Pand. 103 Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
COSMOPOLITE. A citizen of the world; one who has no fixed. residence. Vide Citizen.
COSTS, practice. The expenses of a suit or action which may be recovered by law from the losing party.
2. At common law, neither the plaintiff nor the defendant could recover costs eonomine; but in all actions in which damages were recoverable, the plaintiff, in effect, recovered his costs when he obtained a verdict, for the jury always computed them in the damages. When the defendant obtained a verdict, or the plaintiff became non-suit, the former was wholly without remedy for any expenses he had incurred. It is true, the plaintiff was amerced pro falso clamore suo, but the amercement was given to the king. Hull on Costs, 2 2 Arch. Pr. 281.
3. This defect was afterwards corrected by the statute of Gloucester, 6 Ed. I, c. 1, by which it is enacted that "the demandant in assise of novel disseisin, in writs of mort d'ancestor, cosinage, aiel and be sail, shall have damages. And the demandant shall have the costs of the writ purchased, together with damages, and this act shall hold place in all cases where the parly recovers damages, and every person shall render damages where land is recovered against him upon his own intrusion, or his own act." About forty-six years after the passing of this statute, costs were for the first time allowed in France, by an ordinance of Charles le Bel, (January, 1324.) See Hardw. Cas. 356; 2 Inst. 283, 288 2 Loisel, Coutumes, 328-9.
4. The statute of Gloucester has been adopted, substantially, in all the United States. Though it speaks of the costs of the writ only, it bas, by construction, been extended to the costs of the suit generally. The costs which are recovered under it are such as shall be allowed by the master or prothonotary upon taxation, and not those expenses which the. plaintiff may have. incurred for himself, or the extraordinary fees he may have paid counsel, or for the loss of his time. 2 Sell. Pr. 429.
5. Costs are single, when the party receives the same amount he has expended, to be ascertained by taxation; double, vide Double costs. and treble, vide Treble costs. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Hullock on Costs; Sayer's Law of Costs; Tidd's Pr. c. 40; 2 Sell. Pr. c. 19; Archb. Pr. Index, h. t.; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. h. t.; 6 Vin. Ab. 321; Grah. Pr. c. 23 Chit. Pr. h. t. 1 Salk. 207 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 109; Amer. Dig. h. t.; Dane's Ab. h. t.; Harr. Dig. h. t. As to the liability of executors and administrators for costs, see 1, Chit. R. 628, note; 18 E. C. L. R. 185; 2 Bay's R. 166, 399; 1 Wash. R. 138; 2 Hen. & Munf. 361, 369; 4 John. R. 190; 8 John. R. 389; 2 John. Ca. 209. As to costs in actions qui tam, see Esp. on Pen. Act. 154 to 165.
COTTAGE, estates. A small dwelling house. See 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 216; Sheph. Touchst. 94; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1571, note.
2. The grant of a cottage, it is said, passes a small dwelling-house, which has no land belonging to it. Shep. To. 94.
COUCHANT. Lying down. Animals are said to have been levant and couchant, when they have been upon another person's land, damage feasant, one night at least. 3 Bl. Com. 9.
COUNCIL, legislation. This word signifies an assembly.
2. It was used among the Romans to express the meeting of only a part of the people, and that the most respectable, in opposition to the assemblies of the whole people.
3. It is now usually applied to the legislative bodies of cities and boroughs.
4. In some states, as in Massacbusetts, a body of men called the council, are elected, whose duties are to advise the governor in the executive part of the government. Const. of Mass. part 2, c. 2, s. 3, art. 1 and 2. See 14 Mass. 470; 3 Pick. 517; 4 Pick. 25 19 John. R. 58. In England, the king's council are the king's judges of his courts of justice. 3 Inst. 125; 1 Bl. Com. 229.
COUNSEL. Advice given to another as to what he ought to do or not to do.
2. To counsel another to do an unlawful act, is to become accessory to it, if it be a felony, or principal, if it be treason, or a misdemeanor. By the term counsel is also understood counsellor at law. Vide To open; Opening.
COUNSEL, an officer of court. One who undertakes to conduct suits and actions in court. The same as counsellor.
COUNSEL, practice, crim. law. In the oath of the grand jurors, there is a provision requiring them to keep secret " the commonwealth's counsel, their fellows, and their own." In this sense this word is synonymous with knowledge; therefore, all the knowledge acquired by grand jurors, in consequence of their office, either from the officers of the commonwealth, from their fellow-jurors, or which they have obtained in any manner, in relation to cases which come officially before them, must be kept secret. See Grand Jury.
COUNSELLOR, government. A counsellor is a member of a council. In some of the states the executive power is vested in a governor, or a governor and lieutenant governor, and council. The members of such council are called counsellors. See the names of the several states.
COUNSELLOR AT LAW, offices. An officer in the supreme court of the United States, and in some other courts, who is employed by a party in a cause, to conduct the same on its trial on his behalf. He differs from an attorney at law. (q. v.)
2. In the supreme court of the United States, the two degrees of attorney and counsel are kept separate, and no person is permitted to practise both. It is the duty of the counsel to draft or review and correct the special pleadings, to manage the cause on trial, and, during the whole course of the suit, to apply established principles of law to the exigencies of the case. 1 Kent, Com. 307.
3. Generally in the other courts of the United States, as well as in the courts of Pennsylvania, the same person perform's the duty of counsellor and attorney at law.
4. In giving their advice to their clients, counsel and others, professional men have duties to perform to their clients, to the public, and to themselves. In such cases they have thrown upon them something which they owe to the fair administration of justice, as well as to the private interests of their employers. The interests propounded for them ought, in their own apprehension, to be just, or at least fairly disputable; and when such interests are propounded, they ought not to be pursued per fas et nefas . Hag. R. 22.
5. A counsellor is not a hired person, but a mandatory; he does not render his services for a price, but an honorarium, which may in some degree recompense his care, is his reward. Doubtless, he is not indifferent to this remuneration, but nobler motives influence his conduct. Follow him in his study when he examines his cause, and in court on the trial; see him identify himself with the idea of his client, and observe the excitement he feels on his account; proud when he is, conqueror, discouraged, sorrowful, if vanquished; see his whole soul devoted to the cause he has undertaken, and which he believes to be just, then you perceive the elevated man, ennobled by the spirit of his profession, full of sympathy for his cause and his client. He may receive a reward for his services, but such things cannot be paid for with money. No treasures can purcbase the sympathy and devotedness of a noble mind to benefit humanity; these things are given, not sold. See Honorarium. 6. Ridley says, that the law has appointed no stipend to philosophers and lawyers not because they are not reverend services and worthy of reward or stipend, but because either of them are most honorable professions, whose worthiness is not to be valued or dishonored by money. Yet, in these cases many things are honestly taken, whi ch are not bonestly asked, and the judge may, according to the quality of the cause, and the still of the advocate, and the custom of the court, and, the worth of the matter that is in hand, appoint them a fee answerable to their place. View of the Civil and Eccles. Law, 38, 39.
COUNT, pleading. This word, derived from the French conte, a narrative, is in our old law books used synonymously with declaration but practice has introduced the following distinction: when the plaintiff's complaint embraces only a single cause of action, and he makes only one statement of it, that statement is called, indifferently, a declaration or count; though the former is the more usual term.
2. But when the suit embraces two or more causes of action, (each of which of course requires a different statement;) or when the plaintiff makes two or more different statements of one and the same cause of action, each several statement is called a count, and all of them, collectively, constitute the declaration.
3. In all cases, however, in which there are two or more counts, whether there is actually but one cause of action or several, each count purports, upon the face of it, to disclose a distinct right of action, unconnected with that stated in any of the other counts.
4. One object proposed, in inserting two or more counts in one declaration, when there is in fact but one cause of action, is, in some cases, to guard against the danger of an insufficient statement of the cause, where a doubt exists as to the legal sufficiency of one or another of two different modes of declaring; but the more usual end proposed in inserting more than one count in such case, is to accommodate the statement to the cause, as far as may be, to the possible state of the proof to be exhibited on trial; or to guard, if possible, against the hazard of the proofs varying materially from the statement of the cause of action; so that if one or more or several counts be not adapted to the evidence, some other of them may be so. Gould on Pl. c. 4, s. 2, 3, 4; Steph. Pl. 279; Doct. Pl. 1 78; 8 Com. Dig. 291; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. In real actions, the declaration is most usually called a count. Steph. Pl. 36, See Common count; Money count.
COUNTER, Eng. law. The name of an ancient prison in the city of London, which has now been demolished.
COUNTER AFFIDAVIT. An affidavit made in opposition to one already made; this is allowed in the preliminary examination of some cases.
COUNTER SECURITY. Security given to one who has become security for another, the condition of which is, that if the one who first became surety shall be damnified, the one who gives the counter security will indemnity him.
TO COUNTERFEIT, criminal law. To make something false, in the semblance of that which is true; it always implies a fraudulent intent. Vide Vin. Ab. h. t. Forgery.
COUNTERMAND. This word signifies a. change or recall of orders previously given.
2. It may be express or implied. Express, when contrary orders are given and a revocation. of the former order is made. Implied, when a new order is given which is inconsistent with the former order: as, if a man should order a merchant to ship him in a particular vessel -certain goods which belonged to him, and then, before the goods were shipped, he directed him to ship them in another vessel; this would be a countermand of the first order.
3. While the first command is unrecalled, the person who gave it would be liable to all the consequences in case he should be obeyed; but if, for example, a man should command another to commit a crime and, before its perpetration, he should repent and countermand it, he would not be liable for the consequences if the crime should afterwards be committed.
4. When a command or order has been given, and property delivered, by which a right vests in a third person, the party giving the order cannot countermand it; for example, if a debtor should deliver to A a sum of money to be paid to B, his creditor, B has a vested right in the money, and unless he abandon that right, and refuse to take the money, the debtor cannot recover it from A. 1 Roll. Ab. 32, pl. 13; Yelv. 164 Sty. 296. See 3 Co. 26 b.; 2 Vent. 298 10 Mod. 432; Vin. Ab. Countermand, A 1; Vin. Ab. Bailment, D; 9 East, 49; Roll. Ab. 606; Bac. Ab. Bailment, D; Com. Dig. Attorney, B 9, c. 8; Dane's Ab. h. t.; and Command.
COUNTERPART, contracts. Formerly each party to an indenture executed a separate deed; that part which was executed by the grantor was called the original, and the rest the counterparts. It is now usual for all the parties to execute every part, and this makes them all originals. 2 Bl. Com. 296.
2. In granting lots subject to a ground rent reserved to the grantor, both parties execute the deeds, of which there are two copies; although both are original, one of them is sometimes called the counterpart. Vide 12 Vin. Ab. 104; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 7 Com. Dig. 443; Merl. Repert. mots Double Ecrit.
COUNTERPLEA, pleading. When a tenant in any real action, tenant by the curtesy, or tenant in dower, in his answer and plea, vouches any one to warrant his title, or prays in aid another who has a larger estate, as of the remainder-man or reversioner or when a stranger to the action comes and prays to be received to save his estate; then that which the defendant alleges against it, why it should not be admitted, is called a counterplea. T. de la Ley; Doct. Placit. 300 Com. Dig. h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
COUNTERS, English law. - Formerly there were in London two prisons belonging to the sheriffs courts, which bore this name. They are now demolished. 4 Inst. 248.
COUNTERSIGN. To countersign is to sign on the opposite side of an instrument already signed by some other person or officer, in order to secure its character of a genuine paper; as a bank note is signed by the president and countersigned by the cashier.
COUNTRY. By country is meant the state of which one is a member.
2. Every man's country is in general the state in which he happens to have been born, though there are some exceptions. See Domicil; Inhabitant. But a man has the natural right to expatriate himself, i. e. to abandon his country, or his right of citizenship acquired by means of naturalization in any country in which he may have taken up his residence. See Allegiance; Citizen; Expatriation. in another sense, country is the same as pais. (q. v.)
COUNTY. A district into which a state is divided.
2. The United States are generally divided into counties; counties are divided into townships or towns.
3. In Pennsylvania the division of the province into three Counties, viz. Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester, was one of the earliest acts of William Penn, the original proprietary. There is no printed record of this division, or of the original boundaries of these counties. Proud says it was made about the year 1682. Proud's Hist. vol. 1) p. 234 vol. 2, p. 258.
4. In some states, as Illinois; 1 Breese, R. 115; a county is considered as a corporation, in others it is only a quasi corporation. 16 Mass. R. 87; 2 Mass. R. 644 7 Mass. R. 461; 1 Greenl. R. 125; 3 Greenl. R. 131; 9 Greenl. R. 88; 8 John. R. 385; 3 Munf. R. 102. Frequent difficulties arise on the division of a county. On this subject, see 16 Mass. R. 86 6 J. J. Marsh. 147; 4 Halst. R. 357; 5 Watts, R. 87 1 Cowen, R. 550; 6 Cowen, R. 642; Cowen, R. 640; 4 Yeates, R. 399 10 Mass. Rep. 290; 11 Mass. Rep. 339.
5. In the English law this word signifies the same as shire, county being derived from the French and shire from the Saxon. Both these words signify a circuit or portion of the realm, into which the whole land is divided, for the better government thereof, and the more easy administration of justice. There is no part of England that is not within some county, and the shire-reve, (sheriff) originally a yearly officer, was the governor of the county. Four of the counties of England, viz. Lancaster, Chester, Durham and Ely, were called counties Palatine, which were jurisdictions of a peculiar nature, and held by, especial charter from the king. See stat. 27 H. VIII. c.25.
COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. Certain officers generally entrusted with the superintendence of the collection of the county taxes, and the disbursements made. for the county. They are administrative officers, invested by the local laws with various powers.
2. In Pennsylvania the office of county commissioner originated in the act of 1717, which was modified by the act of 1721, and afterwards enlarged by the act of 1724. Before the office of county commissioner was established, assessors were elected who performed-similar duties. See Act of 1700, 4 Votes of Assembly, 205, 209.
COUPONS. Those parts of a commercial instrument which are. to be cut, and which are evidence of something connected with the contract mentioned in-the instrument. They are generally attached to certificates of loan, where the interest is payable at particular periods, and, when the interest is paid, they are cut off and delivered to the payor.
COURIER. One who is sent on some public occasion as an express, to bear despatches, letters, and other papers.
2. Couriers sent. by an ambassador or other public minister, are protected from arrest or molestation. Vattel, liv. 4, c. 9, 123.
COURSE. The direction in which a line runs in surveying.
2. When there are no monuments, (q. v.) the land must be bounded by the courses and distances mentioned in the patent or deed. 4 Wheat. 444; 3 Pet. 96; 3 Murph. 82; 2 Har. & John. 267; 5 Har. & John. 254. When the lines are actually marked, they must be adhered to, though they vary from the course mentioned in the deeds. 2 Overt. 304; 7 Wheat. 7. 1 See 3 Call, 239 7 Mont. 333. Vide Boundary; Line.
COURSE OF TRADE. What is usually done in the management of trade or business.
2. Men are presumed to act for their own interest, and to pursue the way usually adopted by men generally; hence it is presumed in law, that men in their actions will pursue the usual course of trade. For this reason it is presumed that a bank note was signed before it was issued, though the signature be torn off. 2 Rob. Lo. R. 112. That one having possession of a bill of exchange upon him, has paid it; that one who pays an order or draft upon him, pays out of the funds of the drawer in his hands. But the case is different where the order is for the delivery of goods, they being presumed to have been sold by the drawee to the drawer. 9 Wend. 323; 1 Greenl. Ev. 38.
COURSE OF THE VOYAGE. By this term is understood the regular and customary track, if such there be, which a ship takes in going from one port to another, and the shortest way. Marsh. on Ins. 185.
COURT, practice. A court is an incorporeal political being, which requires for its existence, the presence of the judges, or a competent number of them, and a clerk or prothonotary, at the time during which, and at the place where it is by law authorized to be held; and the performance of some public act, indicative of a design to perform the functions of a court.
2. In another sense, the judges, clerk, or prothonotary, counsellors and ministerial officers, are said to constitute the court.
3. According to Lord, Coke, a court is a place where justice is judicially administered. Co. Litt. 58, a.
4. The judges, when duly convened, are also called the court. Vide 6 Vin. Ab. 484; Wheat . Dig. 127; Merl. Rep. h. t.; 3 Com. Dig. 300; 8 Id. 386; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
5. It sometimes happens that the judges composing a court are equally divided on questions discussed before them. It has been decided, that when such is the case on an appeal or writ of error, the judgment or decree is affirmed. 10 Wheat. 66; 11 Id. 59. If it occurs on a motion in arrest of judgment, a judgment is to be entered on the verdict. 2 Dall. Rep. 388. If on a motion for a new trial, the motion is rejected. 6 Wheat. 542. If on a motion to enter judgment on a verdict, the judgment is entered. 6 Binn. 100. In England, if the house of lords be equally divided on a writ of error, the judgment of the court below is affirmed. 1 Arch. Pr. 235. So in Cam. Scacc. 1 Arch. Pr. 240. But in error coram nobis, no judgment can be given if the judges are equally divided, except by consent. 1 Arch. Pr. 246. When the judges are equally divided on the admission of testimony, it cannot be received. But see 3 Yeates, 171. Also, 2 Bin. 173; 3 Bin. 113 4 Bin. 157; 1 Johns. Rep. 118 4 Wash. C. C. Rep. 332, 3. See Division of Opinion.
6. Courts are of various kinds. When considered as to their powers, they are of record and not of record; Bac. Ab. Courts, D; when compared. to each other, they are supreme, superior, and inferior, Id.; when examined as to their original jurisdiction, they are civil or criminal; when viewed as to their territorial jurisdiction, they are central or local; when divided as to their object, they are courts of law, courts of equity, courts martial, admiralty courts, and ecclesiastical courts. They are also courts of original jurisdiction, courts of error, and courts of appeal. Vide Open Court.
7. Courts of record cannot be deprived of their jurisdiction except by express negative words. 9 Serg. & R. 298; 3 Yeates, 479 2 Burr. 1042 1 Wm. Bl. Rep. 285. And such a court is the court of common pleas in Pennsylvania. 6 Serg. & R. 246.
8. Courts of equity are not, in general, courts of record. Their decrees touch the person, not lands. or goods. 3 Caines, 36. Yet, as to personalty, their decrees are equal to a judgment; 2. Madd. Chan. 355; 2 Salk., 507; 1 Ver. 214; 3 Caines, 35; and have preference according to priority. 3 P. Wms. 401 n.; Cas. Temp. Talb. 217; 4 Bro. P. C. 287; 4 Johns. Chan. Cas. 638. They are also conclusive between the parties. 6 Wheat. 109. Assumpsit will lie on a decree of a foreign court of chancery for a sum certain; 1 Campb. Rep. 253, per Lord Kenyon; but not for a sum not ascertained. 3 Caines, 37, (n.) In Pennsylvania, an action at law will lie on a decree of a court of chancery, but the pleas nil debet and nultiel record cannot be pleaded in such an action. 9 Serg. & R. 258.
