U.S. Law Dictionary (A-B)

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A
ALIENAGE. The condition or state of alien.
ALIENATE, aliene, alien. This is a generic term applicable to the various methods of transfering property from one person to another. Lord Coke, says, (1 Inst. 118 b,) alien cometh of the verb alienate, that is, alienum facere vel ex nostro dominio in alienum trawferre sive rem aliquam in dominium alterius transferre. These methods vary, according to the nature of the property to be conveyed and the particular objects the conveyance is designed to accomplish. It has been held, that under a prohibition to alienate, long leases are comprehended. 2 Dow's Rep. 210.
ALIENATION, estates. Alienation is an act whereby one man transfers the property and possession of lands, tenements, or other things, to another. It is commonly applied to lands or tenements, as to alien (that is, to convey) land in fee, in mortmain. Termes de la ley. See Co. Litt. 118 b; Cruise Dig. tit. 32, c. 1, 1-8.
2. Alienations may be made by deed; by matter of record; and by devise.
3. Alienations by deed may be made by original or primary conveyances, which are those by means of which the benefit or estate is created or first arises; by derivative or secondary conveyances, by which the benefit or esta te originally created, is enlarged, restrained, transferred, or extinguished. These are conveyances by the common law. To these may be added some conveyances which derive their force and operation from the statute of uses. The original conveyances are the following: 1. Feoffment; 2. Gift; 3. Grant; 4. Lease; 6. Exchange; 6. Partition. The derivative are, 7. Release; 8. Confirmation; 9. Surrender; 10. Assignment; 11. Defeasance. Those deriving their force from the statute of uses, are, 12. Covenants to stand seised to uses; 13. Bargains and sales; 14. Lease and release; 15. Deeds to lend or declare the uses of other more direct conveyances; 16. Deeds of revocation of uses. 2 Bl. Com. ch. 20. Vide Conveyance; Deed. Alienations by matter of record may be, 1. By private acts of the legislature; 2. By grants, as by patents of lands; 3. By fines; 4. By common recovery. Alienations may also be made by devise (q.v.)
ALIENATION, med. jur. The term alienation or mental alienation is a generic expression to express the different kinds of aberrations of the human understandiug. Dict. des Science Med. h. t.; 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 535.
ALIENATION OFFICE, Engligh law. An office to which all writs of covenants and entries are carried for the recovery of fines levied thereon. See Alienate.
TO ALIENE, contracts. See Alienate.
ALIENEE. One to whom an alienation is made.
ALIEXI JURIS. Words applied to persons who are subject to the authority of another. An infant who is under the authority of his father or guardian, and a wife under the power of her husband, are said to be alieni juris. Vide sui juris.
ALIENOR. He who makes a grant or alienation.
ALIMENTS. In the Roman and French law this word signifies the food and other things necessary to the support of life, as clothing and the like. The same name is given to the money allowed for aliments. Dig. 50, 16, 43.
2. By the common law, parents and children reciprocally owe each other aliments or maintenance. (q. v.) Vide 1 Bl. Com. 447; Merl. Rep. h. t.; Dig. 25, 3, 5. In the common law, the word alimony (q.v.) is used. Vide Allowance to a Prisoner.
ALIMONY. The maintenance or support which a husband is bound to give to his wife upon separation from her; or the support which either father or mother is bound to give to his or her children, though this is more usually called maintenance.
2. The causes for granting alimony to the wife are, 1, desertion, (q. v.) or cruelty of the husband; (q. v.) 4 Desaus. R. 79,; 1 M'Cord's Ch. R. 205; 4 Rand. R. 662; 2 J. J; Marsh. R. 324.; 1 Edw. R. 62; and 2, divorce. 4 Litt. R. 252; 1 Edw. R. 382; 2 Paige, R. 62; 2 Binn. R. 202; 3 Yeates, R. 50; S.& R. 248; 9 S.& R. 191; 3 John. Ch. R. 519; 6 John. Ch. 91.
3. In Louisiana by alimony is meant the nourishment, lodging and support of the person who claims it. It includes education when the person to whom alimoiay is due is a minor. Civil Code of L. 246.
4. Alimony is granted in proporion to the wants of the person requiring it, and the circumstances of those who are to pay it. By the common law, parents and children owe each other alimony. 1 Bl. Com. 447; 2 Com. Dig. 498;. 3 Ves. 358; 4 Vin. Ab. 175; Ayl. Parerg. 58; Dane's Ab. Index. h.t.; Dig. 34, 1. 6.
5. Alimony is allowed to the wife, pendente lite, almost as a matter of course whether she be plaintiff or defendant, for the obvious reason that she has generally no other means of living. 1 Clarke's R. 151. But there are special cases where it will not be allowed, as when the wife, pending the progress of the suit, went to her father's, who agreed with the husband to support her for services. 1 Clarke's R. 460. See Shelf. on Mar. and Div. 586; 2 Toull. n. 612.
ALITER, otherwise. This term is frequently used to point out a difference between two decisions; as, a point of law has been decided in a particular way, in such a case, aliter in another case.
ALIUNDE. From another place; evidence given aliunde, as, when a will contains an ambiguity, in some cases, in order to ascertain the meaning of the testator, evidence aliunde will be received.
ALL FOURS. This is a metaphorical expression, to signify that a case agrees in all its circumstances with another case; it goes as it were upon its four legs, as an animal does.
ALLEGATA. A word which the emperors formerly signed at the bottom of their rescripts and constitutions; under other instrumets they usually wrote nata or testate. Ency. Lond.
ALLEGATA AND PROBATA. The allegations made by a party to a suit, and the proof adduced in their support. It is a general rule of evidence that the allegata and probata must correspond; that is, the proof must at least be sufficiently extensive to cover all the allegations of the party. Greenl. Ev. 51; 3 R. s. 636.
ALLEGATION, English ecclesiastical law. According to the practice of the prerogative court, the facts intended to be relied on in support of the contested suit are set forth in the plea, which is termed an allegation; this is submitted to the inspection of the counsel of the adverse party, and, if it appear to them objectionable in form or substance, they oppose the admission of it. If the opposition goes to the substance of the allegation, and is held to be well founded, the court rejects it; by which mode of proceeding the suit is terminated without, going into any proof of the facts. 1 Phil. 1, n.; 1 Eccl. Rep. ll, n. S. C. See 1 Brown's Civ. Law, 472, 3, n.
ALLEGATION, common law. The assertion, declaration or statement of a party of what he can prove.
ALLEGATI6N, civil law. The citation or reference to a voucher to support a proposition. Dict. de jurisp.; Encyclopedie, mot Allegation; 1 Brown's Civ. Law, 473, n.
ALLEGATION OF FACULTIES When a suit is instituted in the English ecclesiastical courts, in order to obtain alimony, before it is allowed, an alIegation must be made on the part of the wife, stating the property of the husband. This allegation is called an allegation of faculties. Shelf. on Mar. and Div. 587.
ALLEGIANCE. The tie which binds the citizen to the government, in return for the protection which the government affords him.
2. It is natural, acquired, or local. Natural allegiance is such as is due from all men born within the United States; acquired allegiance is that which is due by a naturalized citizen. It has never been decided whether a citizen can, by expatriation, divest himself absolutely of that character. 2 Cranch, 64; 1 Peters' C. C. Rep. 159; 7 Wheat. R. 283; 9 Mass. R. 461. Infants cannot assume allegiance, (4 Bin. 49) although they enlist in the army of the United States. 5 Bin. 429.
3. It seems, however, that he cannot renounce his allegiance to the United States without the permission of the government, to be declared by law. But for commercial purposes he may acquire the rights of a citizen of another country, and the place of his domicil determines the character of a party as to trade. 1 Kent, Com. 71; Com. Rep. 677; 2 Kent, Com. 42.
4. Local allegiance is that which is due from an alien, while resident in the United States, for the protection which the government affords him. 1 Bl. Com. 366, 372; Com. Dig. h.t; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 1 East, P.C. 49 to 57.
ALLIANCE, relationship. The union or connexion of two persons or families by marraiage, which is also called affinity. This is derived from the Latin preposition ad and ligare, to bind. Vide Inst 1, 10, 6; Dig 38, 10, 4, 3; and Affinity.
ALLIANCE, international law. A contract, treaty, or league between two sovereigns or states, made to insure their safety and common defence.
2. Alliances made for warlike purposes are divided in general into defensive and offensive; in the former the nation only engages to defend her ally in case he be attacked; in the latter she unites with him for the purpose of making an attack, or jointly waging the war against another nation. Some alliances are both offensive and defensive; and there seldom is an offensive alliance which is not also defensive. Vattel, B. 3, c. 6, 79; 2 Dall. 15.
ALLISION, maritime law. The running of one vessel against another. It is distiguished from collision in this, that the latter means the running of two vessels against each other; this latter term is frequently used for allision.
ALLOCATION, Eng. law. An allowance upon account in the Exchequer; or rather, placing or adding to a thing. Eucy. Lond.
ALLOCATIONE FACIENDA. Eng. law. A writ commanding that an allowance be made to an accountant, for such moneys as he has lawfully expended in his office. It is directed to the lord treasurer and barons of the exchequer.
ALLOCATUR, practice. The allowance of a writ; e. g. when a writ of habeas corpus is prayed for, the judge directs it to be done, by writing the word allowed and signing his name; this is called the allocator. In the English courts this word is used to indicate the master or prothonotary's allowance of a sum referred for his consideration, whether touching costs, damages, or matter of account. Lee's Dict. h, t.
ALLODIUM estates. Signifies an absolute estate of inheritance, in coutradistinction to a feud.
2. In this country the title to land is essentially allodial, and every tenant in fee simple has an absolute and perfect title, yet in technical language his estate is called an estate in fee simple, and the tenure free and common socage. 3 Kent, Com. 390; Cruise, Prel. Dis. c. 1, 13; 2 Bl. Com. 45. For the etymology of this word, vide 3 Kent Com. 398 note; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1692.