COURT CHRISTIAN. An ecclesiastical judicature, known in England, so called from its handling matters of an ecclesiastical or religious nature. 2 Inst. 488. Formerly the jurisdiction of these courts was not thus Iimited. The emperor Theodosius promulgated a law that all suits (lites) and forensic controversies should be remitted to the judgment of the church, if either of the litigating parties should require it. Fr. Duaren De Sac. Minist. Eccl. lib. 1, c. 2. This law was renewed and confirmed by Charlemagne.
COURT OF ARCHES , eccl. law. The most ancient consistory court belonging to the archbishop of Canterbury for the trial of spiritual causes. It is so called, because it was anciently held in the church of Saint Mary le bow; which church had that appellation from its steeple, which was raised at the top with stone pillars, in the manner of an arch or bow. Termes de la Ley.
COURT OF ADMIRALTY. A court having jurisdiction of all maritime causes. Vide Admiralty; Courts of the United States; Instance Courts; Prize Court; 2 Chit. Pr. 508 to 538.
COURT OF AUDIENCE, Eng. eccl. law. The name of a court kept by the archbishop in his palace, in which are transacted matters of form only; as confirmation of bishops, elections, consecrations, and the like.
COURT OF COMMON PLEAS. The name of an English court which was established on the breaking up of the aula regis, for the determination of pleas merely civil. It was at first ambulatory, but was afterwards located. This jurisdiction is founded on original write issuing out of chancery, in the cases of common persons. But when an attorney or person belonging to the court, is plaintiff, he sues by writs, of privilege, and is sued by bill, which is in the nature of a petition; both which originate in the common pleas. See Bench; Banc.
2. There are courts in most of the states of the United States which bear the name of common pleas; they have various powers and jurisdictions.
COURT OF CONSCIENCE, Eng. law. The name of a court in London. It has equity jurisdiction in certain cases. The reader is referred to Bac. Ab. Courts in London, 2.
COURT OF CONVOCATION, eccles. law. The name of an English ecclesiastical court. It is composed of every bishop, dean, and archdeacon, a proctor for the chapter, and two proctors for the clergy of each diocese in the province of Canterbury, for the province of York, there are two proctors for each archdeaconry.
2. This assembly meets at the time appointed in the king's writ, and constitute an ecclesiastical parliament. The archbishop and his suffragans, as his peers, are sitting together, and composing one house, called the upper house of convocation the deans, archdeacons, and a proctor for the chapter, and two proctors for the clergy, the lower house. In this house a prolocutor, performing the duty of a president, is elected.
8. The jurisdiction of this tribunal extends to matters of heresy, schisms, and other mere spiritual or ecclesiastical causes. Bac. Ab. Ecclesiastical Courts, A 1.
COURT OF EXCHEQUER, Eng. law. A court of record anciently established for the trial of all matters relating to the revenue of the crown. Bac. Ab. h. t.
COURT OF FACULTIES, Eng. eccl. law. The name of a court which belongs to the archbishop, in which his officer, called magister ad facultates, grants dispensations to marry, to eat flesh on days prohibited, or to ordain a deacon under age, and the like. 4 Inst. 337.
COURT, INSTANCE. One of the branches of the English admiralty is called an instance court. Vide Instance Court.
COURT OF INQUIRY. A court constituted by authority of the articles of war, invested with the power to examine into the nature of any transaction, accusation, or imputation against any officer or soldier; the said court shall consist. of one or more officers, not exceeding three, and a judge advocate, or other suitable person, as a recorder, to reduce the proceedings and evidencee to writing, all of whom shall be sworn to the performance of their duty. Art. 91. Gord. Dig. Laws U. S., art. 3558 to 3560.
COURT OF KING'S BENCH. The name of the supreme court of law in England. Vide King's Bench.
COURT MARTIAL. A court authorized by the articles of war, for the trial of all offenders in the army or navy, for military offences. Article 64, directs that general courts martial may consist of any number of commissioned officers, from five to thirteen, inclusively; but they shall not consist of less than thirteen, where the number can be convened, without manifest injury to the service.
2. The decision of the commanding officer who appoints the court, as to the number that can be convened without injury to the service, is conclusive. 12 Wheat. R. 19. Such a court has not jurisdiction over a citizen of the United States not employed in military service 12 John. R. 257. It has merely a limited jurisdiction, and to render its jurisdiction valid, it must appear to have acted within such jurisdiction. 3 S. & R. 590 11 Pick. R. 442; 19 John. R. 7; 1 Rawle, R. 143.
3. A court martial must have jurisdiction over the subject matter of inquiry, and over the person for a want of these will render its judgment null, and the members of the court and the officers who execute its sentence, trespassers. 3 Cranch, 331. See 5 Wheat. 1; 12 Wheat. 19; 1 Brock. 324. Vide Gord. Dig. Laws U. S., art. 3331 to 3357; 2 Story,. L. U. S. 1000; and also the Treatises of Adye, Delafon, Hough, J. Kennedy, M. V. Kennedy, McArthur, McNaghten, Simmons and Tyler on Courts Martial; and 19 John. R, 7; 12 John. R. 257; 20 John. R. 343; 5 Wheat. R. 1; 1 U. S. Dig. tit. Courts, V.
COURT OF PECULIARS, Eng. eccl. law. The name of a court, which is a branch of, and annexed to, the. court of arches.
2. It has jurisdiction over all those parishes dispersed through the province of Canterbury, in the midst of other dioceses. In the other peculiars, the jurisdiction is exercised by commissaries. 1 Phill. R. 202, n.
3. There are three sorts of peculiars 1. Royal peculiars. 3 Phill. R. 245. 2. The second sort are those in which the bishop has no concurrent jurisdiction, and are exempt from his visitation. 3. The third are subject to the bishop's visitation, and liable to his superintendence and jurisdiction. 3 Phill. R. 245; Skinn. R. 589.
COURT PREROGATIVE. Vide Prerogative Court.
COURT, PRIZE. One of the branches of the English admiralty, is called a prize court. Vide Prize Court.
COURT OF RECORD. At common law, any jurisdiction which has the power to fine and imprison, is a court of record. Salk. 200; Bac. Ab. Fines and Amercements, A. And courts which do not possess this power are not courts of record. See Court.
2. The act of congress, to establish an uniform rule of naturalization, &c., approved April 14, 1802, enacts, that for the purpose of admitting aliens to become citizens, that every court of record in any individual state, having common law jurisdiction and a seal, and a clerk or prothonotary, shall be considered as a district court within. the meaning of this act.
COURT, SUPREME. Supreme court is the name of a court having jurisdiction over all other courts Vide Courts of the United States.
COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES. The judiciary of the United States is established by virtue of the following provisions, contained in the third article of the constitution, namely:
2. - "1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
3.- "2. (I.) The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party to controversies between two or more states, between a state and a citizen of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.
4. - " (2.) In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations, as congress shall make.
5. - " (3.) The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crime shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as congress may by law have directed."
6. By the amendments to the constitution, the following alteration has been made: "Art. 11. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commence or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or citizens or subjects of any foreign state."
7. This subject will be considered by taking a view of, 1. The central courts; an 2. The local courts. Art. 1 The Central Courts of the United States.
8. The central courts of the United States are, the senate, for the trial of impeachments, and the supreme court. The territorial jurisdiction of these courts extends over the whole country.
1. Of the Senate of the United States.
9.- 1. The constitution of the United States, art. 1, 3, provides that the senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, the senate shall be on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
10. lt will be proper here to consider, 1. The organization of this extraordinary court; and, 2. Its jurisdiction.
11. - 1. Its organization differs according as it has or, has not the president of the United States to try. For the trial of all impeachment of the president, the preseuce of the chief justice is required. There must also be a sufficient number of senators present to form a quorum. For the trial of all other impeachments, it is sufficient if a quorum be present.
12. - 2. The jurisdiction of the senate, as a court for the trial of impeachments, extends to the following officers, namely; the president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the United States, art. 2, 4, when they shall have been guilty of treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors. Id. The constitution defines treason, art.
3, - 3, but recourse must be had to the common law for a definition of bribery. Not having particularly mentioned what is to be understood by " other high crimes and misdemeanors," resort, it is presumed, must be had to parliamentary practice. and the common law, in order to ascertain what they are. Story, Const. 795.
2. Of the Supreme Court.
13. The constitution of the United States directs that the judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court; and in such inferior courts as congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. It will be proper to consider, 1st. Its organization; 2dly. Its Jurisdiction.
14. - 1. Of the organization of the supreme court. Under this head will be considered, l. The appointment of the judges. 2. The number necessary to form a quorum. 3. The time and place of holding the court.
15. - 1. The judges of the supreme court are appointed by the president, by and with the consent of the senate, Const. art. 2, 2. They hold their office during good behaviour, and receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Const. art" 3, 1. They consist of a chief justice and eight associate justices. Act of March 3, 1837, 1.
16. - 2. Five judges are required to make a quorum, Act of March 3, 1837, 1; but by the act of the 21st of January, 1829, the judges attending on the day appointed for holding a session of the court, although fewer than a quorum, at that time, four have authority to adjourn the court from day to day, for twenty days, after the time appointed for the commencement, of said session, unless a quorum shall sooner attend; and the business shall not be continued over till the next session of the court, until the expiration of the said twenty days. By the same act, if, after the judges shall have assembled, on any day less than a quorum shall assemble, the judge or judges. so assembling shall have authority to adjourn the said court, from day to day, until a quorum shall attend, and, when expedient and proper, may adjourn the same without day.
17 - 3. The supreme court is holden at the city of Washington. Act of April 29, 1 802. The session commences on the second Monday of January, in each and every year. Act of May, 4, 1826. The first Monday of August in each year is appointed as a return day. Act of April 29, 1802. In case of a contagious sickness, the chief justice or his senior associate may direct in what other place the court shall be held, and the court shall accordingly be ad to such place. Act of February 25, 1799, 7. The officers of the court are a clerk, who is appointed by the court, a marshal, appointed by the president, by and with the advice and the consent of the senate, crier, and other inferior officers.
18. - 2. Of the jurisdiction of the supreme. court. The jurisdiction of the supreme court is either civil or criminal.
19. - 1. The civil jurisdiction is either original or appellate.
20. - (1.) The provisions of the constitution that relate to the original jurisdiction of the supreme court, are contained in the articles of the constitution already cited.
21. By the act of September 24th, 1789, 13, the supreme court shall have exclusive jurisdiction of all controversies of civil nature where a state is a party, except "between a state and it's citizens; and except also, between a state and citizens of other states or aliens, in which latter case it shall have original, but not exclusive jurisdiction. And shall have, exclusively, all such jurisdiction of suits, or proceedings against ambassadors or other public ministers, or their domestics or domestic servants, as a court of law can have or exercise consistently with the law of nations. And original, but not exclusive jurisdiction of all suits brought by ambassadors or other public ministers, or in which a consul or vice-consul shall be a party. And the trial of issues in fact, in the supreme court, in all actions at law, against citizens of the United States, shall be by jury.
22. In consequence of the decision of the case of Chisholm v. Georgia, where it was held that assumpsit might be maintained against a state by a citizen of a different state, the llth article of the amendments of the constitution above quoted, was adopted.
23. In those cases in which original jurisdiction is given to the supreme court, the judicial power of the United States cannot be exercised in its appellate form. With the exception of those cases in which original jurisdiction is given to this court, there is none to which the judicial power extends, from which the original jurisdiction of the inferior courts is excluded by the constitution.
24. The constitution establishes the supreme court and defines its jurisdiction. It enumerates the cases in which its jurisdiction is original and exclusive, and defines that which is appellate. See ll Wheat. 467.
25. Congress cannot vest in the supreme court original jurisdiction in a case in which the constitution has clearly not given that court original jurisdiction; and affirmative words in the constitution, declaring in what cases the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction, must be construed negatively as to all other cases, or else the clause would be inoperative and useless. 1 Cranch, 137. See 5 Pet. 15 Pet. 284; 12 Pet. 657; 9 Wheat. 738 6 Wheat. 264.
26. - 2. The supreme court exercises appellate jurisdiction in the following different modes:
(1.) By writ of error from the final judgments of the circuit courts; of the district courts, exercising the powers of circuit courts; and of the superior, courts of the territories, exercising the powers of circuit, courts, in certain cases. A writ of error does not lie to the supreme court to reverse the judgment of a circuit court, in a civil action by writ of error carried from the district court to the circuit court. The United States v. Goodwin, 7 Cranch, 108. But now, by the act of July 4, 1840, c. 20, 3, it is enacted that writs of error shall lie to the supreme court from all judgments of a circuit court, in cases brought there by writs of error from the district court, in like manner and under the same regulations, as are provided by law for writs of error for judgments rendered upon suits originally brought in the circuit court.
27. - (2.) The supreme court has jurisdiction by appeals from the final decrees of the circuit courts; of the district courts exercising the powers of circuit courts; and of the superior courts of territories, exercising the powers of circuit courts in certain cases. See 8 Cranch, 251 6 Wheat. 448.
28. - (3.) The supreme court has also jurisdiction by writ of error from the, final judgments and decrees of the highest courts of law or equity in a state, in the cases provided for by the twenty-fifth section of the act of September 24th, 1789, which enacts that a final judgment or decree, in any suit in the highest court of law, or equity of a, state, in which a decision in the suit could be had, where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty, or statute of, or an authority exercised under, the United States, and the decision is against their validity; or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under any state, on the ground of their being repugnant to the constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of such their validity; or where is drawn in question the construction of any clause of the constitution, or of a treaty or statute of, or commission held under the United States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege, or exemption specially set up or claimed by either party, under such clause of the said constitution, treaty, statute, or commission, may be re-examined, and reversed or affirmed in the supreme court of the United States, upon a writ of error, the citation being signed by the chief-justice or judge, or chancellor of the court rendering or passing the judgment or decree complained of, or by a justice of the supreme court of the United States, in the same manner, and under the same regulations, and the writ shall have the same effect as if the judgment or decree complained of had been rendered or passed in a circuit court; and the proceeding upon the reversal shall also be the same, except that the supreme court, instead of remanding the cause for a final decision as before provided, may, at their discretion, if the cause shall have been once remanded before, proceed to a final decision of the same, and award execution. But no other error shall be assigned or regarded as a ground of reversal, in ny such case as aforesaid, than such as appears on the face of the record, and immediately respects the before mentioned questions of validity, or construction of the said constitution, treaties, statutes, commissions, or authorities in dispute. See 5 How. S. C. R. 20, 55
29. The appellate jurisdiction of the supreme court extends to all cases pending in the state courts and the twenty-fifth section of the judiciary act, which authorizes the exercise of this jurisdiction in the specified cases by writ of error, is supported by the letter and spirit of the constitution. 1 Wheat. 304.
30. When the construction or validity of a treaty of the United States is drawn in question in the state courts, and the decision is against its validity, or the title specially set up by either party under the treaty, the supreme court has jurisdiction to ascertain that title, and to determine its legal meaning. 1 Wheat. 358; 5 Cranch, 344; 9 Wheat. 738; 1 Pet. 94; 9 Pet. 224; 10 Pet. 368; 6 Pet. 515.
31. The supreme court has jurisdiction although one of the parties is a state, and the other a citizen of that state. 6 Wheat. 264.
32. Under the twenty-fifth section of the judiciary act, when any clause of the constitution or any statute of the United States is drawn in question, the decision must be against the title or right set up by the party under such clause or statute; otherwise the supreme court has no appellate jurisdiction of the case. 12 Wheat. 117, 129 6 Wheat. 598 3 Cranch, 268 4 Wheat. 311; 7 Wheat. 164; 2 Peters, 449; 2 Pet. 241; 11 Pet. 167; 1 Pet. 655; 6 Pet. 41; 5 Pet. 248.
33. When the judgment of the highest court of law of a state, decides in favor of the validity of a statute of a state drawn in question, on the ground of its being repugnant to the constitution of the United States, it is not a final judgment within the twenty-fifth section of the judiciary act if the suit has been remanded to the inferior court, where it originated, for further proceedings, not inconsistent with the judgment of the highest court. 12 Wheat. 135.
34. The words " matters in dispute" in the act of congress, which is to regulate the jurisdiction of the supreme court, seem appropriated to civil causes. 3 Cranch, 159. As to the manner of ascertaining the matter in dispute, see 4 Cranch, 216; 4 Dall. 22; 3 Pet. 33; 3 Dall. 365; 2 Pet. 243; 7 Pet. 634; 5 Cranch, 13; 4 Cranch, 316.
35. - (4.) The supreme court has juris- diction by certificate from the circuit court, that the opinions of the judges are opposed on points stated, as provided for by the sixth section of the act of April 29th, 1802. The provisions of the act extend to criminal as well as to civil cases. See 2 Cranch, 33; 10 Wheat. 20 2 Dall. 385; 4 Hall's Law Journ. 462; 5 Wheat. 434; 6 Wheat. 542; 12 Wheat. 212; 7 Cranch, 279.
36. - (5.) It has also jurisdiction by mandamus, prohibition, habeas corpus, certiorari, and procedendo.
37. - 2. The criminal jurisdiction of the supreme court is derived from the constitution and the act of September 24th, 1789, s. 13, which gives the supreme court exclusively, all such jurisdiction of suits or proceedings against ambassadors, or other public ministers, or their domestics, as a court of law can have or exercise consistently with the law of nations. But it must be remembered that the act of April 30tb, 1790, sections 25 and 26, declares void any writ or process whereby the person of any ambassador, or other public minister, their domestics or domestic servants, may be arrested or imprisoned. Art. 2. The local courts.
38. The local courts of the United States are, circuit courts, district courts, and territorial courts., 1. The circuit courts.
39. In treating of circuit courts, it will be convenient to consider, 1st. Their organization; and, 2d. Their jurisdiction.
40. - 1. Of the organization of the circuit courts. The circuit courts are the principal inferior courts established by congress. There are nine circuit courts, composed of the districts which follow, to wit:
41. - 1. The first circuit consists of the districts of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Maine. It consists of a judge of the supreme court and the district judge of the district where such court is holden. See Acts April 29, 1802 March 26, 1812 and March 30, 1820.
42. - 2 The second circuit is composed of the districts of Vermont, Connecticut and New York. Act of March 3, 183 7.
43. - 3. The third circuit consists of the districts of New Jersey, and eastern and western Pennsylvania;. Act of March 3, 1837.
44. - 4. The fourth circuit is composed of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia. Act of Aug. 16, 1842.
45. - 5. The fifth circuit is composed of Alabama and Louisiana. Act of August 16, 1842.
46.- 6. The sixth circuit consist of the districts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Act of Aug. 16, 1842.
47. - 7. The seventh circuit is composed of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan. Act of March 3, 1837, 1.