ALLONGE, French law. When a bill of exchange, or other paper, is too small to receive the endorsements which are to be made on it, another piece of paper is added to it, and bears the name of allonge. Pard. n. 343; Story on P. N. 121, 151; Story on Bills, 204. See Rider.
ALLOTMENT. Distribution by lot; partition. Merl. Rep. h. t.
TO ALLOW, practice. To approve; to grant; as to allow a writ of error, is to approve of it, to grant it. Vide Allocatur. To allow an amount is to admit or approve of it.
ALLOWANCE TO A PRISONER. By the laws of, it is believed, all the states, when a poor debtor is in arrest in a civil suit, the plaintiff is compelled to pay an allowance regulated by law, for his maintenance and support, and in default of such payment at the time required, the prisoner is discharged. Notice must be given to the plaintiff before the defendant can be discharged.
ALLOY, or ALLAY. An inferior metal, used with gold. and silver in making coin or public money. Originally, it was one of the allowances known by the name of remedy for errors, in the weight and purity of coins. The practice of making such allowances continued in all European mints after the reasns, upon which they were originally founded, had, in a great measure, ceased. In the imperfection of the art of coining, the mixture of the metals used, and the striking of the coins, could not be effected with, perfect accuracy. There would be some variety in the mixture of metals made at different times, although intended to be in the same proportions, and in different pieces of coin, although struck by the same process and from the same die. But the art of coining metals has now so nearly attained perfection, that such allowances have become, if not altogether, in a great measure at least, unnecessary. The laws of the United States make no allowance for deficiencies of weight. See Report of the Secretary of State of the United States, to the Senate of the U. S., Feb. 22, 1821, pp. 63, 64.
2. The act of Congress of 2d of April, 1792, sect. 12, directs that the standard for all gold coins of the United States, shall be eleven parts fine to one part of alloy; and sect. 13, that the standard for all silver coins of the United States, shall be one thousand four hundred and eighty-five parts fine, to one hundred and seventy-nine parts alloy. 1 Story's L. U. S. 20. By the act of Congress, 18th Feb. 1831, 8, it is provided, that the standard for both gold and silver coin of the United States, shall be such, that of one thousand parts by weight, nine hundred shall be of pure metal, and one hundred of alloy; and the alloy of the silver coins shall be of copper, and the alloy of gold coins shall be of copper and silver, provided, that the silver do not exceed one-half of the whole alloy. See also, Smith's Wealth of Nations, vol. i., pp. 49, 50.
ALLUVION. The insensible increase of the earth on a shore or bank of a river by the force of the water, as by a current or by waves. It is a part of the definition that the addition, should be so gradual that no one can judge how much is added at each moment of time. Just. Inst. lib. 2, tit. 1, 20; 3 Barn. & Cress. 91; Code Civil Annote No. 556. The proprietor of the bank increased by alluvion is entitled to the addition. Alluvion differs from avulsion in this: that the latter is sudden and perceptible. See avulsion. See 3 Mass. 352; Coop. Justin. 458; Lord Raym. 77; 2 Bl. Com. 262, and note by Chitty; 1 Swift's Dig. 111; Coop. Just. lib. 2, t. 1; Angell on Water Courses, 219; 3 Mass. R. 352; 1 Gill & Johns. R. 249; Schultes on Aq. Rights, 116; 2 Amer. Law Journ. 282, 293; Angell on Tide Waters, 213; Inst. 2, 1, 20; Dig. 41, 1, 7; Dig. 39, 2, 9; Dig. 6, 1, 23; Dig. 1, 41, 1, 5; 1 Bouv. Inst. pars 1, c. 1 art. 1, 4, s. 4, p. 74.
ALLY, international law. A power which has entered into an alliance with another power. A citizen or subject of one of the powers in alliance, is sometimes called an ally; for example, the rule which renders it unlawful for a citizen of the United States to trade or carry on commerce with an enemy, also precludes an ally from similar intercourse. 4 Rob. Rep. 251; 6 Rob. Rep. 406; Dane's Ab, Index, h. t.; 2 Dall. 15.
ALMANAC. A table or calendar, in which are set down the revolutions of the seasons, the rising and setting of the sun, the phases of the moon, the most remarkable conjunctions, positions and phenomena of the heavenly bodies, the months of the year, the days of the month and week, and a variety of other matter.
2. The courts will take judicial notice of the almanac; for example, whether a certain day of the month was on a Sunday or not. Vin. Ab. h. t.; 6 Mod. 41; Cro. Eliz. 227, pl. 12; 12 Vin. Ab. Evidence (A, b, 4.) In dating instrments, some sects, the Quakers, for example, instead of writing January, February, March, &c., use the terms, First month, Second month, Third month, &c., and these are equally valid in such writings. Vide 1 Smith's Laws of Pennsylvania, 217.
ALLODARII, Eng. law, Book of Domesday. Such tenants, who have as large an estate as a subject can have. 1 Inst. 1; Bac. Ab Tenure, A.
ALMS. In its most extensive sense, this comprehends every species of relief bestowed upon the poor, and, therefore, including all charities. In a more, limited sense, it signifies what is given by public authority for the relief of the poor. Shelford on Mortmain, 802, note (x); 1 Dougl. Election Cas. 370; 2 Id. 107; Heywood on Elections, 263.
ALTA PRODITIO, Eng. law. High treason.
ALTARAGE, eccl. law. Offerings made on the altar; all profits which accrue to the priest by means of the altar. Ayl. Par. 61; 2 Cro. 516.
TO ALTER. To change. Alterations are made either in the contract itself, or in the instrument which is evidence of it. The contract may at any time be altered with the consent of the parties, and the alteration may be either in writing or not in writing.
2. It is a general rule that the terms of a contract under seal, cannot be changed by a parol agreement. Cooke, 500; 3 Blackf. R. 353; 4 Bibb. 1. But it has been decided that an alteration of a contract by specialty, made by parol, makes it all parol. 2 Watts, 451; 1 Wash. R. 170; 4 Cowen, 564; 3 Harr. & John. 438; 9 Pick. 298; 1 East, R. 619; but see 3 S.& R. 579.
3. When the contract is, in writing, but not under seal, it may be varied by parol, and the whole will make but one agreement. 9 Cowen, 115; 5.N. H. Rep. 99; 6 Harr. & John, 38; 18 John. 420; 1 John. Cas. 22; 5 Cowen, 606; Pet. C. C. R. 221; 1 Fairf. 414.
4. When the contract is evidenced by a specialty, and it is altered by parol, the whole will be considered as a parol agreement. 2 Watt 451; 9 Pick. 298. For alteration of instruments see Erasure; Interlineation. See, generally, 7 Greenl. 76, 121, 394; 15 John. 200; 2 Penna. R. 454.
ALTERATION. An act done upon an instrument in writing by a party entitled under it, without the consent of the other party, by which its meaning or language is changed; it imports some fraud or design on the part of him who made it. This differs from spoliation, which is the mutilation of the instrument by the act of a stranger.
2. When an alteration has a tendency to mislead, by so changing the character of the instrument, it renders it void; but if the change has not such tendency, it will not be considered an alteration. 1 Greenl. Ev. 566.
3. A spoliation, on the contrary, will not affect the legal character of the instrument, so long as the original writing remains legible; and, if it be a deed, any trace of the seal remains. 1 Greenl. Ev. 566. See Spoliation.
ALTERNAT. The name of a usage among diplomatists by which the rank and places of different powers, who have the same rights and pretensions to precedence, are changed from time to time, either in a certain regular order, or one determined by lot. In drawing up treaties and conventions, for example, it is the usage of certain powers to alternate, both in the preamble and the signatures, so that each power occupies, in the copy intended to be delivered to it, the first place. Wheat. Intern. Law, pt. 2, c. 3, 4..
ALTERNATIVE. The one or the other of two things. In contracts a party has frequently the choice to perform one of several things, as, if he is bound to pay one hundred dollars, or to deliver a horse, he has the alternative. Vide Election; Obligation; Alternative.
ALTIUS NON TOLLENDI, civil law. The name of a servitude due by the owner of a house, by which he is restrained from building beyond a certain height. Dig. 8, 2, 4, and 1, 12, 17, 25.
ALTIUS TOLLENDI, civil law. The name of a servitude which consists in the right, to him who is entitled to it, to build his house as high as he may think proper. In general, however, every one enjoys this privilege, unless he, is restrained by home contrary title.
ALTO ET BASSO. High and low. This phrase is applied to an agreement made between two contending parties to submit all matters in dispute, alto et basso, to arbitration. Cowel.
ALTUM MARE. The high sea. (q. v.)
ALUMNUS, civil law. A child which one has nursed; a foster child. Dig. 40, 2, 14.
AMALPHITAN CODE. The name given to a collection of sea-laws, complied about the end of the eleventh century, by the people of Amalphi. It consists of the laws on maritime subjects which were, or had been, in force in counries bordering on the Mediterranean; and, on account of its being collected into one regular system, it was for a long time received as authority in those countries. 1 Azun. Mar. Law, 376.
AMANUENSIS. Oe who write another dictates. About the beginning of the sixth century,, the tabellions (q.v.) were known by this name. 1 Sav. Dr. Rom. Moy. Age, n. 16.
AMBASSADOR, interaational law. A public minister sent abroad by some sovereign state or prince, with a legal commission and authority to transact business on behalf of his country with the government to which he is sent. He is a minister of the highest rank, and represents the person of his sovereign.
2. The United States have always been represented by ministers plenipotentiary, never having sent a person of the rald of an, ambassador in the diplomatic sense. 1 Kent's Com. 39, n.
3. Ambassadors, when acknowledged as such, are exempted, absolutely from all allegiance, and from all responsibility to the laws. If, however, they should be so regardless of their duty, and of the object of their privilege, as to insult or openly to attack the laws of the government, their functions may be suspended by a refusal to treat with them, or application can be made to their own sovereign for their recall, or they may be dismissed, and required to depart within a reasonable time. By fiction of law, an ambassador is considered as if he were out of the territory of the foreign power; and it is an implied agreement among nations, that the ambassador, while he resides in the foreign state, shall be considered as a member of his own country, and the government he represents has exclusive cognizance of his conduct, and control of his person. The attendants of the ambassador are attached to his person, and the effects in his use are under his protection and privilege, and, generally, equally exempt from foreign jurisdiction.
4. Ambassadors are ordinary or extraordinary. The former designation is exclusively applied to those sent on permanent missions; the latter, to those employed on particular or extraordinary occasions, or residing at a foreign court for an indeterminate period. Vattel, Droit des Gens, 1. 4, c. 6, 70-79.
5. The act of dtigress of April 30th, 1790, s. 25, makes void any writ or process sued forth or prosecuted against any ambassador authorized and received by the president of the United States, or any domestic servant of such ambassador; and the 25th section of the same act, punishes any person who shall sue forth or proseeute such writ or process, and all attorneys – and soliciters prosecuting or soliciting in such case, and all officers executing such writ or process, with an imprisonment not exceeding three years, and a fine at the discretion of the court. The act provides that citizens or inhabitants of the United States who were indebted when they went into the service of an ambassador, shall not be protected as to such debt; and it requires also that the names of such servants shall be registered in the office of the secretary of state. The 16th section imposes the like punishment on any person offering violence to the person of an ambassador or other minister. P Vide 1 Kent, Com. 14, 38, 182; Rutherf. Inst. b. 2, c. 9; Vatt. b. 4, c. 8, s. 113; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 435; Ayl. Pand. 245; 1 Bl. Com. 253; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 2 Vin. Ab. 286; Grot. lib. 2, c. 8, 1, 3; 1 Whart. Dig. 382; 2 Id. 314; Dig. l. 50, t. 7; Code I. 10, t. 63, l. 4; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
6. The British statute 7 Ann, cap. 12; is similar in its provisions; it extends to the family and servants of an ambassador, as well when they are the natives of the country in which the ambassador resides, as when they are foreigners whom he brings with him. (3 Burr. 1776-7) To constitute a domestic servant within the meaning of the statute, it is not necessary that the servant should lodge, at night in the house of the ambassador, but it is necessary to show the nature of the service he renders and the actual performance of it. 3 Burr. 1731; Cases Temp. Hardw. 5. He must, in fact, prove that he is bona fide the ambassador's servant. A land waiter at the custom house is not such, nor entitled to the privilege of the statute. 1 Burr. 401. A trader is not entitled to the protection of the statute. 3 Burr. 1731; Cases Temp. Hardw. 5. A person in debt cannot be taken into an ambassador's service in order to protect him. 3 Burr. 1677.
AMBIDEXTER. It is intended by this Latin word, to designate one who plays on both sides; in a legal sense it is taken for a juror or embraceor who takes money from the parties for giving his verdict. This is seldom or never done in the United States.
AMBIGUITY, contracts, construction. When au expression has been used in an instrument of writing which may be understood in more than one sense, it is said there is an ambiguity,
2. There are two sorts of amiguities of words, ambiguitas latens and ambiguitas patens.
3. The first occurs when the deed or instrument is sufficiently certain and free from ambiguity, but the ambiguity is produced by something extrinsic, or some collateral matter out of the instrument; for example, if a man devise property to his cousin A B, and he has two cousins of that name, in such case parol evidence will be received to explain the ambiguity.
4. The second or patent ambiguity occurs when a clause in a deed, will, or other instrument, is so defectively expressed, that a court of law, which has to put a construction on the instrument, is unable to collect the intention of the party. In such case, evidence of the declaration of the party cannot be submitted to explain his intention, and the clause will be void for its uncertainty. In Pennsylvania, this rule is somewhat qualified. 3 Binn. 587; 4 Binn. 482. Vide generally, Bac. Max. Reg. 23; 1 Phu. Ev. 410 to 420; 3 Stark. Ev. 1021 ; I Com. Dig. 575; Sudg. Vend. 113. The civil law on this subject will be found in Dig. lib. 50, t. 17, 1. 67; lib. 45, t. 1, 1. 8; and lib. 22, t. 1, 1. 4.
AMBULATORIA VOLUNTAS. A phrase used to designate that a man has the power to alter his will or testament as long as he lives. This form of phrase frequently occurs in writers on the civil law; as ambulatoria res, ambulatoria actio, potestas, conditio, &c.;Calvini Lexic.
AMENABLE. Responsible; subject to answer in a court of justice liable to punishment.
AMENDE HONORABLE, EngIish law. A penalty imposed upon a person by way of disgrace or infamy, as a punishment for any offence, or for the purpose of making reparation for any injury done to another, as the walking into church in a white sheet, with a rope about hte neck, and a ortch in the hand, and begging the pardon of God, or the king, or any private individual, for some delinquency.
2. A punishment somewhat similar to this, and which bore the same name, was common in France; it was abolished by the law of the 25th of September, 1791. Merlin Rep. de Jur. h.'t.
3. For the form of a sentence of amende horrorable, see D'Agaesseau, Oeuvres, 43 Plaidoyer, tom. 4, p. 246.
AMENDMENT, legislation. An alteration or change of something proposed in a bill.
2. Either house of the legislature has a rigt to make amendments; but, when so made, they must be sanctioned by the other house before they can become a law. The senate has no power to originate any money bills, (q. v,) but may propose and make amendments to such as have passed the House of representatives. Vide Congress; Senate.
3. The constitution of the United States, art. 5, and the constitutions of some of the states, provide for their amendment. The provisions contained in tho constitution of the United States, are as follows: "Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by Congress: Provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall, in any manner, affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate."
AMMENDMENT, practice. The correction, by allowance of the court, of an error committed in the progress of a cause.
2. Amendments at common law, independently of any statutory provision on the subject, are in all cases in the discretion of the court, for the furtherance of justice they may be made while the proceedings are in paper, that is, until judgment is signed, and during the term in which it is signed ; for until the end of the term the proceedings are considered in fieri, and consequently subject to the control of the court; 2 Burr. 756; 3 Bl. Com. 407; 1 Salk. 47; 2 Salk. 666 ; 8 Salk. 31; Co. Litt. 260; and even after judgment is signed, and up to the latest period of the action, amendment is, in most cases, allowable at the discretion of the court under certain statutes passed for allowing amendments of the record; and in later times the judges have been much more liberal than formerly, in the exercise of this discretion. 3 McLean, 379; 1 Branch, 437; 9 Ala. 647. They may, however, be made after the term, although formerly the rule was otherwise; Co. Litt. 260, a; 3 Bl. Com. 407; and even after error brought, where there has been a verdict in a civil or criminal case. 2 Serg. & R. 432, 3. A remittitur damna may be allowed after error; 2 Dall. 184; 1 Yeates, 186; Addis, 115, 116; and this, although error be brought on the ground of the excess of damages remitted. 2 Serg. & R. 221. But the application must be made for the remittitur in the court below, as the court of error must take the record as they find it. 1 Serg. & R. 49. So, the death of the defendant may be suggested after errer coram nobis. 1 Bin. 486; I Johns. Cases, 29; Caines' Cases, 61. So by agreement of attormeys, the record may be amended after error. 1 Bin. 75; 2 Binn. 169.
3. Amendments are, however, always Iimited by due consideration of the rights of the opposite party; and, when by the amendment he would be prejudiced or exposed to unreasonable delay, it is not allowed. Vide Bac. Ab Com. Dig. h. t.; Viner's. Ab. h. t.; 2 Arch. Pr. 200; Grah. Pt. 524; Steph. Pl. 97; 2 Sell. Pr. 453; 3 Bl. Com. 406; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
AMENDS. A satisfaction, given by a wrong doer to the party injured for a wrong committed. 1 Lilly's Reg. 81.
2. By statute 24 Geo. II. c. 44, in England, and by similar statutes in some of the United States, justices of the peace, upon being notified of an intended suit against them, may tender amends fore the wrong alleged or done by them in their official character, and if found sufficient, the tender debars the action. See Act of Penn. 21 March, 1772, 1 and.2; Willes' Rep. 671, 2; 6 Bin. 83; 5 Serg. & R. 517, 299; 3 Id. 295; 4 Bin. 20.
AMERCEMENT, practice. A pecuniary penalty imposed upon a person who is in misericordia; as, for example, when the defendant se retaxit, or recessit in contemptum curioe. 8 Co. 58; Bar. Ab. Fines and Amercements. By the common law, none can be amerced in his absence, except for his default. Non licet aliquem in sua absentia amerciare nisi per ejus defaltas. Fleta, lib. 2, cap. 65, 15.
2. Formerly, if the sheriff failed in obeying the writs, rules, or orders of the court, he might be amerced; that is, a penalty might be imposed upon bim; but this practice has been superseded by attachment. In New Jersey and Ohio, the sheriff may, by statutory provision, be amerced for making a return contrary to the provision of the statute. Coxe, 136, 169; 6 Halst. 334; 3 Halst. 270, 271; 5 Halst. 319; 1 Green, 159, 341; 2 Green, 350; 2 South. 433; 1 Ham. 275; 2 Ham. 603; 6 Ham. 452; Wright, 720.
AMERCIAMENT, AMERCEMENT, English law. A pecuniary punishment arbitrarily imposed by some lord or count, in distinction from a fine which is expressed according to the statute. Kitch. 78. Amerciament royal, when the amerciament is made by the sheriff, or any other officer of the king. 4 Bl. Com. 372.
AMI. A friend; or, as it is written in old works, amy. Vide Prochein amy.
AMICABLE ACTION, Pennsylvania practice. An action entered by agreement of parties on the dockets of the courts; when entered, such action is considered as if it, had been adversely commenced, and the defendant had been regularly summoned. An amicable action may be entered by attorney, independently of the provisions of the act of 1866. 8 Er & R. 567.
AMICUS CURIAE, practice. A friend of the court. One, who as a stander by, when a judge is doubtful or mistaken in a matter of law, may inform the court. 2 Inst. 178; 2 Vin. Abr. 475; and any one, as amicus curia, may make an application to the court in favor of an infant, though he be no relation. 1 Ves. Sen. 313. AMITA. A paternal aunt; the sister of one's father. Inst. 3, 6, 3.