48.-8. The eighth circuit includes Kentucky, East and West Tennessee, and Missouri. Act of March 3, 1837, 1. By the Act of April 14, 1842, ch. 20, 1, it is enacted that the district court of the United States at Jackson, in the district of West Tennessee, shall in future be attached to, and form a part of the eighth judicial district of the United States, with all the power and jurisdiction of the circuit court held at Nashville, in the middle district of Tennessee.
49. - 9. The ninth circuit is composed of the districts of Alabama, the eastern district of Louisiana, the district of Mississippi, and the district of Arkansas. Act of March 3, 1837, 1.
50. In several districts of the United States, owing to their remoteness from any justice of the supreme court, there are no circuit courts held. But in these, the district court there is authorized to act as a circuit court, except so far as relates to writs of error or appeals from judgments or decrees in such district court.
51. The Act of March 3, 1837, provides, " That so much of any act or acts of congress as vests in the district courts of the United States for the districts of Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, the eastern district of Louisiana, the district of Mississippi, the northern district of New York, the western district of Virginia, and the western district of Pennsylvania, and the district of Alabama, or either of them, the power and jurisdiction of circuit courts, be, and the same is hereby, repealed; and there shall hereafter be circuit courts held for said districts by the chief or associate justices of the supreme court, assigned or allotted to the circuit to which such districts may respectively belong, and the district judges of such districts, severally and respectively, either of whom shall constitute a quorum; which circuit courts, and the judges thereof, shall have like powers, and exercise like jurisdiction as other circuit courts and the judges thereof; and the said district courts, and the judges thereof, shall have like powers, and exercise like jurisdiction, as the district courts, and the judges thereof in the other circuits. From all judgments and decrees, rendered in the district courts of the United States for the western district of Louisiana, writs of error and appeals shall lie to the circuit court in the other district in said state, in the same manner as from decrees and judgments rendered in. the districts within which a circuit court is provided by this act."
52. In all cases where the day of meeting of the circuit court is fixed for a particular day of the mouth, if that day happen on Sunday, then, by the Act of 29th April, 1802, and other acts, the court shall be held the next day.
53. The Act of April 29, 1802, 5, further provides, that on every appointment which shall be hereafter made, of a chief justice, or associate justice, the chief justice and associate justices shall allot among themselves the aforesaid circuits, as they shall think fit, and shall enter such allotment on record.
54. The Act of March 3, 1837, 4, directs that the allotment of the chief justice and the associate justices of the said supreme court to the several circuits shall be made as heretofore.
55. And by the Act of August 16, 1842, the justices of the supreme court of the United States, or a majority of the are required to allot the several districts among the justices of the said court.
56. And in case no such allotment shall be made by them, at their sessions next succeeding such appointment, and also, after the appointment of any judge as aforesaid, and before any other allotment shall have been made, it shall and may be lawful for the president of the United States, to make such allotment as he shall deem proper which allotment, in either case, shall be binding until another allotment shall be made. And the circuit courts constituted by this act shall have all the power, authority and jurisdiction, within the several districts of their respective circuits, that before the 13th February, 1801, belonged to the circuit courts of the United States.
57. The justices of the supreme court of the United States, and the district judge of the district where the circuit is holden, compose the judges of the circuit court. The district judge may alone hold a circuit court, though no judge of the supreme court may be allotted to that circuit. Pollard v. Dwight, 4 Cranch, 421.
58. The Act of September 24th, 1789, 6, provides, that a circuit court may be adjourned from day to day, by one of its judges, or if none are present, by the marshal of the district, until a quorum be convened. By the Act of May 19, 1794, a circuit court in any district, when it shall happen that no judge of the supreme court attends within four days after the time appointed by law, for the commencement of the sessions, may be adjourned to the next stated term, by the judge of the district, or, in case of his absence also, by the marshal of the district. But by the 4th section of the Act of April 29, 1802, where only one of the judges thereby directed to hold the circuit courts shall attend, such circuit court may be held by the judge so attending.
59. By the Act of March 2, 1809, certain duties are imposed oil the justices of the supreme court, in case of the disability of a district judge within their respective circuits to hold a district court. Sect. 2, enacts, that in case of the disability of the district judge of either of the district courts of the United States, to hold a district court, and to perform the duties of his office, and satisfactory evidence thereof being shown to the justice of the supreme court allotted to that circuit, in which such district court ought, by law to be holden, and on application of the district attorney, or marshal of such district, in writing, the said justice of the supreme court shall, thereupon, issue his order in the nature of a certiorari) directed to the clerk of such district court, requiring him forthwith to certify unto the next circuit court, to be holden, in said district, all actions, suits, pauses, pleas, or processes, civil or criminal, of what nature or land soever, that may be depending in such district court, and undetermined, with all the proceedings thereon, and all files, and papers relating, thereto, which said order shall be immediately published in one or more newspapers, printed in said district, and at least thirty days before the session of such circuit court, and shall be deemed a sufficient notification to all coucerned. And the said circuit court shall, thereupon, have the same cognizance of all such actions, suits, causes, pleas, or processes, civil or criminal, of what nature or kind soever, and in the like manner, as the district court of said district by law might have, or the circuit court, had the same been originally commenced therein, and shall proceed to hear and deterime the same accordingly; and the said justice of the supreme court, during the continuance of such disability, shall, moreover, be invested with, and exercise all and singular the, powers and authority, vested by law in the judge of the district court in said district. And all bonds and recognizances taken for, orreturnable to, such district court, shall be construed and taken to be the circuit court to be holden thereafter, in pursuance of this act, and shall have the same force and effect in such court as they would have had in the district court to which they were taken. Provided, that nothing in this act contained shall be so construed, as to require of the judge of the supreme court, within whose circuit such district may lie, to hold any special court, or court of admiralty, at any other time than the legal time for holding the circuit court of the United States in and for such district.
60. Sect. 2, provides, that the clerk of such district shall, during the continuance of the disability of the district judge, continue to certify, as aforesaid, all suits or actions, of what nature or kind soever, which may thereafter be brought to such district court, and the same transmit to the circuit court next thereafter to be holden in the same district. And the said circuit court shall have cognizance of the same, in like manner as is hereinbefore provided in this act, and shall proceed to bear and determine the same. Provided, nevertheless, that when the disability of the district judge shall cease, or be removed, all suits or actions then pending and undetermined in the circuit court, in which, by law, the district courts have an exclusive original cognizance, shall be remanded, and the clerk of the said circuit court shall transmit the same, pursuant to the order of the said court, with all matters and things relating thereto, to the district Court next thereafter to be holden in said district, and the same proceedings shall be had therein, as would have been, had the same originated, or been continued, in the said district court.
61. Sect. 3, enacts, that in case of the district judge in any district being unable to discharge his duties as aforesaid, the district clerk of such district shall be authorized and empowered, by leave or order of the circuit judge of the circuit in which such district is included, to take, during such disability of the district judge, all examinations, and depositions of witnesses, and to make all necessary rules and orders, preparatory to the final hearing of all causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. See 1 Gall. 337 1 Cranch, 309 note to Hayburn's case, 3 Dall. 410.
62. If the disability of the district judge terminate in his death, the circuit court must remand the certified causes to the district court. Ex parte United States, 1 Gall. 337.
63. By the first section of the Act of March 3, 1821, in all suits and actions in any district court of the United States, in which it shall appear that the judge of such court is any ways concerned in interest, or has been of counsel for either party, or is so related to, or connected with, either party, as to render it improper for him, in his opinion, to sit on the trial of such suit or action, it shall be the duty of such judge, on application of either party, to cause the fact to be entered on the records of the court, and also an order that an authenticated copy the thereof, with all the proceedings in such suit or action, shall be forthwith certified to the next circuit court of the district, and if there be no circuit court in such district, to the next circuit court in the state, and if there be no circuit court in such state, to the most convenient circuit court in an adjacent state; which circuit court shall, upon such record being filed with the clerk thereof, take cognizance thereof, in like manner as if such suit or action had been originally commenced in that court, and shall proceed to bear and determine the same accordingly, and the jurisdiction of such circuit court shall extend to all such cases to be removed, as were cognizable in the district court from which the same was removed.
64. And the Act of February 28, 1839, 8, enacts, "That in all suits and actions, in any circuit court of the United States, in which it shall appear that both the judges thereof, or the judge thereof, who is solely competent by law to try the same, shall be any ways concerned in interest therein, or shall have been of counsel for either party, or is, or are so related to, or connected with, either party as to render it improper for him or them, in his or their opinion, to sit in the trial of such suit or action, it shall be the duty of such judge, or judges, on application of either party, to cause the fact to be entered on the records of the court; and, also, to make an order that an authenticated copy thereof, with all the proceedings in such suit or action, shall be certified to the most couvenient circuit court in the next adjacent state, or in the next adjacent circuit; which circuit court shall, upon such record and order being filed with the clerk thereof, take cognizance thereof in the same manner as if such suit or action had been rightfully and originally commenced therein, and shall proceed to hear and determine the same accordingly; and the proper process for the due execution of the judgment or decree rendered therein, shall run into, and may be executed in, the district where such judgment or decree was rendered; and, also, into the district from which such suit or action was removed."
65. The judges of the supreme court are not appointed as circuit court judges, or, in other words, have no distinct commission for that purpose: but practice and acquiescence under it, for many years, were held to afford an irresistible argument against this objection to their authority to act, when made in the year, 1803, and to have fixed the construction of the judicial system. The court deemed the contemporary exposition to be of the most forcible nature, and considered the question at rest, and not to be disturbed then. Stuart v. Laird, 1 Cranch, 308. If a vacancy exist by the death of the justice of the supreme court to whom the district was allotted, the district judge may, under the act of congress, discharge the official duties, (Pollard v. Dwight, 4 Cranch, 428. See the fifth section of the Act of April 29, 1802,) except that he cannot sit upon a writ of error from a decision in the district court. United States v. Lancaster, 5 Wheat. 434.
66. It is enacted, by the Act of Februrary 28, 1839, 2, that all the circuit courts of the United States shall have the appointment of their own clerks; and in case of disagreement between the judges, the appointment shall be made by the presiding judge of the court.
67. The marshal of the district is an officer of the court, and the clerk of the district court is also clerk of the circuit court in such district. Act of September 24, 1789, 7.
68. In the District of Columbia, there is a circuit court established by particular acts of congress, composed of a chief justice and two associates. See Act. of February 27, 1801; 12 Pet. 524; 7 Pet. 203; 7 Wheat. R. 534; 3 Cranch, 159; 8 Cranch, 251; 6 Cranch 233. 2. Of the Jurisdiction of the Circuit Courts.
69. The jurisdiction of the circuit courts is either civil or criminal. (1.) Civil Jurisdiction. The civil jurisdiction is either at law or in equity. Their civil jurisdiction at law is, 1st. Original. 2d. By removal of actions from the state courts. 3d. By writ of mandamus. 4tb. By appeal.
70. - 1st. The original jurisdiction of the circuit courts at law, may be considered, first, as to the matter in controversy second, with regard to the parties litigant. (1.) The Matter in Dispute.
71. By the Act of September 24, 1789, 11, to give jurisdiction to the circuit court, the matter in dispute must exceed $500. In actions to recover damages for torts, the sum laid in the declaration is the criterion as to the matter in dispute. 3 Dall. 358. In an action of covenant on an instrument under seal, containing a penalty less than $500, the court has jurisdiction if the declaration demand more than $500. 1 Wash. C. C. R. 1. In ejectment, the value of the land should appear in the declaration; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 624; 8 Cranch, 220; 1 Pet. 73; but though the jury do not find the value of the land in dispute, yet if evidence be given on the trial, that the value exceeds $500, it is sufficient to fix the jurisdiction; or the court may ascertain its value by affidavits. Pet. C. C. R. 73.
72. If the matter in dispute arise out of a local injury, for which a local action must be brought, in order to give the circuit court jurisdiction, it must be brought in the district where the lands lie. 4 Hall's Law Journal, 78.
73. By various acts of congress, jurisdiction is given to the circuit courts in cases where actions are brought to recover damages for the violation of patent and Copyrights, without fixing any amount as the limit. See Acts of April 17, 1800, 4; Feb. 15, 1819; 7 Johns. 144; 9 Johns. 507.
74. The circuit courts have jurisdiction in cases arising under the patent laws. By the Act of July 4, 1836, 17, it is enacted, " That all actions, suits, controversies, and cases arising under any law of the United States, granting or confirming to inventors the exclusive right to their inventions or discoveries, shall be originally cognizable, as well in equity as at law, by the circuit courts of the United States, or any district court having the powers and jurisdiction of a circuit court; which courts shall have power, upon bill in equity filed by any party aggrieved, in any such case, to grant injunctions, according to the course and principles of courts of equity, to prevent the violation of the rights of any inventor, as secured to him by any law of the United States, on such terms and conditions as said courts may deem reasonable. Provided, however, That from all judgments and decrees, from any such court rendered in. the premises, a writ of error or appeal, as the case may require, shall lie to the supreme court of the United States, in the same manner and under the same circumstances as is now provided by law in other judgments and decrees of circuit courts, and in all other cases in which the court shall deem it reasonable to allow the game."
75. In general, the circuit court has no original jurisdiction of suits for penalties and forfeitures arising under the laws of the United States, nor in admiralty cases. 2 Dall. 365 4 Dall. 342; Bee, 19. (2.) The character of the parties.
76. Under this head will be considered 1. The United States. 2. Citizens of difrerent states. 3. Suits where an alien is a party. 4. When an assignee is plaintiff. 5. Defendant must be an inhabitant of the circuit. (i.) The United States.
77. The United States may sue on all contracts in the circuit courts where the sum in controversy exceeds, besides costs, the sum of $500 but, in cases of penalties, the action must be commenced in the district court, unless the law gives express jurisdiction to the circuit courts. 4 Dall. 342. Under the Act of March 3, 1815, 4, the circuit court has jurisdiction concurrently with the district court of all suits at common law where any officer of the United States sues under the authority of an act of congress; as where the post-master general sues under an act of congress for debts or balances due to the general post-office. 12 Wheat. 136. See 2 Pet. 447; 1 Pet. 318.
78. The circuit court has jurisdiction on a bill in equity filed b the United States against the debtor of their debtor, they claiming priority under the statute of March 2, 1798, c. 28, 65, though the law of the state where the suit is brought permits a creditor to proceed against the debtor of his debtor by a peculiar process at law. 4 Wheat. 108. (ii.) Suits between citizens of different states.
79. The Act of September 24, 1789, 11, gives jurisdiction to the circuit court in suits of civil nature when the matter in dispute is of a certain amount, between a citizen of the state where the suit is brought, and a citizen of another state; one of the parties must therefore be a citizen of the state where the such is brought. See 4 Wash. C. C. R. 84; Pet. C. C. R. 431; 1 Sumn. 581; 1 Mason, 520; 5 Cranch, 288; 3 Mason, 185; 8 Wheat.'699; 2 Mason, 472; 5 Cranch, 57; Id. 51; 6 Wheat. 450; 1 Pet. 238; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 482, Id. 595.
80. Under this section the division of a state into two or more districts does not affect the jurisdiction of the circuit court, on account of citizenship. The residence of a party in a different district of a state from that in which the suit is brought, does not exempt him from the jurisdiction of the court; if he is found in the district where he is sued he is not within the prohibition of this section. 11 Pet. 25. A territory is not a state for the purpose of giving jurisdiction, and, therefore, a citizen of a territory cannot sue the citizen of a State in the circuit court. 1 Wheat. 91. (iii.) Suits where on alien is a party.
81. The Act of September 24, 1780, 11, gives the circuit court cognizance of all suits of a civil nature where an alien is a party; but these general words; must be restricted by the provision in the constitution which gives jurisdiction in controversies between a state, or the citizens of a state, and foreign states, citizens or subjects; and the statute cannot extend the jurisdiction beyond the limits of the constitution. 4 Dall. 11; 5 Cranch, 308. When both parties are aliens, the circuit court has no jurisdiction. 4 Cranch, 46; 4 Dall. 11. An alien who holds lands under a special law of the state in which he is resident, may maintain an action in relation to those lands, in the circuit court. 1 Baldw. 216. (iv.) When an assignee is the plaintiff.
82. The court has no jurisdiction unless a suit might have been prosecuted in such court to recover on the contract assigned, if no assignment had been made, except in cases of bills of exchange. Act of September 24, 1789, 11; see 2 Pet. 319; 1 Mason, 243; 6 Wheat. 146; 11 Pet. 83; 9 Wheat. 537; 6 Cranch, 332; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 349; 4 Mason, 435; 12 Pet. 164; 2 Mason, 252. It is said that this section of the act of congress has no application to the conveyance of lands from a citizen of one state to a citizen of another. The grantee in such, case may maintain his action in the circuit court, when otherwise properly qualified, to try the title to such lands. 2 Sumn. 252. (V.) The defendant must be an inhabitant of, or found in the circuit.
83. The circuit court has no jurisdiction of an action against a defendant unless he be an inhabitant of the district in which such court is located, or found therein, at the time of serving the writ. 3 Wash. C. C. R. 456. A citizen of one state may be sued in another, it the process be served upon him in the latter; but in such cases) the plaintiff must be a citizen of the latter state, or an alien. 1 Pet. C. C. R. 431. 2d. Removal of actions from the state court's.
84. The, Act of September 24, 1789, gives, in certain cases, the right of removing a suit instituted in a state court to the circuit court of the district. It is enacted by that law, that if a suit be commenced in any state court against an alien, or by a citizen of the state in which the suit is brought, against a citizen of another state, and the matter in dispute exceeds the aforesaid sum or value of five hundred dollars, exclusive of costs, to be made to appear to the satisfaction of the court, and the defendant shall, at the time of entering his appearance in such state court, file a petition for the removal of the cause for trial, into the next circuit court, to be held in the district where the suit is pending, and offer good and sufficient security for his entering in such court, on the first day of its session, copies of the said process against bim, and also for his then appearing and entering special bail in the cause, if special bail was originally required therein, it shall then be the duty of the state court to accept the surety, and proceed no further in the cause. And any bail that may have been originally taken shall be discharged. And the said copies being entered as aforesaid in such court of the United States, the cause shall there proceed in the same manner as if it had been brought there by original process. And any attachment of the goods or estate of the defendant, by the original process, shall hold the goods or estate so attached, to answer the final judgment, in the same manner as by the laws of such state they would have been holden to answer final judgment, had it been rendered by the circuit court in which the suit commenced. Vide Act of September 24, 1789, 12; 4 Dall. 11; 5 Cranch, 303; 4 Johns. R. 493; 1 Pet. R. 220; 2 Yeates, R. 275; 4 W. C. C. R. 286, 344.
85. By the Constitution, art. 3, 2, 1, the judicial power shall extend to controversies between citizens of the same state, claiming lands under grants of different states.
86. By a clause of the 12th section of the Act of September 24th, 1789, it is enacted, that, if in any action conmmenced in a state court, the title of land be concerned, and the parties are citizens of the same state, and the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of five hundred dollars, exclusive of costs, the sum or value being made to appear to the satisfaction of the court, either party, before the trial, shall state to the court, and make affidavit, if it require it, that he claims, and shall rely upon a right or title to the land, under grant from a state, other than that in which the suit is pending, and produce the original grant, or an exemplification of it, except where the loss of records shall put it out of his power, and shall move that the adverse party inform the court, whether he claims a right of title to the land under a grant from the state in which the suit is pending; the said adverse party shall give such information, otherwise not be allowed to plead such grant, or give it in evidence upon the trial; and if he informs that he does claim under any such grant, the party claiming under the grant first mentioned, may then, on motion, remove the cause for trial, to the next circuit court to be holden in such district. But if he is the defendant, he shall do it under the same regulations, as in the before mentioned case of the removal of a cause into such court by an alien. And neither party removing the cause shall be allowed to plead, or give evidence of, any other title than that by him stated as aforesaid, as the ground of his claim. See 9 Cranch, 292 2 Wheat. R. 378.
87. Application for removal must be made during the term at which the defendant enters his appearance. 1 J. J. Marsh. 232. If a state court agree to consider a petition to remove the cause as filed of the preceding term, yet if the circuit court see by the record, that it was not filed till a subsequent term, they will not permit the cause to be docketed. Pet. C.. C. R. 44 Paine, 410 but see 2 Penning. 625.
88. In chancery, when the defendant wishes to remove the suit, he must file his petition when he enters his appearance; 4 Johns. Ch. 94; and in an action in a court of law, at the time of putting in special bail. 12 Johns. 153. And if an alien file his petition when he filed special bail, he is in time, though the bail be excepted to. 1 Caines, 248; Coleman, 58. A defendant in ejectment may file his petition. when he is let in to defend. 4 Johns. 493. See Pet. C. C. R. 220; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 463; 2 Yeates, 275, 352; 3 Dall. 467; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 286; 2 Root 444; 5 John. Ch. R. 300 3 Harn. 48; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 84. 3d. Remedy by Mandamus.
89. The power of the circuit Court to issue a mandamus, is confined, exclusively, to cases in which it may be necessary for the exercise of a jurisdiction already existing; as, for instance, if the court below refuse to proceed to judgment, then a mandamus in the nature of a procedendo may issue. 7 Cranch, 504; 6 Wheat. R. 598. After the state court had refused to permit the removal of a cause on petition, the circuit court issued a mandamus to transfer the cause.
4th. Appellate Jurisdiction.
90. The appellate jurisdiction is exercised by means of, 1. Writs of error. 2 Appeals from the district courts in admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. 3. Certiorari. 4. Procedendo.
91. - [l.] This court has jurisdiction to issue writs of error to the district court, on judgments of that court in civil cases at common law.
92. The 11th section of the Act of September 24, 1789, provides, that the circuit courts shall also have appellate jurisdiction from the district courts, under the regulations and restrictions thereinafter provided.
93. By the 22d section, final decrees and judgments in civil actions in a district court, where the matter in dispute exceeds the, sum or value of fifty dollars, exclusive of costs, may be reexamined, and reversed or affirmed in a circuit court holden in the same district, upon a writ of error, whereto shall be annexed and returned therewith at the day and place therein mentioned, an authenticated transcript of the record and assignment of errors, and prayer for reversal, with a citation to the adverse party, signed by the judge of such district court, or a justice of the supreme court, the adverse party having at least twenty days notice. But there shall be no reversal on such writ of error, for error in ruling any plea in abatement, other than a plea to the jurisdiction of the court, or for any error in fact. And writs of error shall not be brought but within five years after rendering or passing the judgment or decree complained of; or, in case the person entitled to such writ of error be an infant, non compos mentis, or imprisoned, then within five years, as aforesaid, exclusive of the time of such disability. And every justice or judge signing a citation or any writ of error as aforesaid, shall take good and sufficient security, that the plaintiff in error shall prosecute his writ to effect, and answer all damages and costs, if he fail to make his plea good.
94. The district judge cannot sit in the circuit court on a writ of error to the district court. 5 Wheat. R. 434.
95. It is observed above, that writs of error may be issued to the district court in civil cases at common law, but a writ of error does not lie from a circuit to a district court in an admiralty or maritime cause. 1 Gall. R. 5..
96. - [2.] Appeals from the district to the circuit court take place generally in civil causes of admiralty or maritime jurisdiction.
97. By the Act of March 3, 1803, 2, it is enacted, that from all final judgments or decrees in any of the district courts of the United States, an appeal where the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, shall exceed the sum or value of fifty dollars, shall be allowed to the district court next to be holden in the district where such final judgment or judgments, decree or decrees shall be rendered: and the circuit courts are thereby authorized and required, to hear and determine such appeals.
98. - [3.] Although no act of congress authorizes the circuit court to, issue a certiorari to the district court for the removal of a cause, yet if the cause be so removed, and instead of taking advantage of the irregularity in proper time and in a proper manner, the defendant makes the defence and pleads to issue, he thereby waives the objection, and the suit will be considered as an original one in the circuit court, made so by consent of parties. 2 Wheat. R. 221.
99.-[4.1 The circuit court may issue a writ of procedendo to the district court.
Equity Jurisdiction of the Circuit Courts.
100. Circuit courts are vested with equity jurisdiction in certain cases. The Act of September, 1789, 11, gives original cognizance, concurrent with the courts of the several states, of all suits of a civil nature at common law or in equity, where the matter in dispute exceeds, exclusive of costs, the sum or value of five hundred dollars, and the United States are plaintiffs or petitioners, or an alien is a party, or. the suit is between a citizen of the state where the suit is brought and a citizen of another state.
101. The Act of April 15, 1819, 1, provides, " That the circuit court of the United States shall. have original cognizance, as well in equity as at law, of all actions, suits, controversies, and cases arising under may law of the United States, granting or confirming to authors or inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings, inventions, and discoveries; and upon any bill in equity filed by any party aggrieved, in such cases, shall have authority to grant injunctions according to the course and principles of courts of equity, to prevent the viola-tion of the rights of any authors or inventors, secured to them by any laws of the United States, on such terms and conditions as the said courts may deem fit and reasonable:.provided, however, that from all judgments and decrees of any circuit courts rendered in the premises, a writ of error or appeal as the case may. require, shall lie to the supreme court of the United States, in the same Maniaer and under the same circumstances, as is now provided by law, in other judgments and decrees of such circuit court."
102. By the Act of August 23, 1842, it is enacted, 5, " That the district courts, as courts of admiralty, and the circuit courts, as courts of equity, shall be deemed always open for the purpose of filing libels, bills, petitions, answers, pleas, and other plead- ings, for issuing and returning mesne and final process and commissions, and for making and directing all interlocutory motions, orders, rules, and other proceedings whatever, preparatory to the hearing of all causes pending therein upon their merits. And it shall be competent for any. judge of the court, upon reasonable notice to the parties, in the clerk's office or at chambers, and in vacation as well as in term, to make and direct, and award all such process, commissions, and interlocutory orders, rules, and other proceedings, whenever the same are not grantable of course according to the rules and practice of the court."
(2.) Criminal Jurisdiction of the Circuit Courts.
103. The often cited llth section of the Act of the 24th of September, 1789, gives the circuit courts exclusive cognizance of all crimes and offences cognizable under the authority of the United States, except where that act otherwise provides, or the laws of the United States shall otherwise direct, and concurrent jurisdiction with the district courts of the crimes and offences cognizable. therein. The jurisdiction of the circuit courts in criminal cases is confined to offences committed within the district for which those courts respectively sit when they are committed on land. Serg. Const. Law, 129; 1 Gallis. 488.
2. Of the District Courts.
104. In treating of district courts, the same division which was made, in considering circuit courts, will here be adopted, by taking a view, 1. Of their organization and, 2. Of their jurisdiction. 1. Of the Organization of the District Courts.
105. The United States are divided into districts, in each of which is a court called a district court, which is to consist of one judge, who is to reside in the district for wbich he is appointed, and to hold annually four sessions. Act of September 24, 1789. By subsequent acts of congress, the number of annual sessions in particular districts, is sometimes more and sometimes less; and they are to be held at various places in the district. There is also a district court in the District of Columbia, held by the chief justice of the circuit court of that district. 2. Jurisdiction of the District Courts.
106. Their jurisdiction is either civil or criminal.
107. - (1.) Their civil jurisdiction extends, 1. To admiralty and maritime causes: the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, is either the ordinary jurisdiction, which comprehends prize suits; cases of salvage actions for torts; and actions on contracts, such. as seamen's wages, pilotage, bottomry, ransom, materials, and the like; or the extraordinary or expressly vested jurisdiction, which includes cases of seizures under the revenue laws, &c.; and captures within the jurisdiction of the United States.
108.-2. To cases of seizure on land under the laws of the United States, and in suits for penalties and forfeitures, incurred under the laws of the United States.
109.-3. To cases in which an alien sues for a tort, in violation of the laws of nations, or a treaty of the United States.
110. - 4. To suits instituted by the United States.
111. - 5. To actions by and against consuls.
112. - 6. To certain cases in equity.
113. - 1. The admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the district court is ordinary or extraordinary.
114. - 1st. The ordinary jurisdiction is granted by the Act of September 24th, 1789, It is there enacted, that the district court shall have exclusive original cognizance of all civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. This jurisdiction is exclusive. Bee, 19; 3 Dall. 16; Paine, 111; 4 Mason, 139.
115. This ordinary jurisdiction is exercised in,
116. - 1. Prize suits. The Act of September 24, 1789, 9, vests in the district courts as full jurisdiction of all prize causes as the admiralty of England; and this jurisdiction is an ordinary inherent branch of the powers of the court of admiralty, whether considered as prize courts or instance courts, 3 Dall. 16; Paine, 111.
117. The act of congress marks out not only the general jurisdiction of the district courts, but also that of the several courts in relation to each other, in cases of seizure on the waters of the United States, navigable, &c. When the seizure is made within the waters of one district, the court of that district has exclusive, jurisdiction, though the offence may have been committed out of the district. When the seizure is made on the high seas, the jurisdiction is in the court of the district where the property may be brought. 9 Wheat. 402; 6 Cranch; 281; 1 Mason, 360; Paine, 40.
118. When the seizure has been made within the waters of a foreign nation, the district court has jurisdiction, when the property has been brought into the district, and a prosecution has been instituted there. 9 Wheat. 402; 9 Cranch. 102.
119. The district court has jurisdiction of seizures, and of the question of who is entitled to their proceeds, as informers or otherwise; and the principal jurisdiction is exclusive; the question, as to who is the informer, is also exclusive. 4 Mason, 139.
120. - (2.) Cases of salvage. Under the constitution and laws of the United States, this court has exclusive original cognizance in cases of salvage; and, as a consequence, it has the power to determine to whom the residue of the property belongs, after deducting the salvage. 3 Dall. 183.
121. - (3.) Actions arising out of tort's and injuries. The district court has jurisdiction over all torts and injuries committed on the high seas, and in ports or harbors within the ebb and flow of the tide. Vide 1 Wheat. R. 304; 2 Gall. R. 389; 1 Mason, 96; 3 Mason., 242; 4 Mason, 380; 18 Johns. R. 257.
122. A court of admiralty has jurisdiction to redress personal wrongs committed on a passenger, on the high seas, by the master of a vessel, whether those wrongs be by direct force or consequential injuries. 3 Mason, 242.
123. The admiralty may decree damages for an unlawful capture of an American vessel by a French privateer, and may proceed by attachment in ?-em. Bee, 60.
124. It has jurisdiction in cases of maritime torts, in personam as well as in rem. 10 Wheat. 473,
125. This court has also jurisdiction of petitory suits to reinstate owners of vessels who have been displaced from their possession. 5 Mason, 465. It exercises jurisdiction of all torts and injuries committed on the high seas, and in ports or barbors within the flow or ebb of the tide. 2 Gallis. 398; Bee, 51.
126. A father, whose minor son has been tortiously abducted and seduced on a voyage on the high seas, may sue, in the admiralty, in the nature of an action per quod, &c., also for wages earned by such son in maritime service. 4 Mason, 380.
127. - (4.) Suits on contracts. As a court of admiralty, the district court has a jurisdiction, concurrent with the courts of common law, over all maritime contracts, wheresoever the same may be made or executed, or whatsoever be the form of the contract. 2 Gallis. 398. It may enforce the performance of charter-parties for foreign voyages, and by proceeding in rem, a lien for freight under them. 1 Sumn. 551; 2 Sumn. 589. It has jurisdiction over contracts for the hire of seamen, when the service is substantially performed on the sea, or on waters within the flow and reflow of the tide 10 Wheat. 428; 7 Pet. 324; Bee, 199; Gilp. 529. But unless the services are essentially maritime, the jurisdiction does not attach. 10 Wheat. 428; Gilp. 529.
128. The master of a vessel may sue in the admiralty, for his wages; and the mate, who on his death succeeds him, has the same right. 1 Sumn. 157; 9 Mason, 161; 4 Mason, 196. But when the services for which he sues have not been performed by him as master, they cannot be sued for in admiralty. 3 Mason, 161.
129. The jurisdiction of the admiralty attaches when the services are performed on a ship in port where the tide ebbs and flows. 7 Pet. 324; Gilp. 529.
130. Seamen, employed on board of steamboats and lighters engaged in trade or commerce on tide-water, are within the admiralty jurisdiction. But those in ferryboats are not so. Gilp. 532 Gilp. 203.
131. Wages may be recovered in the admiralty by the pilot, deck-hands, engineer, and firemen, on board of a steamboat. Gilp. 505.
132. But unless the service of those employed contribute in navigating the vessel, or to its preservation, they cannot sue for their wages in the admiralty; musicians on board of a vessel, who are hired and employed as such, cannot therefore enforce a payment of their wages by a suit in rem in the admiralty. Gilp. 516.
133. - 2d. The extraordinay jurisdiction of the district court, as a court of admiralty, or that which is vested by various acts of congress, consists of -
(1.) Seizures under the laws of imposts, navigation, or trade of the United States. It is enacted, by the Act of September 24, 1789, 9, that the district court shall have exclusive original cognizance of all civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, including all seizures under laws of impost, navigation, or trade of the United States, when the seizures are made on waters which are navigable from the sea, by vessels of ten or more tons burden, within their respective districts, as well as upon the high seas; saving to suitors, in all cases, the right of a common law remedy, when the common law is competent to give it.
134. Causes of this kind are to be tried by the district court, and not by a jury. 4 Cranch, 438; 5 Cranch, 281; 1 Wheat. 9, 20: 7 Cranch, 112; 3 Dall. 297.
135. It is the place of seizure, and not the committing of the offence, that, under the Act of September 24, 1789, gives jurisdiction to the court; 4 Cranch, 443 5 Cranch, 304; for until there has been a seizure, the forum cannot be ascertained. 9 Cranch, 289.
136. When the seizure has been voluntarily abandoned, it loses its validity, and no jurisdiction attaches to any court, uuless there be a new seizure. 10 Wheat. 325 1 Mason, 361.
137. - (2.) The. admiralty jurisdiction, expressly vested in the district court, embraces, also, captures made within the jurisdictional limits of the United States. By the Act of April. 20, 1818, 7, the district court shall take cognizance of complaints, by whomsoever instituted, in cases of captures made within the waters of the United States, or within a marine league of the coasts and shores thereof.
138. - 2. The civil jurisdiction of the district court extends to cases of seizure on land, under the laws of the United States, and in suits for penalties and forfeitures incurred under the laws of the United States.
139. The Act of September 24, 1789, 9, gives to the district court exclusive original cognizance of all seizures made on land, and other waters than as aforesaid, (that is, those which are navigable by vessels of ton or more tons burden, within their respective districts, or on the high seas,) and of all suits for penalties and forfeitures incurred under the laws of the United States.
140. In all cases of seizure on land, the district court sits as a court of common law, and its jurisdiction is entirely distinct from that exercised in case of seizure on waters navigable by vessels of ten tons burden and upwards. 8 Wheat. 395.
141. Seizures of this kind are triable by jury; they are not cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. 4 Crauch, 443.
142. - 3. The civil jurisdiction of the district court extends also to cases in which an alien sues for a tort, in violation of the law of nations, or a treaty of tho United States.
143. The Act of September 24, 1789, 9, directs that the district court shall have cognizance, concurrent with the courts of the several states, or the circuit courts, as the case may be, of all causes where an alien sues for a tort only, in violation of the law of nations, or of a treaty of the United States.
144. - 4. The civil jurisdiction of this court extends further to suits instituted by the United States. By the 9th section of the Act of September 24, 1789, the district court shall also have cognizance, concurrent as last mentioned, of all suits at common law, where the United States sue, and the matter in dispute amounts, exclusive of costs, to the sum or value of one hundred dollars. And by the Act of March 3; 1815, 4, it has cognizance, concurrent with the courts and magistrates of the several states, and the circuit courts of the United States, of all suits at common law where the United States, or any officer thereof, under the authority of any act of congress sue, although the debt, claim, or other matter in dispute, shall not amount to one hundred dollars.
145. These last words do not confine the jurisdiction given by this act to one hundred dollars, but prevent it from stopping at that sum: and consequently, suits for sums over one hundred dollars are cognizable in the district, circuit, and state courts, and before magistrates, in the cases here mentioned. By virtue of this act, these tribunals have jurisdiction over suits brought by the postmaster-general, for debts and balances due the general post office. 12 Wheat. 147; 2 Pet. 447; 1 Pet. 318.
146.-5. This court has jurisdiction of actions by and against consuls or vice-consuls, exclusively of the courts of the several states, except for offences where other punishment than whipping, not exceeding thirty stripes, a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, or a term of imprisonment not exceeding six months, is inflicted.
147. For offences above this description formerly the circuit court only had jurisdiction in cases of consuls. 5 S. & R. 545; 2 Dall. 299. But by the Act of August 23, 1842, the district courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the circiut courts of all crimes and offences against the United States, the punishment of which is not capital. And by the, Act of February 28, 1839, 5, the punishment of whipping is abolished. See also the Act of 28th Sept. 1850, making appropriations for the naval service, &c.
148. - 6. The jurisdiction of the district court under the bankrupt laws will be found under the title Bankrupt.
149. - 7. The district courts have equitable jurisdiction in certain cases. 150. By the first section of the Act of February 13, 1807, the judges of the district courts of the United States shall have as full power to grant writs of injunctions, to operate within their respective districts, as is now exercised by any of the judges of the supreme court of the United States. under the same rules, regulations, and restrictions, as are prescribed by the several acts of congress establishing the judiciary of the United States, any law to the contrary notwithstanding. Provided, that the same shall not, unless so ordered by the circuit court, continue longer than to the circuit then next ensuing; nor shall an injunction be issued by a district judge in any case, where the party has had a reasonable time to apply to the circuit court for the writ.
151. An injunction may be issued by the district judge under the Act of March 3, 1820, SSSS 4, 5, where proceedings have taken place by warrant and distress against a debtor to the United States or his sureties, subject by 6, to appeal to the circuit court from the decision of such district judge in refusing or dissolving the injunction, if such appeal be allowed by a justice of the supreme court. On which, with an exception as to the necessity of an answer on the part of the United States, the proceedings are to be as in other cases.