AMNESTY, government. An act of oblivion of past offences, granted by the government to those who have been guilty of any neglect or crime, usually upon condition that they return to their duty within a certain period.
2. An amnesty is either express or implied; it is express, when so declared in direct terms; and it is implied, when a treaty of peace is made between contending parties. Vide Vattel, liv. 4, c. 2, 20, 21, 22; Encycl. Amer. h.t.
3. Amnesty and pardon, are very different. The former is an act of the sove reign power, the object of which is to efface and to cause to be forgotten, a crime or misdemeanor; the latter, is an act of the same authority, which exempts the individual on whom it is bestowed from the punishment the law inflicts for the crime he has committed. 7 Pet. 160. Amnesty is the abolition and forgetfulness of the offence; pardon is forgiveness. A pardon is given to one who is certainly guilty, or has been convicted; amnesty, to those who may have been so.
4. Their effects are also different. That of pardon, is the remission of the whole or a part of the punishment awarded by the law; the conviction remaining unaffected when only a partial pardon is granted: an amnesty on the concrary, has the effect of destroying the criminal act, so that it is as if it had not been committed, as far as the public interests are concerned.
5. Their application also differs. Pardon is always given to individuals, and properly only after judgment or conviction: amnesty may be granted either before judgment or afterwards, and it is in general given to whole classes of criminals or supposed criminals, for the purpose of restoring tranquillity in the state. But sometimes amnesties are limited, and certain classes are excluded from their operation.
AMORTIZATION, contracts, English law. An alienation of lands or tenements in mortraain. 2 Stat. Ed. I.
2. The reduction of the property of lands or tenements to mortmain.
AMORTISE, contracts. To alien lands in mortmain. AMOTION. In corporations and companies, is the act of removing an officer from his office; it differs from disfranchisement, which is applicable to members, as such. Wille. on Corp. n. 708. The power of amotion is incident to a corporation. 2 Str. 819; 1 Burr. 639.
2. In Rex v. Richardson, Lord Mansfield specified three sorts of offences for which an officer might be discharged; first, such as have no immediate relation to the office, but are in themselves of so infamous a nature, as to render the offender unfit to execute any public franchise; secondly, such as are only against his oath, and the duty of his office as a corporator, and amount to breaches of the tacit condition annexed to his office; thirdly, the third offence is of a mixed nature; as being an offence not only against the duty of his officer but also a matter indictable at common law. 2 Binn. R. 448. And Lord Mansfield considered the law as settled, that though a corporation has express power of amotion, yet for the first sort of offences there must be a previous indictment and conviction; and that there was no authority since Bagg's Case, 11 Rep. 99, which says; that the power of trial as well as of amotion, for the second offense, is not incident to every corporation. He also observed: "We think that from the reason of the thing, from the nature of the corporation, and for the sake of order and good government, this power is incident as much as the power of making by-laws." Doug. 149. See generally, Wilcock on Mun. Corp. 268; 6 Conn. Rep. 632; 6 Mass. R. 462; Ang. & Am. on Corpor. 236.
AMOTION, tort. An amotion of possession from an estate, is an ouster which happens by a species of disseisin or turning out of the legal propritor before his estate is determined. 3 Bl. Com. 198, 199. Amotion is also applied to personal chattels when they are taken unlawfully out of the possession of the owner, or of one who has a special property in them.
AMPLIATION, civil law. A deferring of judgment until the cause is further examined. In this case, the judges pronounced the word amplius, or by writing the letters N.L. for non liquet, signifying that the cause was not clear. In practice, it is usual in the courts when time is taken to form a judgment, to enter a curia advisare vult; cur. adv. vult. (q. v.)
AMPLIATION, French law. Signifies the giving a duplicate of an acquittance or other instrument, in order that it may be produced in different places. The copies which notaries make out of acts passed before them, and which are delivered to the parties, are also called ampliations. Dict. de Jur. h. t.
AMY or ami, a French word, signifying, friend. Prochein amy, (q. v.) the next friend. Alien amy, a foreigner, the citizen or subject of some friendly power or prince.
AN, JOUR, ET WASTE. See Year, day, and waste.
ANALOGY, comtruction. The similitude of relations which exist between things compared.
2. To reason analogically, is to draw conclusions based on this similitude of relations, on the resemblance, or the connexion which is perceived between the objects compared. "It is this guide," says Toollier, which leads the law lawgiver, like other men, without his observing it. It is analogy which induces us, with reason, to suppose that, following the example of the Creator of the universe, the lawgiver has established general and uniform laws, which it is unnecessary to repeat in all analogous cases." Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 1, c. 1. Vide Ang. on Adv. Enjoym. 30, 31; Hale's Com. Law, 141.
3. Analogy has been declared to be an argument or guide in forming legal judgments, and is very commonly a ground of such judgments. 7 Barn. & Cres. 168; 3 Bing. R. 265; 8 Bing R. 557, 563; 3 Atk. 313; 1 Eden's R. 212; 1 W. Bl. 151; 6 Ves. jr. 675, 676; 3 Swanst. R. 561; 1 Turn. & R. 103, 338; 1 R. & M. 352, 475, 477; 4 Burr. R. 1962; 2022, 2068; 4 T. R. 591; 4 Barn. & Cr. 855; 7 Dowl. & Ry. 251; Cas. t. Talb. 140; 3 P. Wms. 391; 3 Bro. C. C. 639, n.
ANARCHY. The absence of all political government; by extension, it signifies confusion in government.
ANATHEMA, eccl. law. A punishment by which a person is separate from, the body of the church, and forbidden all intercourse with the faithful: it differs from excommunication, which simply forbids the person excommunicated, from going into the church and communicating with the faithful. Gal. 1. 8, 9.
ANATOCISM, civil law. Usury, which consists in taking interest on interest, or receiving compound interest. This is forbidden. Code, lib. 4, t. 32, 1, 30; 1 Postlethwaite's Dict.
2. Courts of equity have considered contracts for compounding interest illegal, and within the statute of usury. Cas. t. Talbot, 40; et vide Com. Rep. 349; Mass. 247; 1 Ch. Cas. 129; 2 Ch. Cas. 35. And contra, 1 Vern. 190. But when the interest has once accrued, and a balance has been settled between the parties, they may lawfully agree to turn such interest into principal, so as to carry interest in futuro. Com. on Usury, ch. 2, s. 14, p. 146 et eq.
ANCESTOR, descents. One who has preceded another in a direct line of descent; an ascendant. In the common law, the word is understood as well of the immediate parents, as, of these that are higher; as may appear by the statute 25 Ed. III. De natis ultra mare, and so in the statute of 6 R. III. cap. 6, and by many others. But the civilians relations in the ascending line, up to the great grandfather's parents, and those above them, they term, majores, which common lawyers aptly expound antecessors or ancestors, for in the descendants of like degree they are called posteriores. Cary's Litt.45. The term ancestor is applied to natural persons. The words predecessors and successors, are used in respect to the persons composing a body corporate. See 2 Bl. Com. 209; Bac. Abr. h. t.; Ayl. Pand. 58.
ANCESTRAL. What relates to or has, been done by one's ancestors; as homage ancestral, and the like.
ANCHOR. A measure containing ten gallons. Lex, Mereatoria.
ANCHORAGE, merc. law. A toll paid for every anchor cast from a ship into a river, and sometimes a toll bearing this name is paid, although there be no anchor cast. This toll is said to be incident to almost every port. 1 Wm. Bl. 413; 2 Chit. Com. Law, 16.
ANCIENT. Something old, which by age alone has acquired some force; as ancient lights, ancient writings.
ANCIENT DEMESNE, Eng. law. Those lands which either were reserved to the crown at the original distribution of landed property, or such as came to it afterwards, by forfeiture or other means. 1. Sal. 57; hob. 88; 4 Inst. 264; 1 Bl. Com. 286; Bac. Ab. h. t.; F. N. B. 14.
ANCIENT LIGHTS, estates. Windows which have been opened for twenty years or more, and enjoyed without molestation by the owner of the house. 5 Har. & John. 477; 12 Mass. R. 157,.220.
2. It is proposed to consider, 1. How the right of ancient light is gained. 2, What amounts to interruption of an ancient light. 3, The remedy for obstructing an ancient light.
3. – 1. How the right of opening or keeping a window open is gained. 1. By grant. 2. By lapse of time. Formerly it was holden that a party could not maintain an action for a nuisance to an ancient light, unless he had gained a right to the window by prescription. 1 Leon. 188; Cro. Eliz. 118. But the modern doctrine is, that upon proof of an adverse enjoyment of light; for twenty yers or upwards, unexplained, a jury may be directed to presume a right by grant, or otherwise. 2 Saund. 176, a; 12 Mass. 159; 1 Esp. R. 148. See also 1 Bos. & Pull. 400.; 3 East, 299; Phil. Ev. 126; 11 East, 372; Esp. Dig. 636. But if the window was opened during the seisin of a mere tenant for life, or a tenaucy for years, and the owner in fee did not acquiesce in, or know of, the use of the light, he would not be bound. 11 East, 372; 3 Camp. 444; 4 Camp. 616. If the owner of a close builds a house upon one half of it, with a window lighted from the other half, he cannot obstruct lights on the premises granted by him; and in such case no lapse of time necessary to confirm the grantee's right to enjoy them. 1 Vent. 237, 289; 1 Lev. 122; 1 Keb. 553; Sid. 167, 227; L. Raym. 87; 6 Mod. 116; 1 Price, 27; 12 Mass. 159, Rep. 24; 2 Saund. 114, n. 4; Hamm. N. P. 202; Selw. N. P. 1090; Com. Dig. Action on the Case for a Nuisance, A. Where a building has been used twenty years to one purpose, (as a malt house,) and it is converted to another, (as a dwelling-house,) it is entitled in its new state only to the same degree of light which was necessary in its former state. 1 Campb. 322; and see 3 Campb. 80. It has been justly remarked, that the English doctrine as to ancient lights can hardly be regarded as applicable to narrow lots in the new and growing cities of this country; for the effect of the rule would be greatly to impair the value of vacant lots, or those having low buildings upon them, in the neighborhood of other buildings more than twenty years old. 3 Kent, Com. 446, n.