152. The Act of September 24, 1789, 14, vests in the judges of the district courts, power to grant writs of habeas corpus, for the purpose of an inquiry into the cause of commitment.
153. Other acts give them power to issue writs, make rules, take depositions, &c. The acts of congress already treated of relating to the privilege of not being sued out of the district of which the defendant is an inhabitant, or in which he is found, restricting suits by assignees, and various others, apply to the district court as well as to the circuit court.
154. Bythe 9th section of the Act of September 24, 1789, the trial of issues in fact in the district courts, in all causes except civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, shall be by jury. Serg. Const. Law, 226, 227.
(2.) The criminal jurisdiction of the district court.
155. By the Act of August 23, 1842, 3, it is enacted that the district courts of the United States shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit courts, of all crimes and offences against the United States, the punishment of which is not capital.
156. There is a class of district courts of a peculiar description. These exercise the power of a circuit court, under the same regulations as they were formerly exercised by the district court of Kentucky, which was the first of the kind.
157. The Act of September 24, 1789, 10, gives the district court of the Kentucky district, besides the usual jurisdiction of a district court, the jurisdiction of all causes, except of appeals and writs of error, thereinafter made cognizable in a circuit court, and writs of error and appeals were to lie from decisions therein to the supreme court, and under the, same regulations. By the 12th section, authority was given to remove cases from a state court to such court, in the same manner as to a circuit court.
3. The territorial courts.
158. The act to establish the territorial government of Oregon, approved August 14, 1848, establishes the judicial power of the said territory as follows: 9. The judicial power of said territory shall be vested in a supreme court, district courts, probate courts, and in justices of the peace. The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice and two associate justices, any two of whom shall constitute a quorum, and who shall hold a term at the seat of government of said territory annually; and they shall hold their offices during the period of four years, and until their successors shall be appointed and qualified. The said territory shall be divided into three judicial districts, and a district court shall be held in each of said districts by one of the just of the supreme court, at such times and places as may be prescribed by law; and the said judges shall after their appointments, respectively, reside in the districts which shall be assigned them The jurisdiction of the several courts herein provided for, both appellate and original, and that of the probate courts and of justices of the peace, shall be as limited by law: Provided, That justices of the peace shall not have jurisdiction of any case in which the title to land shall in anywise come in question, or where the debt or damages claimed shall exceed one hundred dollars; and the said supreme and district courts, respectively, shall possess chancery, as well as common law, jurisdiction. Each district court, or the judge thereof, shall appoint its clerk, who shall also be the register in chancery, and shall keep his office at the place where the court may be held. Writs of error, bills of exception, and appeals, shall be allowed in all cases from the final decisions of said district courts to the supreme court, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law; but in no case removed to the supreme court shall trial by jury be allowed in said court. The supreme court, or the justices thereof, shall appoint its own clerk, and every clerk shall hold his office at the pleasure of the court for which he shall have been appointed. Writs of error and appeals from the final decisions of the said supreme court shll be allowed, and way be taken to the supreme court of the United States, in the same manner, and under the same regulations, as from the circuit courts of the United States, where the value of the property, or the amount in controversy, to be ascertained by the oath or affirmation of either party, or other competent witness, shall exceed two thousand dollars; and in all cases where the constitution of the United States, or acts of congress, or a treaty of the United States, is brought in question; and each of the said district courts shall have and exercise the same jurisdiction in all cases arising under the constitution of the United States, and the laws of said territory, as is vested in the circuit and district courts of the United States writs of error and appeal in all such cases shall be made to the supreme court of said territory, the same as in other cases. Writs of error and, appeals from the final decisions of said supreme court shall be allowed, and may be taken to the supreme court of the United States, in the same manner as from the circuit courts of the United States, where the value of the property, or the amount in controversy, shall exceed two thousand dollars; and each of said district courts shall have and exercise the same jurisdiction in all cases arising under the constitution and laws of the United States, as is vested in the circuit and district courts of the United States, and also of all cases arising under the laws of the said territory, and otherwise. The said clerk shall receive, in all such cases, the same fees which the clerks of the district courts of the late Wisconsin Territory received for similar services.
159. - 10. There shall be appointed an attorney for said territory, who shall continue in office for four years, and until his successor shall be appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the president, and who shall receive the same fees and salary as were provided by law for the attorney of the United States for the late territory of Wisconsin. There shall also be a marshal for the territory appointed, who shall hold his office for four years, and until his successor shall be appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the president, and who shall execute all processes issuing from the said courts, when exercising their jurisdiction as circuit and district courts of the United States; he shall perform the duties, be subject to the same regulation and penalties, and be entitled to the same fees, as were provided by law for the marshal of the district court of the United States, for the present [late] territory of Wisconsin; and shall, in addition, be paid two hundred dollars annually as a compensation for extra services.
160. The act to establish a territorial government for Utah, approved September 9, 1850, contains the following provisions relative to this subject. They are the same in most respects with the preceding. Section 9 of this act provides, " That the judicial power of said territory shall be vested in a supreme court, district courts, probate courts, and in justices of the peace. The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice and two associate justices, any two of whom shall constitute a quorum, and who shall hold a term at the seat of government of said territory annually, and they shall hold their offices during the period of four years. The said territory shall be divided into three judicial districts, and a district court shall be held in each of said districts by one of the justices of the supreme court, at such time and place as may be prescribed by law; and the said judges shall, after their appointments, respectively, reside in the districts which shall be assigned them. The jurisdiction of the several courts herein provided for, both appellate and original, and that of the probate courts and of justices of the peace, shall be as limited by law: Provided, That justices of the peace shall not have jurisdiction of any matter in controversy when the title or boundaries of land may be in dispute, or where the debt or sum claimed shall exceed one hundred dollars; and the said supreme and district courts, respectively, shall possess chancery as well as common law jurisdiction. Each district court, or the judge thereof, shall appoint its clerk, who shall also be the register in chancery, and shall keep his office at the place where the court may be held. Writs of error, bills of exception, and appeals shall be allowed in all cases from the final decisions of said district courts to the supreme court, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law; but in no case removed to the supreme court shall trial by jury be allowed in said court. The supreme court, or the justices thereof, shall appoint its own clerk and every clerk shall hold his office at the pleasure of the court for which be shall have been appointed. Writs of error, and appeals from the final decisions of said supreme court, shall be allowed, and may be taken to the supreme court of the United States, in the same manner and under the same regulations as from the circuit courts of the United States, where the value of the property or the amount in controversy, to be ascertained by the oath or affirmation of either party, or other competent witness, shall exceed two thousand dollars, except only that, in all, cases involving title to slaves, the said writs of error or appeals shall be allowed and decided by the said supreme court, without regard to the value of the matter, property, or title in controversy; and except, also, that a writ of error or appeal shall also be allowed to the supreme court of the United States, from the decisions of the said supreme court created by this act, or of any judge thereof, or of the district courts created by this act, or of any judge thereof, upon any writ of habeas corpus involving the question of personal freedom: and each of the said district courts shall have and exercise the same jurisdiction in all cases arising under the constitution and laws of the United States as is vested in the circuit and district courts of the United States; and the said supreme and district courts of the said territory, and the respective judges thereof, shall and may grant writs of habeas corpus in all cases in which the same are granted by the judges of the United States in the District of Columbia; and the first six days of every term of said courts, or so much thereof as shall be necessary, shall be appropriated to the trial of causes arising under the said constitution and laws; and writs of error and appeal, in all such cases, shall be made to the supreme court of said territory, the same as in other cases. The said clerk shall receive in all such cases the same fees which the clerks of the district courts of Oregon territory now rceive for similar services.
161. "There shall be appointed an attorney for said territory, who shall continue in office for four years, unless sooner removed by the president, and who shall receive the same fees and salary as the attorney of the United States for the present territory of Oregon. There shall also be a marshal for the territory appointed, who shall hold his office for four years, unless sooner removed by the president, and who shall execute all processes issuing from the said courts, when exercising their jurisdiction as circuit and district courts of the United States: he shall perform the duties, be subject to the same regulation and penalties, and be entitled to the same fees as the marshall of the district court of the United States for the present territory of Oregon; and shall, in addition, be paid two hundred dollars annually as a compensation for extra sci-vices."
COURTESY, OR CURTESY, Scotch law. A right which vests in the hushand, and is in the nature of a life-rent. It is a counterpart of the terce. Courtesy requires, 1st. That there shall have been a living child born of the marriage, who is heir of the wife, or who, if surviving, would have been entitled to succeed. 2d. That the wife shall have succeeded to the subjects in question as heir either of line, or of talzie, or of provision. 1 Bell's Com. 61; 2 Ersk. 9, 53. See Curtesy.
COURTESY OF ENGLAND. See Estates by the Courtesy.
COUSIN, domest. rel. Cousins are kindred who are the issue of two brothers or two sisters, or of a brother and a sister. Those who descend from the brother or sister of the father of the person spoken of are called patternal cousins; maternal cousins are those who are descended from the brothers or sisters of the mother. Vide 2 Bro. C. C. 125; 1 Sim. & Stu. 301; 3 Russ. C. C. 140; 9 Sim. R. 386, 457.
COVENANT, remedies. The name of an action instituted for the recovery of damages for the breach of a covenant or promise under seal. 2 Ld. Raym. 1536 F; N. B. 145 Com. Dig. Pleader, 2 V 2 Id. Covenant, A 1; Bouv. lnst. Index, h. t.
2. The subject will be considered with reference, 1. To the kind of claim or obligation on which this action may be maintained. 2. The form of the declaration. 3. The plea. 4. The judgment.
3.- 1. To support this action, there must be a breach of a promise under seal. 6 Port. R. 201; 5 Pike, 263; 4 Dana, 381; 6 Miss. R. 29. Such promise may be contained in a deed-poll, or indenture, or be express or implied by. law from the terms of the deed; or for the performance of something in futuro, or that something has been done; or in some cases, though it relate to something in presenti, as that the covenantor has, a good title. 2 Saund. 181, b. Though, in general, it is said that covenant will not lie on a contract inpresenti, as on a covenant to stand seized, or that a certain horse shall henceforth be the property of another. Plowd. 308; Com. Dig. Covenant, A 1; 1 Chit. PI.. 110. The action of covenant is the peculiar remedy for the non-performance of a promise under seal, where the damages are unliquidated, and depend in amount on the opinion of a jury, in which case neithor debt nor assumpsit can be supported but covenant as well as the action of debt, may be maintained upon a single bill for a sum certain. When the breach of the covenant amounts to misfeasance, the covenantee has an election to proceed by action of covenant, or by action on the case for a tort, as against a lessee, either during his term or afterwards, for waste; 2 Bl. R. 1111; 2 Bl. R. 848; but this has been questioned. When the contract under seal has been enlarged by parol, the substituted agreement will be considered, together with the original agreement, as a simple contract. 2 Watt's R. 451 1 Chit. Pl. 96; 3 T. R. 590.
4. - 2. The declaration must state that the contract was under seal and it should make profert of it, or show some excuse for the omission. 3 T. 11. 151. It is not, in general, requisite to state tho consideration of the defendant's promise, because a contract under seal usually imports a consideration; but when the performance of the consideration constitutes a condition precedent, such performance must be averred. So much only of the deed and covenant should be set forth as is essential to the cause of action: although it is usual to declare in the words of the deed, each covenant may be stated as to its legal effect. The breach may be in the negative of the covenant generally 4 Dall. R. 436; or, according to the legal effect, and sometimes in the alternative and several breaches may be assigned at common law. Damages being the object of the suit, should be laid sufficient to cover the real amount. Vide 3 Serg. & Rawle, 364; 4 Dall. R. 436 2 Yeates' R. 470 3 Serg. & Rawle, 564, 567; 9 Serg. & Rawle, 45.
5. - 3. It is said that strictly there is no general issue in this action, though the plea of non est factum has been said by an intelligent writer to be the general issue. Steph. Pl. 174. But this plea only puts in issue the fact of scaling the deed. 1 Chit. Pl. 116. Non infregit conventionem, and nil debet, have both been held to be insufficient. Com. Dig. Pleader, 2 V 4. In Pennsylvania, by a practice peculiar to that state, the defendant may plead covenants and under this. plea, upon notice of the special matter, in writing, to the plaintiff, without form, he may give anything in evidence which he might have pleaded. 4 Dall. 439; 2 Yeates, 107; 15 Serg. & Rawle, 105. And this evidence, it seems, may be given in the circuit courts of the United States in that state without notice, unless called for. 2 W. C. C. R. 4 5 6.
6. - 4. The judgmeut is that the plaintiff recover a named sum for his damages, which he has sustained by reason of the breach or breaches of covenant, together with costs.
COVENANT, contracts. A covenant, conventio, in its most general signification, means any kind of promise or contract, whether it be made in writing or by parol. Hawk. P. C. b. 1, c. 27, 7, s. 4. In a more technical sense, and the one in which it is here considered, a covenant is an agreement between two or more persons, entered into in writing and under seal, whereby either party stipulates for the truth of certain facts, or promises to perform or give something to the other, or to abstain from the performance of certain things. 2 Bl. Com. 303-4; Bac. Ab. Covenant, in pr.; 4 Cruise, 446; Sheppard, Touchs. 160; 1 Harring. 151, 233 1 Bibb, 379; 2 Bibb, 614; 3 John. 44; 20 John. 85; 4 Day, 321.
2. It differs from an express assumpsit in this, that the former may be verbal, or in writing not under seal, while the latter must always be by deed. In an assumpsit, a consideration must be shown; in a covenant no consideration is necessary to give it validity, even in a court of equity. Plowd. 308; 7 T. R. 447; 4 Barn. & Ald. 652; 3 Bingh. 111.
3. It is proposed to consider first, the general requisites of a covenant; and secondly, the several kinds of covenants.
4. - 1. The general requisites are, 1st. Proper parties. 2d. Words of agreement. 3d A legal purpose. 4th. A proper form.
5. - 1st. The parties must be such as by law can enter into a contract. If either for want of understanding, as in the case of an idiot or lunatic; or in the case of an infant, where the contract is not for his benefit; or where there is understanding, but owing to certain causes, as coverture, in the case of a married woman, or duress, in every case, the parties are not competent, they cannot bind themselves. See Parties to Actions.
6. - 2d. There must be an agreement. The assent or consent must be mutual for the agreement would be incomplete if either party withheld his assent to any of its terms. The assent of the parties to a contract necessarily supposes a free, fair, serious exercise of the reasoning faculty. Now, if from any cause, this free assent be not given, the contract is not binding. See Consent.
7. - 3d. A covenant against any positive law, or public policy, is, generally speaking, void. See Nullity; Shep. Touchs. 163. As an example of the first, is a covenant by one man that he will rob another; and of the last, a covenant by a merchant or tradesman that he will not follow his occupation or calling. This, if it be unlimited, is absolutely void but, if the covenant be that he shall not pursue his business in a particular place, as, that he will not trade in the city of Philadelphia, the covenant is no longer against public policy. See Shep. Touchs. 164. A covenant to do an impossible thing is also void. Ib.
8. - 4th. To make a covenant, it must, according to the definition above given, be by deed, or under seal. No particular form of words is necessary to make a covenant, but any words which manifest the intention of the parties, in respect to the subject matter of the contract, are sufficient. Sec numerous examples in Bac. Abr. Covenant, A Selw. N. P. 469; Com. Dig. Covenant, A 2; 3 Johns. R. 44; 5 Munf. 483.
9. In Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Missouri, it is declared by statute that the words grant, bargain, and sell, shall amount to a covenant that the grantor was seised of an estate in fee, free from all incumbrances done or suffered by him, and for quiet enjoyment against his acts. But it has been adjudged that those words in the Pennsylvania statute of 1715, (and the decision will equally apply to the statutory language in the other two states,) did not amount to a general warranty, but merely to a covenant that the grantor had not done any act, nor created any incumbrance whereby the estate might be defeated. 2 Bin. 95; 11 S. & R. 111, 112; 4 Kent, Com. 460.
10. - 2. The several kinds of covenants. They are, 1. Express or implied. 1. An express, covenant, or a covenant in fact, is one expressly agreed between the parties and inserted in the deed. The law does not require any particular form to create an express covenant. The formal word "covenant" is therefore not indispensably requisite. 2. Mod. 268; 3 Keb. 848; 1 Leon, 324; 1 Bing. 433; 8 J. B. Moore, 546; 1 Ch. Cas. 294; 16 East, 352; 12 East, 182 n.; 1 Bibb, 379; 2 Bibb 614; 3 John. 44; 5 Cowen, 170; 4 Day, 321 4 Conn. 508; 1 Harring. 233. The words "I oblige;" "agree," 1 Ves. 516; 2 Mod. 266; or, "I bind myself to pay so much such a day, and so much such another day;" Hardr. 178; 3 Leon. 119, Pl. 199; are held to be covenants; and so are the word's of a bond. 1 Ch. Cas. 194. But words importing merely an order or direction that other persons should pay a sum of money, are not a coveiaant. 6 J. B. Moore, 202, n. (a.)
11. - 1. An implied covenant is one which the law intends and implies, though it be not expressed in words. 1 Common Bench Rep. 402; co. Lit. 139, b; Vaugnan's Rep. 118; Rawle on Covenants, 364. There are some words which of themselves do not import an express covenant, yet being made use of in certain contracts, have a similar operation and are called covenants in law. They are as effectually binding on the parties as if expressed in the most unequivocal terms. Bac. Ab. Covenant, B. A few examples will fully explain this. If a lessor demise and grant to his lessee a house or lands for a certain term, the law will imply a covenant on the part of the lessor, that the lessee shall during the term quietly enjoy the same against all incumbrances. Co. Litt. 384. When in a lease the words "grant," 1 Mod. 113 Freem. 367; Cro. Eliz. 214; 4 Taunt. 609; "grant and demise, " 4 Wend. 502; "demise," 10 Mod. 162; 4 Co. 80; Hob. 12; or " demiserunt," I Show. 79 1 Salk. 137, are used, they are so many instances of implied covenants. And the words "yielding and paying" in a lease, imply a covenant on the part of lessee, that he will pay the rent. 9 Verm. 151; 3 Penn. 461, 464.
12. - 2. Real and personal. 1st. A real covenant is one which has for its object something annexed to, or inherent in, or connected with land or other property. Co Litt. 334; enk 241; Cruise, Dig. tit. 32, c. 25, s. 22; Platt. on Cov. 60, 61; 2 Bl. Com. 304. A covenant real, which necessarily runs with the land, as to pay rent, not to cut timber, and the like, is said to be an inherent covenant. Shep. To. 161. A covenant real runs with the land and descends to the heir; it is also transferred to a purchaser. Such covenants are said to run with the land, so that he who has the one is subject to the other. Bac. Ab. Covenants, E 2. See 2 Penn. 507; 10 Wend 180; 12 Mass. 306; 17 Mass. 586; 5 Cowen, 137; 5 Ham. 156; 5 Conn. 497; 1 Wash. C. C. 375; 8 Cowen 206; 1 Dall. 210; 11 Shep. 283; 6 Met. 139; 3 Mete. 81; 3 Harring. 338; 17 Wend. 136.
13. - 2. As commonly reckoned, there are five covenants for title, viz: 1. Covenant for seisin. 2. That the grantor has perfect right to convey. 3. That the grantee shall quietly possess and enjoy the premises without interuption, called a covenant for quiet enjoyment. 4. The covenant against incumbrances. 5. The covenant for futher assurance. 6. Besides these covenants, there is another frequently resorted to in the United Staes, which is relied on more, perhaps, than any other, called the covenant of warranty. See Rawle on Covenants for Title, where the import and effect of these covenants are elaborately and luminously discussed.
14. - 3. A personal covenant relates only to matters personal, as distinguished from real, and is binding on the covenantur during life, and on his personal representatives after his decease, in respect of his assets. According to Sir William Blackstone, a personal convenant may be transformed into a real, by the mere circumstance of the heirs being named therein, and having assets by descent from the covenantor. 2 Bl. Com 304. A covenant is personal in another sense, where the covenantor is bound to fulfil the covenant himself; as, to teach an apprentice. F.N.B. 340, A.
15. Personal covenants are also said to be transitive and intransitive; the former, when the duty of performing them passes to the covenantor's representatives; the latter, when it is limited to himself; as, in the case of teaching an apprentice. Bac. Ab. h.t.
16. As they affect each other in the same deed, covenants may be divided into three classes. 1st. Dependent covenants are those in which the performance, of one depends on the performance of the other; there may be conditions which must be performed before the other party is liable to an action on his covenant. 8 S. & R. 268; 4 Conn. 3; 1 Blackf. 175; John. 209; 2 Stew. & Port. 60; 6 Cowen 296; 3 Ala. R. 330; 3 Pike 581; 2 W. & S. 227; 5 Shep. 232; 11 Verm. 549; 4 W. C. C. 714; Platt on Cov. 71; 2 Dougl. 689; Lofft, 191; 2 Selw. N. P. 443, 444. To ascertain whether covenants are dependent or not, the intention of the parties is to be sought for and regarded rather than the order or time in which the acts are to be done, or the structure of the instrument, or the arrangements of the covenant. 4 Wash. C. C. 714; 1 Root, 170; 4 Rand. 352; 4 Rawle, 26; 5 Wend. 496; 2 John. 145; 13 Mass. 410; 2 W. & S. 227; 4 W. & S. 527; Willis, 157; 7 T. R. 130; 8 T.R. 366; 5 B. & P. 223; 1 Saund. 320 n.
17. - 2d. Some covenants are mutual conditions to be performed at the same time; these are concurrent covenants. When, in these cases, one party is redy and offers to perform his part, and the other refuses or neglects to perform his, he who is ready and offers, has fulfilled his engagement, and may maintain an action for the default of the other, though it is not certain that either is obliged to do the first act. 4 Wash. C. C. 714; Dougl. 698; 2 Selw. N. P. 443; Platt. on Cov. 71.
18.- - 3d. Covenants are independent or mutual, when either party may recover damages from the other for the injury he may have received by a breach of the covenants in his favor, and when it is no excuse for the defendant to allege a breach of the covenants on the part of the plaintiff. 2 Wash. C. C. R. 456; 5 Shepl. 372; 4 Leigh, 21; 3 Watts & S. 300; 13 Mass. 410; 2 Pick. 300; 2 John. 145; 10 John. 203; Minor 21; 2 Bibb, 15; 3 Stew. 361; 1 Fairf. 49; 6 Binn. 166; 2 Marsh. 429; 7 John. 249; 5 Wend. 496; 3 Miss. 329; 2 Har. & J. 467; 4 Har. & J. 285; 2 Marsh. 429; 4 Conn. 3.
19. Covenants are affirmative and negative. 1st. An affirmative covenant is one by whicb the covenantor binds himself that something has already been done or shall be performed hereafter. Such L convenant will not deprive a man of a right lawfully enjoyed by him independently of the covenant; 5 as, if the lessor agreed with the lessee that he shall have thorns for hedges growing upon the land, by assignment of the lessor's bailiff; here no restraint is imposed upon the exercise of that liberty which the law allows to the lessee, and therefore he may take hedge-bote without assignment. Dy. 19 b, pl. 115; 1 Leon, 251.
20. - 2d. A negative covenant is one where the party binds himself that he has not performed and will not perform a certain act; as, that he will not encumber. Such a covenant cannot be said to be performed until it becomes impossible to break it. On this ground the courts are unwilling to construe a covenant of this kind to be a condition precedent. Therefore, where a tailor assigned his trade to the defendant, and covenanted thenceforth to desist from carrying on the said business with any of the customers, and the defendant in consideration of the performance thereof, covenanted to pay him a life annuity of 190, it was held that if the words "in consideration of the performance thereof," should be deemed to amount to a condition precedent, the plaintiff would never obtain his annuity; because as at anytime during his life he might exercise his former trade, until his death it could never be ascertained whether he had performed the covenant or not. 2 Saund. 156; 1 Sid. 464; 1 Mod. 64; 2 Keb. 674. The defendant, however, on a breach by plaintiff, might have his remedy by a crossaction of covenant. There is also a difference between a negative covenant, which is only in affirmance of an affirmative covenant precedent, and a negative covenant which is additional to the affirmative covenant. 1 Sid. 87; 1 Keb. 334, 372. To a covenant of the former class a plea of performance generally is good, but not to the latter; the defendant in that case must plead specially. Id.
21. Covenants, considered with regard to the parties who are to perform them, are joint or several. 1st. A joint covenant is one by which several parties agree to perform or do a thing together. In this case although there are several covenantors there is but one contract, and if the covenant be broken, all the covenantors living, must be sued; as there is not a separate obligation of each, they cannot be sued separately.
22. - 2d. A several covenant is one entered into by one person only. It frequently happens that a number of persons enter into the same contract, and that each binds himself to perform the whole of it; in such case, when the Contract is under seal, the covenantors are severally bound for the performance of it. The terms usually employed to make a several covenant are " severally," or " each of us." In practice, it is common for the parties to bind themselves jointly and severally, and then the covenant is both joint and several. Vide Hamm. on Parties 19; Cruise, Dig. tit. 32, c. 25, s. 18; Bac. Ab. Covenant D.
23. Covenants are executed or executory. 1st. An executed covenant is one which relates to an act already performed. Shep. To. 161.
24. - 2d. An executory covenant is one to be performed at a future time. Shep. To. 161.
25. Covenants are obligatory or declaratory. 1st. An obligatory covenant is one which is binding on the party himself, and shall never be construed to raise a use. 1 Sid. 27; 1 Keb. 334.
26. - 2d. A declaratory covenant is one which serves to limit and direct uses. 1 Sid. 27; 1 Heb. 334.
27. Covenants are principal and auxiliary. 1st. A principal covenant is one which relates directly to the principal matter of the contract entered into between the parties; as, if A covenants to serve B for one year.
28. - 2d. An auxiliary covenant is one, which, not relating directly to the principal matter of the contract between the parties, yet relates to something connected with it; as, if A covenants with B, that C will perform his covenant to serve him for one year. In this case, if the principal covenant is void, the auxiliary is discharged. Anstr. 256.
29. Covenants are legal or illegal. 1st. A legal covenant is one not forbidden by law. Covenants of this kind are always binding on the parties.
30. - 2d. An illegal covenant is one forbidden by law, either expressly or by implication. A covenant entered into, in violation of, the express provision of a statute is absolutely void. 5 Har. & J. 193; 5 N. H. Rep. 96; 6 N. H. Rep. 225; 4 Dall. 298; 6 Binn. 321; 4 S.& R. 159; 1 Binn. 118; 4 Halst. 252. A covenant is also void, if it be of immoral nature; as, a covenant for future illicit intercourse and cohabitation; 3 Monr. 35; 3 Burr. 1568; S. C. 1 Bl. Rep. 517; 1 Esp. 13; 1 B. P. 340; or against public policy; 5 Mass. 385; 7 Greenl. 113; 4 Mass. 370; 5 Halst. 87; 4 Wash. C. C. 297; 11 Wheat. 258; 3 Day, 145; 2 McLean, 464; 7 Watts, 152; 5 Watts & S. 315; 5 How. Miss. 769; Geo. Decis. part 1, 39 in restraint of trade, when the restraiut is general; 21 Wend. 166; 19 Pick. 51; 6 Pick. 206; 7 Cowen, 307; or fraudulent between the parties; 5 Mass. 16; 4 S. & R. 488; 4 Dall. 250; 7 W. & S. 111; or third persons; 3 Day, 450; 14 S. & R. 214; 3 Caines, 213; 15 Pick. 49; 2 John. 286 12 John. 306.
31. Covenants, in the disjunctive or alternative, are those which give the covenantor the choice of doing, or the covenontee the choice of having, performed one of two or more things at his election; as, a covenant to make a lease to Titus, or pay him one hundred dollars on the fourth day of July, as the covenantor, or the covenantee, as the case may be, shall prefer. Platt on Cov. 21.
32. Collateral covenants are such as concern some collateral thing, which does not at all, or not so immediately relate to the thing granted; as, to pay a sum of money in gross, that the lessor shall distrain for rent, on some other land than that which is demised, or the like. Touchs. 161; 4 Burr. 2446; 2 Wils. R. 27; 1 Ves. R. 56. These covenants are also termed covenants in gross. Vide 5 Barn. & Ald. 7, 8; Platt on Cov. 69, 70.
COVENANT NOT TO SUE. This is a covenant entered into by a party who had a cause of action at the time of making it, and by which he agrees not to sue the party liable to such action.
2. Covenants of this nature, are either covenants perpetual not to sue, or covenants not to sue for a limited time; for example, seven years.
3. - 1. Covenants perpetual not to sue. These will be considered with regard to their effect as relates, 1. To the covnantee; 2. To his partners or co-debtors.
4. - 1. A covenant not to sue the covenantee at all, has the effect of a release to him, and may be pleaded as such to avoid a circuity of action. Cro. EIiz. 623; 1 T. R. 446; 8 T. R. 486; 1 Ld. Raym 688; S. C. Holt, 178; 2 Salk. 575; 3 Salk. 298; 12 Mod. 415, 548; 7 Mass. 153, 265; 16 Mass. 24; 17 Mass. 623. And see 11 Serg. & Rawle, 149.
5. - 2. Where the covenantee is jointly and severally bound with another to the covenantor, a covenant not to sue him will be no protection to the other wbo may be sued on his several obligations and such a covenant does not mount to a release to him. 2 Salk. 575; S. C. 12 Mod. 551; 8 T. R. 168; 6 Munf. 6; 1 Com. 139; 4 Greenl. 421; 2 Dana, 107; 17 Mass. 623, 628; 16 Mass. 24; 8 Mass. 480. A covenant not to sue, entered into by only one of several partners, cannot be set up as a release in an action by all the partners. 3 P. & D. 149.
6. - 2. Covenant not to sue for - a limited time. Such a covenant does not operate as a release, nor can it be pleaded as such, but is a covenant only for a breach of which the obliger may bring his action. Carth. 63; 1 Show. 46; Comb 123, 4; 2 Salk. 573; 6 Wend. 471.
COVENANT FOR QUIET ENJOYMENT. A covenant usually contained in a lease, by which the lessor covenants or agrees that the tenant shall quietly enjoy the premises leased. 11 East, 641.
2. Such a covenant is express or implied; express, when it is so mentioned in the deed it is implied, either from the words used, or from the conduct of the lessor. The words "grant" or "demise" are held to amount to an implied covenant for quiet enjoyment, unless afterwards restrained by a qualified express covenant. 1 Chit. Pr. 344.
COVENANT TO STAND SEISED TO USES. A species of conveyance which derives its effect from the statute of uses, and operates without transmutation of possession.
2. By this conveyance, a person seised of lands, covenant's that he will stand seised of them to the use of another. On executing the covenant, the other party becomes seised of the use of the land, according to the terms of the use; and the statute immediately annexes the possession to the use. This conveyance has the same force and effect as a common deed of bargain and sale; the great distinction between them is, that the former can only be made use of among near domestic relations, for it must be founded on the consideration of blood or marriage. 2 Bl. Com. 338; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2080; 4 Kent Com 480; Lilly's Reg.h. t.; 1 Vern. by Raithby, 40, n.; Cruise, Dig. tit. 32, c. 10; 11 John. R. 337; 1 John. Cas. 91; 7 Pick. R. 111; 1 Hayw.,R. 251, 259, 271, note; 1 Conn. R. 354; 20 John. R. 85; 4 Mass. R. 135; 4 Hayw. R. 229; 1 Cowen, R. 622; 3 N. H. Rep. 234; 16 John. R. 515; 9 Wend. R. 641; 7 Mass. R. 384.
COVENANT FOR TITLE. An assurance to the purchaser that the grantor has the very estate in quantity and quality which he purports to convey. 11 East, 642. See 4 Dall. Rep. 439.
COVENANTEE. One in whose favor a covenant is made.
COVENANTOR. One who becomes bound to perform a covenant.
2. To become a covenantor a person must be sui juris, and intend, at the time of becoming bound, to covenant to perform some act mentioned in the covenant. He can be discharged from his covenant by performance, or, by the act of the covenantee, as the non-performance of a condition precedent, a release, or a rescission of the contract.
COVENANTS PERFORMED, pleading. In Pennsylvania, the defendant may plead covenants performed to an action of covenant, and upon this plea, upon informal notice to the plaintiff, he may give anything in evidence which he might have pleaded. 4 Dall. 439; 2 Yeates, 107; 15 S. & R. 105. And this evidence, it seems, may be given in the circuit court without notice unless called for. 2 Wash. C. C. R. 456.
COVENTRY ACT, criminal law. The common name for the statute 22 and 23 Car. II. c. 1; it having been enacted in consequence of an assault on Sir John Coventry in the street, and slitting his nose, in revenge, as was supposed, for some obnoxious words uttered by him in parliament.
2. By this statute it is enacted, that if any person shall, of malice aforethought, and by laying in wait, unlawfully cut or disable the tongue, put out an eye, slit the nose, cut off the nose or lip, or cut off or disable any limb, or member of any other person, with intent to maim or disfigure him, such person, his counsellors, aiders and abettors, shall be guilty of felony, without benefit of clergy. 4 Bl. Com. 207. This statute is copied by the act of the legislature of Pennsylvania, of April 22, 1794, s. 6, 3 Smith's Laws of Pa. 188; and the offence is punished by fine and imprisonment. For the act of Connecticut, see 2 Swift's Dig. 293.
COVERT, BARON. A wife; so called, from her being under the cover or protection of her hushand, baron or lord.
COVERTURE. The state or condition of a married woman.
2. During coverture, the being of the wife is civilly merged, for many purposes, into that of her hushand; she can, therefore, in general, make no contracts without his consent, express or implied. Com. Dig. Baron and Feme, W; Pleader, 2 A 1; 1 Ch. Pl. 19, 45; Litt. s. 28; Chit. Contr. 39; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 276.
3. To this rule there are some exceptions: she may contract, when it is for her benefit, as to save her from starvation. Chit. Contr. 40.
4. In some cases, when coercion has been used by the hushand to induce her to commit crime, she is exempted from punishment. 1 Ha1e, P. C. 516; 1 Russ. Cr. 16.
COVIN, fraud. A secret contrivance betwen two or more persons to defraud and prejudice another of his rights. Co. Litt 357, b; Com. Dig. Covin, A; 1 Vin. Abr. 473. Vide Collusion; Fraud.
COW. In a penal statute which mentions both cows and beefer's, it was held that by the term cow, must be understood one that had a calf. 2 East, P. C. 616; 1 Leach, 105.
COWARDICE. Pusillanimity; fear.
2. By the act for the better government of the navy of the United States, passed April 21, 1800, 1 Story, L. U. S. 761; it is enacted, art. 5, "every officer or private who shall not properly observe the orders of his commanding officer, or shall not use his utmost exertions to carry them into execution, when ordered to prepare for, join in, or when actually engaged in battle; or shall, at such time, basely desert his duty or station, either then, or while in sight of an enemy, or shall induce others to do so, every person so ofending, shall, on conviction thereof by a general court martial, suffer death, or such other punishment as the said court shall adjudge.
3. - Art. 6. "Every officer or private who shall, through cowardice, negligence, or disaffection, in the time of action, withdraw from, or keep out of battle, or shall not do his utmost to take or destroy every vessel which it is his duty to encounter, or shall not do his utmost ondeavor to afford relief to ships belonging to the United States, every such offender shall, on conviction thereof by a general court martial, suffer death, or such other punishment as the said court shall adjudge."
4. By the act for establishing rules and articles for the government of the armies of the United States, passed April 10, 1806, it is enacted, art. 52, " any officer or soldier, who shall mishehave himself before the enemy, run away, or shamefully abandon any fort, post, or guard, which he or they may be commanded to defend, or speak, words inducing others to do the like, or shall cast away his arms and ammunition, or who shall quit his post or colors to plunder and pillage, every such offender, being duly convicted thereof, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a general court martial."
CRANAGE. A toll paid for drawing merchandise out of vessels to the wharf, so called, because the instrument used for the purpose is called a crane. 8 Co. 46.
TO CRAVE. To ask; to demand.
2. This word is frequently used in pleading; as,-to crave oyer of a bond on which the suit is brought; and in the settlement of accounts, the accountant general craves a credit or an allowance. 1 Chit. Pr. 520. See Oyer.
CRAVEN. A word of obloquy, which in trials by battel, was pronounced by the vanquished; upon which judgment was rendered against him.
CREANCE. This is a French word, which, in its extensive sense, signifies claim; in a narrower sense it means a debt. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1040, note.
CREDENTIALS, international law. The instruments which authorize and establish a public minister in his character with the state or prince to whom they are addressed. If the state or prince receive the minister, he can be received only in the quality attributed to him in his credentials. They are, as it were, his letter of attorney, his mandate patent, mandatum manifestum. Vattel, liv. 4, c. 6, 76.
CREDIBILITY. Worthiness of belief. To entitle a witness to credibility, he must be competent. Vide Competency.
2. Human testimony can seldom acquire the certainty of demonstration. Witnesses not unfrequently are mistaken or wish to deceive; the most that can be expected is that moral certainty which arises from analogy. The credibility which is attached to such testimony, arises. from the double presumption that the witnesses have good sense and intelligence, and that they are not mistaken nor deceived; they are further presumed to have probity, and that they do not wish to deceive.
3. To gain credibility, we must be assured, first, that the witness has not been mistaken nor deceived. To be assured as far as possible on this subject, it is proper to consider the nature and quality of the facts proved; the quality and person of the witness; the testimony in itself; and to compare it with the depositions of other witnesses on the subject, and with known facts. Secondly, we must be satisfied that he does not wish to deceive: there are strong assurances of this, when the witness is under oath, is a man of integrity, and disinterested. Vide Arch. Civ. Pl. 444; 5 Com. Dig. 449; 8 Watts, R. 227; Competency.