4. – 2. What amounts to an interruption of an ancient light. Where a window has been completely blocked up for twenty years, it loses its privilege. 3 Camp. 514. An abandonment of the right by express agreement, or by acts from which an abandonment may be inferred, will deprive the party having such ancient light of his right to it. The building of a blank wall where the lights formerly existed, would have that effect. 3 B. & Cr. 332. See Ad. & Ell. 325.
5. – 3. Of the remedy for interrupting an ancient light. 1. An action on the case will lie against a person who obstructs an ancient light. 9 Co. 58; 2 Rolle's Abr. 140, 1. Nusans, G 10. And see Bac. Ab. Actions on the Case, D; Carth. 454; Comb.481; 6 Mod. 116.
6. – Total deprivation of light is not necesary to sustain this action, and if the party cannot enjoy the light in so free and ample a manner as he did before, he may sustain the action; but there should be some sensible diminution of the light and air. 4. Esp. R. 69. The building a wall which merely obstructs the right, is not actionable. 9 Ca. 58, b; 1 Mod. 55.
7. – 3. Nor is the opening windows and destroying, the privacy of the adjoining property; but such new window may be immediately obstructed to prevent a right to it being acquired by twenty years use. 3 Campb. 82.
8. – 5. When the right is clearly established, courts of equity will grant an injunction to restrain a party from building so near the plaintiff's house as to darken his windows. 2 Vern. 646; 2 Bro. C. C. 65; 16 Ves. 338; Eden on Inj. 268, 9; 1 Story on Eq 926; 1 Smith's Chan. Pr. 593.; 4 Simm. 559; 2 Russ. R. 121. See Injunction; Plan.
See generally on this subject, 1 Nels. Abr. 56, 7; 16 Vin. Abr. 26; 1 Leigh's N. P. C. 6, s. 8, p. 558; 12 E. C. L. R. 218; 24 Id. 401; 21 Id. 373; 1 id. 161; 10 Id. 99; 28 Id. 143; 23 Am. Jur. 46 to 64; 3 Kent, Com. 446, 2d ed. 7 Wheat. R. 106; 19 Wend. R. 309; Math on Pres. 318 to 323; 2 Watts, 331; 9 Bing. 305; 1 Chit. Pr. 206, 208; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1619-23.
ANCIENT WRITINGS, evidence. Deeds, wills, and other writings more than thirty years old, are considered ancient writings. They may in general be read in evidence, without any other proof of their execution than that they have been in the possession of those claiming rights under them. Tr. per Pais, 370; 7 East, R. 279; 4 Esp. R. 1; 9 Ves. Jr. 5; 3 John. R. 292; 1 Esp. R. 275; 5 T. R. 259; 2 T. R. 466; 2 Day's R. 280. But in the case of deeds, possession must have accompanied them. Plowd. 6, 7. See Blath. Pres. 271, n. (2.)
ANCIENTLY, English law. A term for eldership or seniority used in the statute of Ireland, 14 Hen. Vni.
ANCIENTS, English law. A term for gentlemen in the Inns of Courts who are of a certain standing. In the Middle Temple, all who have passed their readings are termed ancients. In Gray's Inn, the ancients are the oldest barristers; besides which the society consists of benchers, barristers and students. In the Inas of Chancery, it conts of ancients, and students or clerks.
ANCILLARY. That which is subordinate on, or is. subordinate to, some other decision. Encyc. Lond. 1
ANDROLEPSY. The taking by one nation of the citizens or subjects of another, in order to compel the latter to do justice to the former. Wolff. 1164; Molloy, de Jure lar. 26.
ANGEL. An ancient English coin of the value of ten shillings sterling. Jac. L. D. h. t.
ANIENS. In some of our law books signifies void, of no force. F. N. B. 214.
ANIMAL, property. A name given to every animated being endowed with the power of voluntary motion. In law, it signifies all animals except those of the him, in species.
2. Animals are distinguished into such as are domitae, and such as are ferae naturae.
3. It is laid down, that in tame or domestic animals, such as horse, kine, sheep, poultry, and the like, a man may have an absolute property, because they coutiaue perpetually in his possession and occupation, and will not stray from his house and person unless by accident or fraudulent enticement, in either of which cases the owner does not lose his property. 2 Bl. Com. 390; 2 Mod. 319. 1.
4. But in animals ferae naturae, a man can have no absolute property; they belong to him only while they continue in his keeping or actual possession; for if at any they regain their natural liberty, his property instantly ceases, unless they have animum revertendi, which is only to be known by their usual habit of returning. 2 Bl. Com. 396; 3 Binn. 546; Bro. Ab. Propertie, 37; Com. Dig. Biens, F; 7 Co. 17 b; 1 Ch. Pr. 87; Inst. 2, 1, 15. See also 3 Caines' Rep. 175; Coop. Justin. 457, 458; 7 Johns. Rep. 16; Bro. Ab. Detinue, 44.
5. The owner of a mischievous animal, known to him to be so, is responsible, when he permits him to go at large, for the damages he may do. 2 Esp. Cas. 482; 4 Campb. 198; 1 Starkie's Cas. 285; 1 Holt, 617; 2 Str.1264; Lord Raym. 110; B. N. P. 77; 1 B. & A. 620; 2 C. M.& R. 496; 5 C.& P. 1; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 187. This principle agrees with the civil law. Domat, Lois Civ. liv. 2, t. 8, s. 2. And any person may justify the killing of such ferocious animals. 9 Johns. 233; 10. Johns. 365; 13 Johns. 312. The owner, of such an animal may be indicted for a common nuisance. 1 Russ. Ch. Cr. Law, 643; Burn's Just., Nuisance, 1.
6. In Louisiana, the owner of an animal is answerable for the damage he may cause; but if the animal be lost, or has strayed more than a day, he may discharge himself from this responsibility, by abandoning him to the person who has sustained the injury; except where the master turns loose a dangerous or noxious animal; for then he must pay all the harm done, without being allowed to make the abndonment. Civ. Code, art. 2301. See Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
ANIMANLS OF A BASE NATURE. Those which, though they may be reclaimed, are not Such that at common law a larceny may be committed of them, by reason of the baseness of their nature. Some animals, which are now usually tamed, come within this class; as dogs and cats; and others which, though wild by nature, and oftener reclaimed by art and industry, clearly fall within the same rule; as, bears, foxes, apes, monkeys, ferrets, and the like. 3 Inst. 109,; 1 Hale, P. C. 511, 512; 1 Hawk. P. C. 33, s. 36; 4 Bl. Com. 236; 2 East, P. C. 614. See 1 Saund. Rep. 84, note 2.
ANIMUS. The intent; the mind with which a thing is done, as animus. cancellandi, the intention of cancelling; animus farandi, the intention of stealing; animus maiaendi; the intention of remaining; auimus morandi, the intention or purpose of delaying.
2. Whether the act of a man, when in appearance criminal, be so or not, depends upon the intention with which it was done. Vide Intention.
ANIMUS CANCELLANDI. An intention to destroy or cancel. The least tearing of a will by a testator, animus cancellandi, renders it invalid. See Cancellation.
ANIMUS FURANDI, crim. law. The intention to steal. In order to comstitute larceny, (q. v.) the thief must take the property anino furandi; but this, is expressed in the definition of larceny by the word felonious. 3 Inst. 107; Hale, 503; 4. Bl. Com. 229. Vide 2 Russ. on Cr. 96; 2 Tyler's R. 272. When the taking of property is lawful, although it may afterwards be converted animo furandi to the taker's use, it is not larceny. 3 Inst. 108; Bac. Ab. Felony, C; 14 Johns. R. 294; Ry. & Mood. C. C. 160; Id. 137; Prin. of Pen. Law, c. 22, 3, p. 279, 281.
ANIMUS MANENDI. The intention of remaining. To acquire a domicil, the party must have his abode in one place, with the intention of remaining there; for without such intention no new domicil can be gained, and the old will not be lost. See Domicile.
ANIMUS RECIPIENDI. The intention of receiving. A man will acquire no title to a thing unless he possesses it with an intention of receiving it for himself; as, if a thing be bailed to a man, he acquires no title.
ANIMUS REVERTENDI. The intention of returning. A man retains his domicil, if he leaves it animo revertendi. 3 Rawle, R. 312; 1 Ashm. R. 126; Fost. 97; 4 Bl. Com. 225; 2 Russ. on Cr. 18; Pop. 42,. 62; 4 Co. 40.
ANIMUS TESTANDI. An intention to make a testament or will. This is required to make a valid will; for whatever form may have been adopted, if there was no animus testandi, there can be no will. An idiot for example, can make no will, because he has no intention.
ANN, Scotch law. Half a year's stipend over and above what is owing for the incumbency due to a minister's relict, or child, or next of kin, after his decease. Wishaw. Also, an abbreviation of annus, year; also of annates. In the old law French writers, ann or rathe r an, signifies a year. Co. Dig h. v.
ANNATES, ecc. law. First fruits paid out of spiritual benefices to the pope, being, the value of one year's profit.
ANNEXATION, property. The union of one thing to another.
2. In the law relating to fixtures, (q. v.) annexation is actual or constructive. By actual annexation is understood every movement by which a chattel can be joined or united to the freehold. By constructive annexation is understood the union of such things as have been holden parcel of the realty, but which are not actually annexed, fixed, or fastened to the freehold; for example, deeds, or chattels, which relate to the title of the inheritance. Shep. Touch. 469. Vide Anios & Fer. on Fixtures, 2.
3. This term has been applied to the union of one country, to another; as Texas was annexed to the United States by the joint reolution of Congress of larch 1, 1845., See Texas.
ANNI NUBILES. The age at which a girl becomes by law fit for marriage, which is twelve years.
ANNIENTED. From the French aneantir; abrogated or made null. Litt. sect. 741.
ANNO DOMINI, in the year of our Lord, abbreviated, A. D. The computation of time from the incarnation of our Saviour which is used as the date of all public deeds in the United tites and Christian countries, on which account it is called the "vulgar vera."
ANNONAE CIVILES, civil law. A species of rent issuing out of certain lands, which were paid to Rome monasteries.
ANNOTATION, civil law. The designation of a place of deportation. Dig. 32, 1, 3 or the summoning of an, absentee. Dig. lib. 5.
2. In another sense, annotations were the answers of the prince to questions put to him by private persons respecting some doubtful point of law. See Rescript.
ANNUAL PENSION, Scotch law. Annual rent. A yearly profit due to a creditor by way of interest for a given sum of money. Right of annual rent, the original right of burdening land with payment yearly for the payment of money.
ANNUITY, contracts. An anuity is a, yearly sum of money granted by one party to another in fee for life or years, charging the person of the grantor only. Co. Litt. 144; 1 Lilly's Reg. 89; 2 Bl. Com. 40; 5 M. R. 312; Lumley on Annuities. 1; 2 Inst. 293; Davies' Rep. 14, 15.
2. In a less technical sense, however, when the money is chargeable on land and on the person, it is generally called an annuity. Doet. and Stud Dial. 2, 230; Roll. Ab. 226. See 10 Watts, 127.
3. An anuuity is different from a rent charge, with which it is frequently confounded, in this; a rent charge is a burden imposed upon and issuing out of lands, whereas an annuity is chargeable only upon the person of the grantee. Bac. Abr. Annuity, A. See, for many, regulations in England relating to annuities, the Stat,. 17 Geo. III. c. 26.
4. An annuity may be created by contract, or by will. To enforce the payment of an annuity, the common law gives a writ of annuity which may be brought by the grantee or his heirs, or their grantees, against the grantor and his heirs. The action of debt cannot be maintained at the common law, or by the Stat. of 8 Anne, c. 14, for the arrears of an annuity devised to A, payable out of lands during the life of B, to whom the lands are devised for life, B paying the annuity out of it, so long as the freehold estates continues. 4 M. & S. 113; 3 Brod. & Bing. 30; 6 Moore, 336. It has been ruled also, that if an action of annuity be brought, and the annuity determines pending the suit, the writ faileth forever because no such action is maintainable for arrearages only, but for the annuity and the arrearages. Co. Litt. 285, a.
5. The first payment of an annuity is to be made at the time appointed in the instrument creating it. In cases where testator directs the annuity to be paid at the end of the first quarter, or other period before the expiration of the first year after his death, it is then due; but in fact it is not payable by the executortill the end of the year. 3 Mad. Ch. R. 167. When the time is not appointed, as frequently happens in will, the following distinction is presumed to exist. If the bequest be merely in the form of an annuity as a gift to a man of "an annuity of one hnndred dollars for life" the first payment will be due at the end of the year after the testator's death. But if the disposition be of a sum of money, and the interest to be given as an annuity to the same man for life, the first payment will not accrue before the expiration of the second year after ihe testator's death. This distinction, though stated from the bench, does not appear to have been sanctioned by express decision. 7 Ves. 96, 97.
6. The Civil Code of Louisiana makes the following provisions in relation to annuities, namely: The contract of annuity is that by which one party delivers to another a sum of money, and agrees not to reclaim it, so long as the receiver pays the rent agreed upon. Art. 2764.
7. This annuity mav be perpetual or for life. Art. 2765.
8. The amount of the annuity for life can in no case exceed the double of the conventional interest. The amount of the perpetual annuity cannot exceed the double of the conventional interest. Art. 2766.
9. Constituted annuity is essentially redeemable. Art. 2767.
10. The debtor of a constituted annuity may be compelled to redeem the same: 1, If he ceases fulfilling his obligations during three years: 2, If he does not give the lender the securities promised by the contract. Art. 2768.
11. If the debtor should fail, or be in a state of insolvency, the capital of the constituted annuity becomes exigible, but only up to the amount at wich it is rated, according to the order of contribution amongst the creditors. Art. 2769.
12. A similar rule to that contained in the last article has been adopted in England. See stat. 6 Geo. IV., c. 16, s. 54 and 108; note to Ex parte James, 5 Ves. 708; l Sup. to Ves. Jr. 431; note to Franks v. Cooper, 4 Ves. 763; 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 308. The debtor, continues the Code, may be compelled by his security to redeem the annuity within the time which has been fixed in the contract, if any time has been fixed, or after ten years, if no mention be made of the time in the act. Art. 2770.
13. The interest of the sums lent, and the arrears of constituted and life annuity, cannot bear interest but from the day a judicial demand of the same has been made by the creditor, and when the interest is due for at least one whole year. The parties may only agree, that the same shall not be redeemed prior to a time which cannot exceed ten years, or without having warned the creditor a time before, which they shall limit. Art. 2771. See generally, Vin. Abr. Annuity; Bac. Abr. Annuity and Rent; Com. Dig. Annuity; 8 Com. Dig. 909; Doct. Plac. 84; 1 Rop. on Leg. 588; Diet. de Jurisp. aux mots Rentes viageres, Tontine. 1 Harr. Dig. h. t.
ANNUM DIEM ET VASTUM, English law. The title which the king acquires in land, when a party, who held not of the king, is attainted of felony. He acquires the power not only to take the profits for a full year, but to waste and demolish houses, and to extirpate woods and trees.
2. This is but a chattel interest.
ANONYMOUS. Without name. This word is applied to such.books, letters or papers, which are published without the author's name. No man is bound to publish his name in connexion with a book or paper he has publisbed; but if the publication is libellous, he is equally responsible as if his name were published.
ANSWER, pleading in equity. A defence in writing made by a defendant, to the charges contained in a bill or information, filed by the plaintiff against him in a court of equity. The word answer involves a double sense; it is one thing when it simply replies to a question, another when it meets a charge; the answer in equity includes both senses, and may be divided into an examination and a defence. In that part which consists of an examination, a direct andfull answer, or reply, must in general be given to every question asked. In that part which consists of a defence, the defendant must state his, case distinctly; but is not required to give information respecting the proofs that are to maintain it. Gresl . Eq. Ev. 19.
2. As a defendant is called by a bill or information to make a discovery of the several cbarges it contains, he must do so, unless he is protected either by a demurrer a plea or disclaimer. It may be laid down as an invariable rule, that whatever part of a bill or information is not covered by one of these, must be defended by answer. Redesd. Tr. Ch. PI. 244.
3. In form, it usually begins, 1st, with its title, specifying which of the defendants it is the answer of, and the names of the plaintiffs in the cause in which it is filed as answer; 2d, it reserves to the defendant all the advantages which might be taken by exception to the bill; 3d, the substance of the answer, according to the defendant's knowledge, remembrance, information and belief, then follows, in which the matter of the bill, with the interrogatories founded thereon, are answered, one after the other, together with such additional matter as the defendant thinks necessary to bring forward in his, defence, either for the purpose of qualifying, or adding to, the case made by the bill, or to state a new case on his own behalf; 4th, this is followed by a general traverse or denial of all unlawful combinations charged in the bill, and of all other matters therein contained 5th, the answer is always upon oath or affirmation, except in the case of a corporation, in which case it is under the corporate seal.
4. In substance, the answer ought to contain, 1st, a statement of facts and not arguments 2d, a confession and avoidance, or traverse and denial of the material parts of the bill 3d, its language ought to be direct and without evasion. Vide generally as to answers, Redes. Tr. Ch. PI. 244 to 254; Coop. Pl. Eq. 312 to 327; Beames PI. Eq. 34 et seq.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. For an historical account of this instrument, see 2 Bro. Civ. Law, 371, n. and Barton's Hist. Treatise of a Suit in Equity.
ANSWER, practice. The declaration of a fact by a witness after a question has been put asking for it.
2. If a witness unexpectedly state facts against the interest of the party calling him, other witnesses may be called by the same party, to disprove those facts. But the party calling a witness cannot discredit him, by calling witnesses to prove his bad character for truth and veracity, or by proving that he has made statements out of court contrary to what he has sworn on the trial; B. N. P.; for the production of the witness is virtually an assertion by the party producing him, that he is credible.
ANTECEDENT. Something that goes before. In the construction of laws, agreements, and the like, reference is always to be made to the last antecedent; ad proximun antecedens fiat relatio. But not only the antecedents but the subsequent clauses of the instrument must be considered: Ex antecedentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretatio.
/B>. Before suit brought, before controversy moved.
ANTEDATE. To, put a date to an instrument of a time before the time it was written. Vide Date.
ANTENATI. Born before. This term is applied to those who were born or resided within the United States before or at the time of the declaration of independence. These had all the rights of citizens. 2 Kent, Com. 51, et seq.
ANTE-NUPTIAL. What takes place before marriage; as, an ante-nuptial agreement, which is an agreement made between a man and a woman in contemplation of marriage. Vide Settlement.
ANTHETARIUS, obsolete See Anti-thetarius.
ANTI-MANlFESTO. The declaration of the reasons which one of the belligerents publishes, to show that the war as to him is defensive. Wolff, 1187. See Manifesto.
ANTlCIPATION. The act of doing or taking a thing before its proper time.
2. In deeds of trust there is frequently a provision that the income of the estate shall be paid by the trustee as it shall accrue, and not by way of anticipation. A payment made contrary to such provision would not be considered as a discharge of the trustee.
ANTICHRESIS, contracts. A word used in the civil law to denote the contract by which a creditor acquires the right of reaping the fruit or other revenues of the immovables given to him in pledge, on condition of deducting, annually, their proceeds from the interest, if any is due to him, and afterwards from the principal of his debt. Louis. Code, art. 3143 Dict. de Juris. Antichrese, Mortgage; Code Civ. 2085. Dig. 13, 7, 7 ; 4, 24, 1 Code, 8, 28, 1.