CREDIBLE WITNESS. A credible witness is one who is competent to give evidence, and is worthy of belief. 5 Mass. 219 17 Pick. 134; 2 Curt. Ecc. R. 336. In deciding upon the credibility of a witness, it is always pertinent to consider whether he is capable of knowing the thing thoroughly about which he testifies. 2. Whether he was actually present at the transaction. 3. Whether he paid, sufficient attention to qualify himself to be a reporter of it; and 4. Whether he honestly relates the affair fully as he knows it, without any purpose or desire to deceive, or suppress or add to the truth.
2. In some of the states, as Delaware, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia, wills must be attested by credible witnesses. See Attesting Witness; Competent Witness; Disinterested Witness; Respectable Witness; and Witness.
CREDIT, common law, contracts. The ability to borrow, on the opinion conceived by the lender that he will be repaid. This definition includes the effect and the immediate cause of credit. The debt due in consequence of such a contract is also called a credit; as, administrator of an the goods, chattels, effects and credits, &c.
2. The time extended for the payment of goods sold, is also called a credit; as, the goods were sold at six months credit.
3. In commercial law, credit is understood as opposed to debit; credit is what is due to a merchant, debit, what is due by him
4. According to M. Duvergier, credit also signifies that influence acquired by intrigue connected with certain social positions. 20 Toull. n. 19. This last species of credit is not, of such value as to be the object of commerce. Vide generally, 5 Taunt. R. 338.
CREDITOR, persons, contracts. A creditor is he who has a right to require the fulfilment of an obligation. or contract.
2. Creditors may; be divided into personal and real.
3. The former are so called, because their claims are mainly against the person, who can reach the property of their debtors only by; virtue of the general rule by which he who has become personally obligated, is bound to fulfil his engagements, with all his property acquired and to be acquired, Which is a common guaranty for all his creditors.
4. The latter are called real, because they have mortgages or other securities binding on the real estates of their debtors.
5. It is proper to state that personal creditors may be divided into two classes first, those who have a right on all the property of their debtors, without considering the origin, or the nature of their claims; secondly, those who, in consequence of some provision of law, are entitled to some special prerogative, either in the manner of recovery, or in the rank they are to hold among creditors; these are entitled to preference. As an example, may be mentioned the case of the United State; when they are creditors, they have always a preforenee in case of insolvent estates.
6. A creditor sometimes becomes so, unknown to his debtor, as is the case when the former receives an assignment of commercial; paper, the title to recover which may be conveyed either by endorsement, or, in some cases, by mere delivery. But in general it is essential there should be a privity of contract between the parties. Vide, generally, 7 Vin. Ab. 42; 3 Com. Dig. 343; 8 Com. Dig. 388; 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 302 2 Sup. to Ves. Jr. 305 Code, 7, 72, 6; Id. 8, 18; Dig 42, 6, 17; Nov. 97 ch. t3 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
CREEK, mar. law. Creeks are of two kinds, viz. creeks of the sea and creeks of ports. The former sorts are such little inlets of the sea whether within the precinct or extent of a, port or without, which are narrow rittl6 passages@ and-have shore on either side of them. The latter, Viz. breeks of ports, are by a kind of civil denomination such. They are such, that though possibly for their extent and. situation they might be ports, yet they are either members of or dependent upon other ports. In England it began thus: the king, could not conveniently have a customer and comptroller in every port or haven. But these custom officers were fixed at some eminent port; and the smaller adjacent ports became by that means creeks, or appendants. of that where these custom officers were placed. 1 Chit. Com. Law, 726; Hale's Tract. de Portibus Maris, part 2, c. 1, vol. 1, p. 46; Com. Dig. Navigation, C; Callis, 34.
2. In a more popular sense, creek signifies a small stream, less than a river. 12 Pick. R. 184,
CRETION, civil law.. The acceptance of a succession. Cretion was an act made before a magistrate, by which an instituted heir, who was required to accept of the succession within a certain time, declares within that time that he accepted the suecession. Clef cles Lois Rom. h. t.
2. Cretion is also used to signify the term during which the heir is allowed to make his election to take or not to take the inheritance. It is so called, because the heir is allowed to see, cernere, examine, and decide. Gaii, lust. lib. 2, 164.
CREW. Those persons who are employed in the navigation of a vessel.
2. A vessel to be seaworthy must have a sufficient crew. 1 Caines, R. 32; 1 John. R. 184.
3. In general, the master or captain (q.v.) has the selection of the crew. Vide Muster roll; Seaman; Ship; Shipping articles.
CRIB-BITING. A defect in horses, which consists in biting the crib while in the stable. This is not, considered as a breach of general warranty of soundness. Holt's Cas. 630.
CRIER. An inferior officer of a court, whose duty it is to open and adjourn the court, when ordered by the judges; to make proclamations and obey the directions of the court in anything which concerns the administration of juustice.
CRIME. A crime is an offence against a public law. This word, in its most general signification, comprehends all offences but, in its limited sense, it is confined to felony. 1 Chitty, Gen. Pr. 14.
2. The term misdemeanor includes every offence inferior to felony, but punishable by indictment or by-particular prescribed proceedings.
3. The term offence, also, may be considered as, having the same meaning, but is usually, by itself, understood to be a crime not indictable but punishable, summarily, or by the forfeiture of, a penalty. Burn's Just. Misdemeanor.
4. Crimes are defined and punished by statutes and by the common law. Most common law offences are as well known, and as precisely ascertained, as those which are defined by statutes; yet, from the difficulty of exactly defining and describing every act which ought to be punished, the vital and preserving principle has been adopted, that all immoral acts which tend to the prejudice of the community are punishable by courts of justice. 2 Swift's Dig.
5. Crimes are mala in se, or bad in themselves; and these include. all offences against the moral law; or they are mala prohibita, bad because prohibited, as being against sound policy; which, unless prohibited, would be innocent or indifferent. Crimes may be classed into such as affect:
6.- 1. Religion and public worship: viz. blasphemy, disturbing public worship.
7. - 2. The sovereign power: treason, misprision of treason.
8. - 3. The current coin: as counterfeiting or impairing it.
9. - 4. Public justice: 1. Bribery of judges or jurors, or receiving the bribe. 2. Perjury. 3. Prison breaking. 4. Rescue. 5. Barratry. 6. Maintenance. 7. Champerty. 8. Compounding felonies. 9. Misprision of felonies. 10. 6ppression. 11. Extortion. 12. Suppressing evidence. 13. Negligence or misconduct in inferior officers. 14. Obstructing legal process. 15. Embracery.
10. - 5. Public peace. 1. Challenges to fight a duel. 2. Riots, routs and unlawful assemblies. 3. Affrays. 4. Libels. 11. - 6. Public trade. 1. Cheats. 2. Forestalling. S. Regrating. 4. Engross- ing. 5. Monopolies.
12. - 7. Chastity. 1. Sodomy. 2. Adultery. 3. Incest. 4. Bigamy. 5. Fornication.
13. - 8. Decency and morality. 1. Public indecency. 2. Drunkenness. 3. Violatiug the grave.
14. - 9. Public police and economy. 1. Common nuisances. 2. Keeping disorderly houses and bawdy houses. 3. Idleness, vagrancy, and beggary.
15. - 10. Public. policy. 1. Gambling. 2. Illegal lotteries.
16. - 11. Individuals. 1. Homicide, which is justifiable, excusable or felonious.
2. Mayhem. 3. Rape. 4. Poisoning, with intent to murder. 5. Administering drugs to a woman quick with child to cause, miscarriage. 6. Concealing death of bastard child.
7. Assault and battery, which is either simple or with intent to commit some other crime. 8. kidnapping. 9. False imprisonment. 10. Abduction.
17. - 12. Private property. 1. Burglary. 2. Arson. 3. Robbery. 4., Forgery. Counterfeiting. 6. Larceny. 7. Receiving stolen goods, knowing them to have been stolen, or theft-bote. 8. Malicious mischief. 18. - 13. The public, individuals, or their property, according to the intent of the criminal. 1. Conspiracy.
CRIME AGAINST NATURE. Sodomy. It is a crime not fit to be named; peccatum horribile, inter christianos non nominandum. 4 Bl. Com. 214. See Sodomy.
CRIMEN FALSI, civil law, crime. It is a fraudulent alteration, or forgery, to conceal or alter the truth, to the prejudice of another. This crime may, be committed in three ways, namely: 1. By forgery. 2. By false declarations or false oath, perjury. 3. By acts; as, by dealing with false weights and measures, by altering the current coin, by making false keys, and the like. Vide Dig. 48, 10, 22; Dig. 34, 8 2; Code, lib. 9, t. 22, 1. 2, 5, 9. 11, 16, 17, 23, and 24; Merl. Rep. h. t.; 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 426; 1 Phil. Ev. 26; 2 Stark. Ev. 715.
2. What is understood by this, term in the common law, is not very clearly defined. Peake's Ev. 133; 1 Phil. Ev. 24; 2 Stark. Ev. 715. It extends to forgery, perjury, subornation of perjury, suppression of testimony by bribery, and conspiracy to convict of perjury. See 12 Mod. 209; 2 S. & R. 552; 1 Greenl. Ev. 373; and article Faux.
CRIMINAL. Relating to, or having the character of crime; as, criminal law, criminal conversation, &c. It also signifies a person convicted of a crime.
CRIMINAL CONVERSATION, crim. law. This phrase is usually employed to denote the crime of adultery. It is abbreviated crim. con. Bac. Ab. Marriage, E 2; 4 Blackf. R. 157.
2. The remedy for criminal conversation is, by an action on the case for damages. That the plaintiff connived, or assented to, his wife's infidelity, or that he prostituted her for gain, is a complete answer to the action. See Connivance. But the facts that the wife's character for chastity was bad before the plaintiff married her; that he lived with her after he knew of the criminal intimacy with the defendant; that he had connived at her intimacy with other men;, or that the plaintiff had been false to his wife, only go in mitigation of damages. 4 N. Hamp. R. 501.
3. The wife cannot maintain an action for criminal conversation with her hushand; and for this, among other reasons, because her hushand, who is particeps criminis, must be joined with her as plaintiff.
CRIMINAL LETTERS. An instrument in Scotland, which contains the charges against a person accused of a crime. Criminal letters differ from an indictment, in that the former are not, like an indictment, the mere statement of the prosecutor, but sanctioned by a judge. Burt. Man. Pub. L. 301, 302.
CRIMINALITER. Criminally; opposed to civiliter, civilly.
2. When a person commits a wrong to the injury of another, he is answerable for it civiliter, whatever may have been his intent; but, unless his intent has been unlawful the is not answerable criminaliter. 1 East, 104.
TO CRIMINATE. To accuse of a crime; to admit having committed a crime or misdemeanor.
2. It is a rule, that a witness cannot be compelled to answer any question which has a tendency to expose him to a penalty, or to any kind of punishment, or to a criminal charge. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3209-12; 4 St. Tr. 6; 10 How. St. Tr.@ 1096; 6 St. Tr. 649; 16 How. St. Tr. 1149; 2 DougI. R. 593; 2 Ld. Raym. 1088; 24 How. St. Tr. 720; 16 Ves. jr. 242; 2 Swanst. Ch. R. 216; 1 Cranch. R. 144; 2 Yerg. R. 110 5 Day, Rep. 260; I Carr., & Payne, 11 2 Nott & M'C. 13; 6 Cowen, Rep. 254; 2 Peak. N. P. C. 106; 1 John. R. 498; 12 S. & R. 284; 8 Wend. 598.
3. An accomplice, admitted to give evidence against his associates in guilt, is bound to make a full and fair confession of the whole truth respecting the subject-matter of the prosecution; but he is not bound to answer with respect to his share in other offences, in which he was not concerned with the prisoner. 9 Cowen, R. 721, note (a); 2 Carr. & Payne, 411. Vide Disgrace,; Witness;
CRIMINATOIN. The act by which a party accused, is proved to be guilty.
2. It is a rule, founded in common sense, that no one is bound to criminate himself. A witness may refuse to answer a question, when the answer would criminate him, and subject him to punishment. And a party in equity is not bound to answer a bill, when the answer would form a step in the prosecution. Coop. Eq. Pl. 204; Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 194; Story, Eq,. Pl. 591; 14 Ves. 59.
CRITICISM. The art of judging skilfully of the merits or beauties, defects or faults of a literary or scientific performance, or of a production of art; when the criticism is reduced to writing, the writing itself is called a criticism.
2. Liberty of criticism must be allowed, or there would be neither purity of taste nor of morals. Fair discussion, is essentially necessary to, the truth of history and advancement of scienc. That publication therefore, is not a libel, which has for its object, not to injure the reputation of an individual, but to correct misrepresentations of facts, to refute sophistical reasoning, to expose a vicious taste for literature, or to censure what is hostile to morality. Campb. R. 351-2. As every man who publishes a book commits himself to the judgment of the public, any one may comment on his performance. If the commentator does not step aside from the work, or introduce fiction for the purpose of condemnation, he exercises a fair and legitimate right. And the critic does a good service to the public who writes down any vapid or useless publication such as ought never to have appeared; and, although the author may suffer a loss from it, the law does nto conisder such loss an injury; because it is a loss which the party ought to sustain. It is the loss of fame and profit, to which he was never entitled. 1 Campb. R. 358, n. See 1 Esp. N. P. Cas. 28; 2 Stark. Cas. 73; 4 Bing. N. S. 92; S. C. 3 Scott, 340;. 1 M. & M. 44; 1 M. & M. 187; Cooke on Def. 52.
CROFT, obsolete. A little close adjioning to a dwelling-house, and enclosed for pasture or arable, or any particular use. Jacob's Law Dict.
CROP. This word is nearly synonymous with emblements. (q. v.),
2. As between the landlord and tenant, the former has a lien; in some of -the states, upon the crop for the rent, for a limited time, and, if sold on an execution against the tenant, the purchaser succeds to the liability of the tenant, for rent and good hushandry, and the crop is still liable to be distrained. Tenn. St. 1825, c. 21; Misso. St. 377; Del. St. 1829, 366; 1 N. J. R. C. 187; Atk. Dig. 357; 1 N. Y. R. S. 746; 1 Ky. R. L. 639; 5 Watts, R. 134; 41 Griff. Reg. 671, 404; 1 Hill. Ab. 148, 9; 5 Penn. St. R. 211.
3. A crop is not considered is a part of the real estate, so as to make a sale of it void, when the contract has not been reduced to writing, within the statute of frauds. 11 East, 362; 2 M. & S. 205; 5 B. & C. 829; 10 Ad. & El. 753; 9 B. & C. 561; but see 9 M. & W. 501.
4. If a hushand sow land and die, and the land which was sown is assigned to the wife for her dower, she shall have the corn, and not the executors of the hushand. Inst. 81.
CROPPER, contracts. One who, having no interest in the land, works it in consideration of receiving a portion of the crop for his labor. 2 Rawle, R. 12.
CROSS. contracts. A mark made by persons who are unable to write, instead of their names.
2. When properly attested, and proved to have been made by the party whose name is written with the mark, it is generally admitted as evidence of the party's signature.
CROSS ACTION. An action by a defendant in an action, against the plaiutiff in the same action, upon the same contract, or for the same tort; as, if Peter bring an action of trespass against Paul, and Paul bring another action of trespass against Peter, the subject of the dispute being an assault and battery, it is evident that Paul could not set off the assault committed upon him by Peter, in the action which Peter, had brought against him; therefore the cross action became necessary.
CROSS BILLS, practice. When an individual prosecutes a bill of indictment against another, and hte defendant procures another bill to be found against the first prosecutor, the bills so found by the grand jury are called corss bills. The most usually occur in cases of assault and battery.
2. In chancery practice it is not unusual for parties to file cross bills. Vide Bill, cross.
CROSS-EXAMINATION, practice. The examination of a witness, by the party who did not call him, upon matters to which he has been examined in chief.
2. Every party has a right to cross-examine a witness produced by his antagonist, in order to test whether the witness has the knowledge of the things he testifies and if, upon examination, it is found that the witness had the means and ability to ascertain the facts about which he testifies, then his memory, his motives, everything may be scrutinized by the cross- examination.
3. In cross-examinations a great latitude is allowed in the mode of putting questions, and the counsel may put leading questions. (q. v.) Vide further on this subject, and for some rules which limit the abuse of this right, 1 Stark. Ev,. 96; 1 Phil. Ev. 210; 6 Watts & Serg. 75.
4. The object of a cross-examination is to sift the evidence, and try the credibility of a witness who has been called and given evidence in chief. It is one of the principal tests which the law has devised for the ascertainment of truth, and it is certainly one of the most efficacious. By this means the situation of the witness, with respect to the parties and the subject of litigation, his interest, his motives, his inclinations and his prejudices, his means of obtaining a correct and certain knowledge of the facts to which he testifies the manner in which he has used those means, his powers of discerning the facts in the first instance, and of his capacity in retaining and describing them, are fully investigated and ascertained. The witness, however artful he may be, will seldom be able to elude the keen perception of an intelligent court or jury, unless indeed his story be founded on truth. When false, he will be liable to detection at every step. 1 Stark. Ev. 96; 1 Phil. Ev. 227; Fortese. Rep. Pref. 2 to 4; Vaugh. R. 143.
5. In order to entitle a party to a cross-examination, the witness must have been sworn and examined; for, even if the witness be asked a question in chief, yet if he mahe no answer, the opponent has no right to cross-examine. 1 Cr. M. & Ros. 95; 1 16 S. & R. 77; Rosc. Cr. Ev. 128; 3 Car. & P. 16; S. C. 14 E. C. L. Rep. 189; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3217. Formerly, however, the rule seems to have been different. 1 Phil. Ev. 211.
6. A cross-examination of a witness is not always necessary or advisable. A witness tells the truth wholly or partially, or he tells a falsebood. If he tells the whole truth, a cross-examination may have the effect of rendering his testimony more circumstantial, and impressing the jury with a stronger opinion of its truth. If he tells only a part of the truth, and the part omitted is favorable to the client of the counsel cross-exaimining, he should direct the attention of the witness to the matters omitted. If the testimony of the witness be false, the whole force of the cross-examination should be directed to his credibility. This is done by questioning him as to his means of knowledge, his disinterestedness, and other matters calculated to show a want of integrity or veracity, if there is reason to believe the witness prejudiced, partial, or wilfully dishonest. Arch. Crim. Pl. 111. See Credible Witness.
CROWN. A covering for the head, commonly used by kings; figuratively, it signifies royal authority. By pleas of the crown, are understood criminal actions.
CRUELTY. This word has different meanings, as it is applicd to different things. Cruelty may be, 1. From hushand towards the wife, or vice versa. 2. From superior towards inferior, 3. From master towards slave. 4. To animals. These will be separately considered.