ANTINOMY. A term used in the civil law to signify the real or apparent contradiction between two laws or two decisions. Merl. Repert. h. t. Vide Conflict of Laws.
ANTIQUA CUSTOMA, Eng. law. A duty or imposition which was collected on wool, wool-felts, and leather, was so called. This custom was called nova customa until the 22 Edw. I., when the king, without parliament, set a new imposition of 40s. a sack, and then, for the first time, the nova customa went by the name of antiqua customa. Bac. Ab. Smuggling &c. B.
ANTIQUA STATUTA. In England the statutes are divided into new and ancient statutes; since the time of memory; those from the time 1 R. I. to E. III., are called antiqua statuta – those made since, nova statuta.
ANTITHETARIUS, old English law. The name given to a man who endeavors to discharge himself of the crime of which he is accused, by retorting the charge on the accuser. He differs from an approver (q, v.) in this, that the latter does not charge the accuser, but others. Jacob's Law Dict.
APARTMENTS. A part of a house occupied by a person, while the rest is occupied by another, or others. 7 Mann. & Gr. 95 ; 6 Mod. 214 ; Woodf. L. & T. 178. See House.
APOSTACY, Eng. law. A total renunciation of the Christian religion, and differs from heresy. (q. v.) This offence is punished by the statute of 9 and 10 W. III. c. 32. Vide Christianity.
APOSTLES. In the British courts of admiralty, when a party appeals from a decision made against him, he prays apostles from the judge, which are brief letters of dismission, stating the case, and declaring that the record will be transmitted. 2 Brown's Civ. and Adm. Law, 438; Dig. 49. 6.
2. This term was used in the civil law. It is derived from apostolos, a Greek word, which signifies one sent, because the judge from whose sentence an appeal was made, sent to the superior judge these letters of dismission, or apostles. Merl. Rep. mot Apotres.
APPARATOR or APPARITOR, eccles. law. An officer or messenger employed to serve the process of the spiritual courts in England.
APPARENT. That which is manifest what is proved. It is required that all things upon which a court must pass, should be made to appear, if matter in pays, under oath if matter of record, by the record. It is a rule that those things which do not appear, are to be considered as not existing de non apparentibus et non existentibus eadem est ratio. Broom's Maxims, 20, What does not appear, does not exist; quod non apparet, non est.
APPARLEMENT. Resemblance. It is said to be derived from pareillement, French, in like manner. Cunn. Dict. h. t.
APPEAL, English crim. law. The accusation of a person, in a legal form, for a crime committed by him; or, it is the lawful declaration of another man's crime, before a competent judge, by one who sets his name to the declaration, and undertakes to prove it, upon the penalty which may ensue thereon. Vide Co. Litt. 123 b, 287 b; 6 Burr. R. 2643, 2793; 2 W. Bl. R. 713; 1 B. & A. 405. Appeals of murder, as well as of treason, felony, or other offences, together with wager of battle, are abolished by stat. 59 Geo. M. c. 46.
APPEAL, practice. The act by which a party submits to the decision of a superior court, a cause which has been tried in an inferior tribunal. 1 S. & R. 78 Bin. 219; 3 Bin. 48.
2. The appeal generally annuls the judgment of the inferior court, so far that no action can be taken upon it until after the final decision of the cause. Its object is to review the whole case, and to secure a just judgment upon the merits.
3. An appeal differs from proceedings in error, under which the errors committed in the proceedings are examined, and if any have been committed the first judgment is reversed; because in the appeal the whole case is exainined and tried as if it had not been tried before. Vide Dane's Ab. h. t.; Serg. Const. Law Index, h. t. and article Courts of the United States.
APPEARANCE, practice. Signifies the filing common or special bail to the action.
2. The appearance, with all other subsequent pleadings supposed to take placein court, should (in accordance with the ancient practice) purport to be in term time. It is to be observed, however, that though the proceedings are expressed as if occurring in term time, yet, in fact, much of the business is now done, in periods of vacation.
3. The appearance of the parties is no longer (as formerly) by the actual presence in court, either by themselves or their attorneys; but, it must be remembered, an appearance of this kind is still supposed, and exists in contemplation of law. The appearance is effected on the part of the defendant (when be is not arrested) by making certain formal entries in the proper office of the court, expressing his appearance; 5 Watts & Serg. 215; 1 Scam. R. 250; 2 Seam. R. 462; 6 Port. R. 352; 9 Port. R. 272; 6 Miss. R. 50; 7 Miss. R. 411; 17 Verm. 531; 2 Pike, R. 26; 6 Ala. R. 784; 3 Watts & Serg. 501; 8 Port. R. 442; or, in case of arrest, it may be considered as effected by giving bail to the action. On the part of the plaintiff no formality expressive of appearance is observed.
4. In general, the appearance of either party may be in person or by attorney, and, when by attorney, there is always supposed to be a warrant of attorney executed to the attorney by his client, authorizing such appearance.
5. But to this general rule there are various exceptions; persons devoid of understanding, as idiots, and persons having understanding, if they are by law deprived of a capacity to appoint an attorney, as married women, must appear in person. The appearance of such persons must purport, and is so entered on the record, to be in person, whether in fact an attorney be employed or not. See Tidd's Pr. 68, 75; 1 Arch. Pract. 22; 2 John. 192; 8 John. 418; 14 John. 417; 5 Pick. 413; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
6. There must be an appearance in person in the following cases: 1st. An idiot can appear only in person, and as, a plaintiff he may sue in person or by his next friend 2d. A married woman, when sued without her hushand, should defend in person 3 Wms. Saund. 209, b and when the cause of action accrued before her marriage, and she is afterwards sued alone, she must plead her coverture in person, and not by attorney. Co. Litt. 125. 3d. When the party pleads to the jurisdiction, be must plead in person. Summ.on Pl. 51; Merrif. Law of Att. 58. 4th. A plea of misnomer must always be in person, unless it be by special warrant of attorney. 1 Chit. PI. 398; Summ. on PI. 50; 3 Wms. Saund. 209 b.
7. An infant cannot appoint an attorney; he must therefore prosecute or appear by guardian, or prochein ami.
8. A lunatic, if of full age, may appear by. attorney; if, under age, by guardian. 2 Wms. Saund. 335; Id. 332 (a) n. (4.)
9. When an appearance is lawfully entered by the defendant, both parties are considered as being in court. lmp. Pr. 215. And if the defendant pleads to issue, defects of process are cured but not, if he demurs to the process, (I Lord Raym. 21,) or, according to the practice of some courts, appears de bene esse, or otherwise conditionally.
10. In criminal cases, the personal presence of the accused is often necessary. It has been held, that if the record of a conviction of a misdemeaner be removed by certiorari, the personal presence of the defendant is necessary, in order to move in arrest. of judgment: but, after a special verdict, it is not necessary that the defendant should be personally present at the argument of it. 2 Burr. 931 1 Bl. Rep. 209, S. C. So, the defendant must appear personally in court, when an order of bastardy is quashed and the reason is, he must enter into a recognizance to abide the order of sessions below. 1 Bl. Rep. 198. So, in a case, when two justices of the peace, having confessed an information for mishehaviour in the execution of their office, and a motion was made to dispense with their personal appearance, on their clerks undertaking in court to answer for their flues, the court declared the rule to be, that although such a motion was subject to the discretion of the court either to grant or refuse it, in cases where it is clear that the punishment would not be corporal, yet it ought to be denied in every case where it is either probable or possible that the punishment would be corporal; and therefore the motion was overruled in that case. And Wilmot and Ashton, Justices, thought, that even where the punishment would most probably be pecuniary only, yet in offences of a very gross and public nature, the persons convicted should appear in person, for the sake of example and prevention of the like offences being committed by other persons; as the notoriety of being called up to answer criminally for such offences, would very much conduce to deter others from venturing to commit the like. 3 Burr. 1786, 7.
APPEARANCE DAY. The day on which the parties are bound to appear in court. This is regulated in the different states by particular provisions.
APPELLANT, practice. He who makes an appeal from one jurisdiction to another.
APPELLATE JURISDICTION. The jurisdiction which a superior court has to bear appeals of causes which have been tried in inferior courts. It differs from original jurisdiction, which is the power to entertain suits instituted in the first in stance. Vide Jurisdiction; Original jurisdiction.
APPELLEE, practice. The party in a cause against whom an appeal has been taken.
APPELLOR. A criminal who accuses his accomplices; one who challenges a jury.
APPENDANT. An incorporeal inheritance belonging to another inheritance.
2. By the word appendant in a deed, nothing can be conveyed which is itself substantial corporeal real property, and capable of passing by feoffment and livery of seisin: for one kind of corporeal real property cannot be appendant to another description of the like real property, it being a maxim that land cannot be appendant to land. Co. Litt. 121; 4 Coke, 86; 8 Barn. & Cr. 150; 6 Bing. 150. Only, such things can be appendant as can consistently be so, as a right of way, and the like. This distinction is of importance, as will be seen by the following case. If a wharf with the appurtenances be demised, and the water adjoining the wharf were in tended to pass, yet no distress for rent on the demised premises could be made on a barge on the water, because it is not a place which could pass as a part of the thing demised. 6 Bing. 150.
3. Appendant differs from appurtenant in this, that the former always arises from prescription, whereas an appurtenance may be created at any time. 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 206; Wood's Inst. 121; Dane's Abr. h. t.; 2 Vin. Ab. 594; Bac. Ab. Common, A 1. And things appendant must have belonged by prescription to another principal substantial thing, which is considered in law as more worthy. The principal thing and the appendant must be appropriate to each other in nature and quality, or such as may be properly used together. 1 Chit. Pr. 154.
APPENDITIA. From appendo, to hang at or on; the appendages or pertinances of an estate the appurtenauces to a dwelling, &c.; thus pent-houses, are the appenditia domus, &c.