2. - 1. Between hushand and wife, those acts which affect the life, the health, or even the comfort of the party aggrieved, and give a reasonable apprehension of bodily hurt, are called cruelty. What merely wounds the feelings is seldom admitted to be cruelty, unless the act be accompanied with bodily injury, either actual or menaced. Mere austerity of temper, petulance of manners, rudeness of language, a want of civil attention and accommodation, even occasional sallies of passion, will not amount to legal cruelty; 17 Conn. 189; a fortiori, the denial of little indulgences and particular accommodations, which the delicacy of the world is apt to number among its necessaries, is not cruelty. The negative descriptions of cruelty are perhaps the best, under the infinite variety of cases that may occur, by showing what is not cruelty. 1 Hagg. R. 35; S. C. 4 Eccles. R. 311, 312; 2 Hagg. Suppl. 1; S. C. 4 Eccles. R. 238; 1 McCord's Ch. R. 205; 2 J. J. Marsh. R. 324; 2 Chit. Pr. 461, 489; Poynt. on Mar. & Div. c. 15, p. 208; Shelf. on Mar. & Div. 425; 1 Hagg. Cons. R. 37, 458; 2 Ragg. Cons. Rep. 154; 1 Phillim. 111, 132; 8 N H. Rep. 307; 3 Mass. 321; 4 Mass. 487. It is to be remarked that exhibitions of passion and gusts of anger, which would be sufficient to create irreconcilable hatred between persons educated and trained to respect each other's feelings, would, with persons of coarse manners and habits, have but a momentary effect. An act which towards the latter would cause but a momentary difference, would with the former, be excessive cruelty. 1 Briand Med. Leg. 1 ere part. c. 2, art. 3.
3. - 2. Cruelty towards weak and helpless persons takes place where a party bound to provide for and protect them, either abuses them by whipping them unnecessarily, or by neglecting to provide for them those necessaries which their helpless condition requires. To expose a person of tender years, under a party's care, to the inclemency of the weather; 2 Campb. 650; or to keep such a child, unable to provide for himself, without adequate food; 1 Leach, 137; Russ. & Ry. 20 or an overseer neglecting to provide food and medical care to a pauper having urgent and immediate occasion for them; Russ. & Ry. 46, 47, 48; are examples of this species of cruelty.
4. - 3. By the civil code of Louisiana, art. 192, it is enacted, that when the master shall be convicted of cruel treatment of his slave, the judge may pronounce, besides the penalty established for such cases, that the slave shall be sold at public auction, in order to place him out of the reach of the power which his master has abused.
5. - 4. Cruelty to animals is an indictable offence. A defendant was convicted of a misdemeanor for tying the tongue of a calf so near the root as to prevent its sucking, in order to sell the cow at a greater price, by giving to her udder the appearance of being full of milk, while affording the calf all he needed. 6 Rogers, City Hall Rec. 62. A man may be indicted for cruelly beating his horse. 3 Rogers, City Rec. 191.
CRUISE, mar. law. A voyage or expedition in quest of vessels or fleets of the enemy which may be expected to sail through any particular track of the sea, at a certain season of the year the region in which these cruises are performed is usually termed the rendezvous or cruising latitude.
2. When the ships employed for this purpose, which are accordingly called cruisers, have arrived at the destined station, they traverse the sea, backwards and forwards, under an easy sail, and within a limited space, conjectured to be in the track of their expected adversaries. Wesk. Ins. h. t.; Lex Merc. Rediv. 271, 284; Dougl. 11. 509; Park. Ins. 58; Marsh. Ins. 196, 199, 520; 2 Gallis. 268.
CRY DE PAYS, OR CRI DE PAIS. Literally, cry of the country. In England, when a felony has been committed, hue and cry (q. v.) may be raised by the country, in the absence of the constable. It is then cry de pays. 2 Hale, P. C. 100.
CRYER, practice. An officer in a court whose duty it is to make various proclamations ordered by the court.
CUEILLETTE. A term in French maritime law. Affreightment of a vessel a cueillette, is a contract by which the captain obligates himself to receive a partial cargo, only upon condition that he shall succeed in completing his cargo by other partial lading; that is, by gathering it (en recueillant) wherever he may be able to find it. If he fails to collect a cargo, such partial charterin is void. Code de Com. par M. Fournel, art. 286, n.
CUI ANTE DIVORTIUM. The name of an ancient writ, which was issued in favor of a woman divorced from her hushand, to recover the lands and tenements which she had in fee simple, or in tail, or for life, from him to whom her hushand alienated them during the marriage, when she could not gainsay it. F. N. B. 240. Vide Sur cui ante divortium.
CUI IN VITA. The name of a writ of entry for a widow against a person to whom the hushand had, in his lifetime, aliened the lands of the wife. F. N. B. 193. This writ was founded sometimes on the stat. 13 Ed. 1. c. 3, and sometimes on the common law. The object of this statute, was to enable the wife to avoid a judgment to recover her land which had been rendered on the default or confession of her hushand. It is now of no use in England, because the stat. 32 H. VIII. c. 28, 6, provides that no act of the hushand, whether fine, feoffment, or other act of the hushand during coverture, shall prejudice the wife. Both these statutes are reported as in force in Pennsylvania. 3 Bin. Appx. See Booth on Real Actions, 186; 6 Rep. 8, 9, Forrers' Case. Still, that part of the stat. 13 Ed. I. c. 8, which relates to the pleadings and evidence iu such cases is important if it can be enforced in the modern action of ejectment, viz: that which requires the tenant of the lands to show his right according to the form of the writ he sued out against the hushand. See Report of the Commissioners to revise the Civil Code of Pennsylvania, Jan. 16, 1835, pp. 90, 91.
CUL DE SAC. This is a French phrase, which signifies, literally, the bottom of a bag, and, figuratively, a street not open at both ends. It seems not to be settled whether a cul de sac is to be considered a highway. See 1 Campb. R. 260; 11 East, R. 376, note; 5 Taunt. R. 137; 5 B. & Ald. 456; Hawk. P. C. b. 1, c. 76, s. 1 Dig. lib. 50, tit. 16, l. 43; Dig. lib. 43, t. 12, l. 13; Dig. lib. 47, tit. 10, 1. 15, 7.
CULPA. A fault committed without fraud, and this distinguishes it from dolus, which is a trick to deceive. See Dolus.
CULPRIT, crim. law. When a prisoner is arraigned, and he pleads not guilty, in the English practice, the clerk, who arraigns him on behalf of the crown, replies that the prisoner is guilty, and that he is ready to prove the accusation; this is done by two monosyllables, cul. prit. Vide Abbreviations; 4 Bl. Com. 339; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 416.
CUM PERTINENTIS. With the appurtenances. See Appurtenances.
CUM ONERE. This term is usually employed to show that something is taken, subject to a charge or burden.
CUM TESTAMENTO ANNEXO. With the testament or will annexed. It often happens that the deceased, although he makes a will, appoints no executor, or else the appointment fails; in either of which events he is said to die quasi intestatus. 2 Inst. 397. The appointment of an executor fails, 1st. When the person appointed refuses to act. 2d. When the person appointed dies before the testator, or before he has proved the will, or when, from any other legal cause, he is incapable of acting. 3d. When the executor dies intestate, (and in some places, as in Pennsylvania, whether he die testate or intestate,) after having proved the will, but before he has administered all the personal estate of the deceased. In all these cases, as well as when no executor has been appointed, administration, with the will annexed, must be granted by the proper officer. In the case where the goods are, not all administered before the death of the executor, the administration is also called an administration de bonis non.
2. The office of such an an administrator differs little from that of an executor. Vide Com. Dig. Administration; Will. Ex. p. 1, b. 5, c. 3, s. 1; 2 Bl. Com. 504-5; 11 Vin. Ab. 78; Toll. 92 Gord. Law of Deced. 98.
CUMULATIVE. Forming a heap; additional; as, cumulative evidence, or that which goes to prove the same point which has been established by other evidence. Cumulative legacy, or accumulative legacy, is a second bequest, given by the same testator to the same legatee. 2 Rop. Log. 19,. See 1 Saund. 134, n. 4; Remedy.
CUMULATIVE LEGACY. Vide Legacy accumulative; and 8 Vin. Ab. 308 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 133, 282, 332.
CURATE, eccl. Iaw. One who represents the incumbent of a church, person, or20 vicar, and tades care of the church, and performs divine service in his stead.
CURATOR, persons, contracts. One who has been legally appointed to take care of the interests of one who, on account of his youth, or defect of his understanding, or for some other cause, is unable to attend to them himself.
2. There are curators ad bona, of property, who administer the estate of a minor, take care of his person, and intervene in all his contracts; curators ad litem, of suits, who assist the minor in courts of justice, and act as curator ad bona in cases where the interests of the curator are opposed to the interests of the minor. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 357 to 366. There are also curators of insane persons Id. art. 31; and of vacant successions and absent heirs. Id. art. 1105 to 1125.
3. The term curator is usually employed in the civil law, for that of guardian.
CURATORSHIP, offices, contracts, in the civil law. The power given by authority of law, to one or more persons, to administer the property of an individual who is unable to take care of his owu estate and affairs, either on account of his absence without an authorized agent, or in consequence of his prodigality, or want of mind. Poth. Tr. des Personnes, t. 6, s. 5. As to the laws of Louisiana, which authorize a curatorship, vide Civ. Code, art. 31, 50, et seq. 357, et seq.; 382, 1105, et seq.
2. Curatorship differs from tutorship, (q. v.) in this, that the latter is instituted for the protection of property in the first place, and, secondly, of the person; while the former is intended to protect, first, the person, and, secondly, the property. 1 Lecons Elem. du Droit Civ. Rom. 241.
CURATRIX. A woman who has been appointed to the office of curator.
CURE. A restoration to health.
2. A person who had quitted the habit of drunkenness for the space of nine months, in consequece of medicines he had taken, and who had lost his appetite for ardent spirits, was held to have been cured. 7 Yerg. R. 146.
3. In a figurative sense, to cure is to remedy any defect; as, an informal statement of the plaintiff's cause of action in his declaration is cured by verdict, provided it be substantially stated.
CURFEW. The name of a law, established during the reign of the English king, William, the conquerer, by which the people were commanded to dispense with fire and candle at eight o'clock at night. It was abolished in the reign of Henry I., but afterwards it signified the time at which the curfew formerly took place. The word curfew is derived, probably, from couvre few, or cover fire. 4 Bl. Com. 419, 420.
CURIA. A court of justice.
CURIA CLAUDENDA, WRIT DE, Eng. law. The name of a writ, used to compel a party to enclose his land. F. N. B. 297.
CURIA ADVISARE VULT, practice. The court will consider the matter. This entry is made on the record when the court wish to take time to consider of a case before they give a final judgment, which is made by an abbreviation, cur. ad vult, for the purpose of marking the continuance. In the technical sense, it is a continuance of the cause to another term.
CURIA REGIS. An English court, which assumed this name, during the reign of Henry II. It was Curia or Aula Regis, because it was held in the g reat hall of the king's palace; and where the king, for some time, administered justice in person. But afterwards, the judicial power was more properly entrusted to the king's judges. The judges who sat in this court were distinguished by the name of justices, or justiciaries. Besides these, the chief justiciary, the stewart of all England, the chancellor, the chamberlain, and the treasurer, also took part in the judicial proceedings of this court.
CURIALITY, Scotch law. The same as courtesy. (q. v.) 1 Bell's Com. 61.
CURRENCY. The money which passes, at a fixed value, from hand to hand; money which is authorized by law.
2. By art. 1, s. 8, the Constitution of the United States authorizes congress "to coin money, and to regulate the value thereof." Changes in the currency ought not to be made but for the most urgent reason, as they unsettle commerce, both at home and abroad. Suppose Peter contracts to pay Paul one thousand dollars in six months - the dollar of a certain fineness of silver, weighing one hundred and twelve and a half grains - and afterwards, before the money becomes due, the value of the dollar is changed, and it weighs now but fifty-six and a quarter grains; will one thousand of the new dollars pay the old debt? Different opinion may be entertained, but it seems that such payment would be complete; because, 1. The creditor is bound to receive the public currency; and, 2. He is bound to receive it at its legal value. 6 Duverg. n. 174.
CURRENT, merc. law. A term used to express present time; the current month; i.e. the present month. Price current, is the ordinary price at the time spoken of. A printed paper, containing such prices, is also called a price current.
2. Current, in another sense, signifies that which is readily received; as, current money.
CURSITOR BARON, Eng. law. An officer of the court of the exchequer, who is appointed by patent under the great seal, to be one of the barons of the exchequer.
CURTESY, or COURTESY, Scotch law. A life-rent given by law to the surviving hushand, of all his wife's heritage of which she died infeft, if there was a child of the marriage born alive. The child born of the marriage must be the mother's heir. If she had a child by a former marriage, who is to succeed to her estate, the hushand has no right to the curtesy while such child is alive; so that the curtesy is due to the hushand rather as father to the heir, than as hushand to an heiress, conformable to the Roman law, which gives to the father the usufruct of what the child succeeds to by the mother. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. B. 2, t. 9, s. 30. Vide Estate by the curtesy.
CURTILAGE, estates. The open space situated within a common enclosure belonging to a dwelling-house. Vide 2 Roll, Ab. 1, l. 30; Com. dig. Grant, E 7, E 9; Russ. & Ry. 360; Id. 334, 357; Ry & Mood. 13; 2 Leach, 913; 2 Bos. & Pull. 508; 2 East, P. C. 494; Russ. & Ry. 170, 289, 322; 22 Eng. Com. Law R. 330; 1 Ch. Pr. 175; Shep. Touchs. 94.
CUSTODY. The detainer of a person by virtue of a lawful authority. To be in custody, is to be lawfully detained under arrest. Vide 14 Vin. Ab. 359; 3 Chit. Pr. 355. In another sense, custody signifies having the care and possession of a thing; as, the chancellor is entitled to the custody as the keeper of the seal.
CUSTOM. A usage which had acquired the force of law. It is, in fact, a lex loci, which regulates all local or real property within its limits. A repugnancy which destroys it, must be such as to show it never did exist. 5 T. R. 414. In Pennsylvania no customs have the force of law but those which prevail throughout the state. 6 Binn. 419, 20.
2. A custom derives its force from the tacit consent of the legislature and the people, and supposes an original, actual deed or agreement. 2 Bl. Com. 30, 31; 1 Chit. Pr. 283. Therefore, custom is the best interpreter of laws: optima est legum interpres consuetudo. Dig. 1, 8, 37; 2 Inst. 18. It follows, therefore, there; can be no custom in relation to a matter regulated by law. 8 M. R. 309. Law cannot be established or abrogated except by the sovereign will, but this will may be express or implied and presumed and whether it manifests itself by word or by a series of facts, is of little importance. When a custom is public, peaceable, uniform, general, continued, reasonable and certain, and has lasted "time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary," it acquires the force of law. And when any doubts arise as to the meaning of a statute, the custom which has prevailed on the subject ought to have weight in its construction, for the manner in which a law has always been executed is one of its modes of interpretation. 4 Penn. St. Rep. 13.
3. Customs are general or, particular customs. 1. By general customs is meant the common law itself, by which proceedings and determinations in courts are guided.
2. Particular customs, are those which affect the inhabitants of some particular districts only. 1 Bl. Com. 68, 74. Vide 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 121 Bac. Ab. h. t.; 1 Bl. Com. 76; 2 Bl. Com. 31; 1 Lill. Reg. 516; 7 Vin. Ab. 164; Com. Dig. h. t.; Nelson's Ab. h. t. the various Amer. Digs. h. t. Ayl. Pand. 15, 16; Ayl. Pareg. 194; Doct. Pl. 201; 3 W. C. C. R. 150; 1 Gilp. 486; Pet. C. C. R. 220; I Edw. Ch. R. 146; 1 Gall. R. 443; 3 Watts, R. 178; 1 Rep. Const. Ct. 303, 308; 1 Caines, R. 45; 15 Mass. R. 433; 1 Hill, R. 270; Wright, R. 573; 1 N. & M. 176; 5 Binn. R. 287; 5 Ham. R. 436; 3 Conn. R. 9; 2 Pet. R. 148; 6 Pet. R. 715; 6 Porter R. 123; 2 N. H. Rep. 93; 1 Hall, R. 612; 1 Harr. & Gill, 239; 1 N. S. 192; 4 L. R. 160; 7 L. R. 529; Id. 215.
CUSTOM OF MERCHANTS, lex mercatoria. A system of customs acknowledged and taken notice of by all nations, and are, therefore, a part of the general law of the land. See Law merchant, and 1 Chit. Bl. 76, note 9.
CUSTOM-HOUSE. A place appointed by law, in ports of entry, where importers of goods, wares and merchandise are bound to enter the same, in order to pay or secure the duties or customs due to the government.
CUSTOMARY RIGHTS. Rights which are acquired by custom. They differ from prescriptive rights in this, that the former are local usages, belonging to all the inhabitants of a particular place or district - the latter are rights of individuals, independent of the place of their residence. Best on Pres. 79; Cruise, Dig. t. 31, c. 1, 7; 2 Greenl. Evi 542.
CUSTOMS. This term is usually applied to those taxes which are payable upon goods and merchandise imported or exported. Story, Const. 949; Bac. Ab. Smuggling. CUSTOS ROTULORUM, Eng. law. The principal justice of the peace of a county, who is the keeper of the records of the county. 1 Bl. Com. 349.
TO CUT, crim. law. To wound with an instrument having a sharp edge. 1 Russ. on Cr. 577. Vide To Stab; Wound.
CY PRES, construction. These are old French words, which signify "as near as."
2. In cases where a perpetuity is attempted in a will, the courts do not, if they can avoid it, construe the devise to be utterly void, but expound the will in such a manner as to carry the testator's intentions into effect, as far as the rules respecting perpetuities will allow; this is called construction cy pres. When the perpetuity is attempted in a deed, all the Iimitations are totally void. Cruise, Dig. t. 38, c. 9, s. 34; and vide 1 Vern. 250; 2 Ves. Jr. 380, 336, 357, 364; 3 Ves. Jr. 141, 220; 4 Ves. 13; Com. Dig. Condition, L. 1; 1 Rop. Leg. 514; Swinb. pt. 4, s. 7, a. 4; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 3, n. 586, 595, 611; Domat, Loix Civ. liv. 6. t. 2, s. 1; 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 134, 259, 317; 2 Id. 316,473; Boyle on Charities, Index, h. t.; Shelford on Mortmain, Index, h. t.; 3 Bro. C. C. 166; 2 Bro. C. C. 492; 4 Wheat. R. 1; S. C. 3 Peters, R. App. 481; 3 Peters, R. 99; 15 Ves., 232; 2 Sto. Eq. Jur. 1169.
CZAR. A title of honor which is assumed by the emperor of all the Russias. See Autocracy.
CZARINA. The title of the empress of Russia.
CZAROWITZ.. The title of the eldest son of the czar and czarina of Russia.


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