APPLICATION. The act of making a request for something; the paper on which the request is written is also called an application; as, an application to chancery for leave to invest trust funds; an application to an insurance company for insurance. In the land law of Pennsylvania, an application is understood to be a request in writing to have a certain quantity of land at or near a certain place therein mentioned. 3 Binn. 21; 5 Id. 151; Jones on Land Office Titles, 24.
2. An application for insurance ought to state the facts truly as to the object to be insured, for if any false representation be made with a fraudulent intent, it will avoid the policy. 7 Wend. 72.
3. By application is also meant the use or disposition of a thing; as the application of purchase money.
4. In some cases a purchaser who buys trust property is required, to see to the application of thee purchase money, and if be neglects to do so, and it be misapplied, he will be considered as a trustee of the property he has so purchased. The subject will be examined by considering, 1, the kind of property to be sold; 2, the cases where the purchaser is bound to see to the application of the purchase money in consequence of the wording of the deed of trust.
5. – 1. Personal property is liable, in the hands of the executor, for the payment of debts, and the purchaser is therefore exempted from seeing to the application of the purchase money, although it may have been bequeathed to be sold for the payment of debts. 1 Cox, R. 145; 2 Dick. 725; 7 John. Ch. Rep., 150, 160; 11 S. & R. 377, 385; 2 P. Wms. 148; 4 Bro. C. C. 136; White's L. C. in Eq. 54; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3946.
6. With regard to real estate, which is not a fund at law for the payment of debt's, except where it is made so by act of assembly, or by direction in the will of the testator or deed of trust, the purchaser from an executor or trustee may be liable for the application of the purchase money. And it will now be proper to consider the cases where such liability exists.
7. – 2. Upon the sale of real estate, a trustee in whom the legal title is vested, can it law give a valid discharge for the purchase money, because he is the owner at law. In equity, on the contrary, the persons among whom the produce of the sale is to be distributed are considered the owners; and a purchaser must obtain a discharge from them, unless the power of giving receipts is either expressly or by implication given to the trustees to, give receipts for the purchase money. It is, for this reason, usual to provide in wills and trust deeds that the purchaser shall not be required to see to the application of the purchase money.
APPOINTEE. A person who is appointed or selected for a particular purpose; as the appointee under a power, is the person who is to receive the benefit of the trust or power.
/B>. One authorized by the donor under the statute of uses, to execute a power. 2 Bouv. Ins. n. 1923.
APPOINTMENT, chancery practice. The act of a person authorized by a will or other instrument to direct how trust property shall be disposed of, directing such disposition agreeably to the general directions of the trust.
2. The appointment must be made in such a manner as to come within the spirit of the power. And although at law the rule only requires that some allotment, however small, shall be given to each person, when the power is to appoint to and among several persons; the rule in equity differs, and requires a real and substantial portion to each, and a mere nominal allotment to one is deemed illusory and fraudulent. When the distribution is left to discretion, without any prescribed rule, Is to such of the children as the trustee shall think proper, he may appoint to one only; 5 Ves. 857; but if the words be, 'amongst' the children as he should think proper, each must have a share, and the doctrine of illusory appointment applies. 4 Ves. 771 Prec. Ch. 256; 2 Vern. 513. Vide, generally, 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 40, 95, 201, 235, 237; 2 Id. 1 27; 1 Vern.67, n.; 1 Ves. Jr. 31 0, n.; 4 Kent, Com. 337; Sugd. on Pow. Index, h. t.; 2 Hill. Ab. Index, h. t.; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1921, et seq.
APPOINTMENT, government, wills. The act by which a person is selected and invested with an office; as the appointment of a judge, of which the making out of his commission is conclusive evidence. 1 Cranch, 137, 155; 10 Pet. 343. The appointment of an executor, which is done by nominating him as such in a will or testament.
2. By appointment is also understood a public employment, nearly synonymous with office. The distinction is this, that the term appointment is of a more extensive signification than office; for example, the act of authorizing a man to print the laws of the United States by authority, and the right conveyed by such an act, is an appointment, but the right thus conveyed is not an office. 17 S. & R. 219, 233. See 3 S. & R. 157; Coop. Just. 599, 604.
APPORTIONMENT, contracts. Lord Coke defines it to be a division or partition of a rent, common, or the like, or the making it into parts. Co . Litt. 147. This definition seems incomplete. Apportionment frequently denotes, not, division, but distribution; and in its ordinary technical sense, the distribution of one subject in proportion to another previously distributed. 1 Swanst. C. 87, n.
2. Apportionment will here be considered only in relation to contracts, by talking a view, 1, of such as are purely personal and, 2, of such as relate to the realty.
3. – 1. When a Purely personal contract is entire and not divisible in its nature, it is manifest it cannot be apportioned; as when the subject of the contract is but one thing, and there is but one creditor and one debtor, neither can apportion the obligation without the consent of the other. In such case the creditor cannot force his debtor to pay him a part of his debt only, and leave the other part unpaid, nor can the debtor compel his creditor to receive a part only of what is due to him on account of his claim. Nor can the assignee of a part sustain an action for such part. 5 N. S. 192.
4. When there is a special contract between the parties, in general no compensation can be received unless the whole contract has been actually fulfilled. 4 Greenl. 454; 2 Pick. R. 267; 10 Pick. R. 209; 4 Pick. R. 103; 4 M'Cord, R. 26, 246; 6 Verm. R. 35. The subject of the contract being a complex event, constituted by the performance of various acts, the imperfect completion of the event, by the performance of only some of those acts, cannot, by virtue of that contract, of which it is not the subject, afford a title to the whole, or any part of the stipulated benefit. See 1 Swanst. C. 338, n. and the cases there cited; Story, Bailm. 441; Chit. Contr. 168; 3 Watts, 331; 2 Mass. 147, 436; 3 Hen. & Munf. 407; 2 John. Cas. 17; 13 John. R. 365; 11 Wend. 257; 7 Cowen, 184; 8 Cowen, 84; 2 Pick. 332. See generally on the subject of the apportionment, of personal obligations, 16 Vin. Ab. 138; 22 Vin. Ab. 13; Stark. Ev. part 4, p. 1622; Com. Dig. Chancery, 2 E and 4 N 5; 3 Chit. Com. Law 129; Newl. Contr. 159; Long on Sales, 108. And for the doctrine of the civil law, see Dumoulin, de dividuo et individuo, part 2, n. 6, 7; Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, tit 3, c. 4, n. 750, et seq.
5. – 2. With regard to rents, the law is different. Rents may in general be apportioned, and this may take place in several ways; first, by the act of the landlord or reversioner alone, and secondly, by virtue of the statute of 11 Geo. II., c. 19, s. 15, or by statutes in the several states in which its principles have been embodied.
6. – 1. When there is a subsisting obligation on the part of the tenant to pay a certain reat, the reversioner may sell his estate in different parts, to as many persons as he may deem proper, and the lessee or tenant will be bound to pay to each a proportion of the rent. 3 Watts, 404; 3 Kent Com. 470, 3d. ed.; Co. Litt. 158 a; Gilb. on Rents, 173; 7 Car. 23; 13 Co. 57 Cro. Eliz. 637, 651; Archb. L. &. T. 172 5 B. & A.876; 6 Halst. 262. It is usual for the owners of the reversion to agree among themselves as to the amount which each is to receive; but when there is no agreement, the rent will be apportioned by the jury. 3 Kent, Com. 470; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 697.
7. – 2. Rent may be apportioned as to time by virtue of the stat. 11 Geo. H., C. 19, s. 15, by which it is provided that the rent due by a tenant for life, who dies during the currency of a quarter, of a year, or other division of time at which the rent was made payable, shall be apportioned to the day of his death. In Delaware, Missouri, New Jersey, and New York, it is provided by statutes, that if the tenant for life, lessor, die on the rent day, his executors may recover the whole rent; if before, a proportional part. In Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, and New York, when one is entitled to rents, depending on the life of another, he may recover them notwithstanding the death of the latter. In Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, and Virginia, it is specially provided, that the hushand, after the death of his wife, may recover the rents of her lands. 1 Hill. Ab. c. 16, 50. In Kentucky, the rent is to be apportioned when the lease is determined upon any contingency.
8. When the tenant is deprived of the land, as by eviction, by title paramount, or by quitting the premises with the landlord's consent, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, his obligation to pay rent ceases, as regards the current quarter or half year, or other day of payment, as the case may be. But rent which is due may be recovered. Gilb. on Rents, 145; 3 Kent, Comm. 376; 4 Wend. 423; 8 Cowen, 727 1 Har. & Gill, 308; 11 Mass. 493. See 4 Cruise's Dig. 206; 3 Call's R. 268; 4 M'Cord 447; 1 Bailey's R. 469; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1675, et seq.
APPOSAL OF SHERIFFS, English law. The charging them with money received upon account of the Exchequer. 22 Car. II.
APPOSER, Eng. law. An officer of the Court of Exchequer, called the foreign apposer.
APPOSTILLE, French law. Postil. In general this means an addition or annotation made in the margin of an act, [contract in writing,] or of some writing. Mer. Rep.
APPRAISEMENT. A just valuation of property.
2. Appraisements are required to be made of the property of persons dying intestate, of insolvents and others; an inventory (q. v.) of the goods ought to be made, and a just valuation put upon them. When property real or personal is taken for public use, an appraisement of it is made, that the owner may be paid it's value.
APPRAISER, practice. A person appointed by competent authority to appraise or value goods; as in case of the death of a person, an appraisement and inventory must be made of the goods of which he died possessed, or was entitled to. Appraisers are sometimes appointed to assess the damage done to property, by some public work, or to estimate its value when taken for public use.
APPREHENSION, practice. The capture or arrest of a person. The term apprehension is applied to criminal cases, and arrest to civil cases; as, one having authority may arrest on civil process, and apprehend on a criminal warrant.
APPRENTICE, person, contracts. A person bound in due form of law to a master, to learn from him his art, trade or business, and to serve him during the time of his apprenticeship. (q. v.) 1 Bl. Com. 426; 2 Kent, Com. 211; 3 Rawle, Rep. 307; Chit. on Ap. 4 T. R. 735; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
2. Formerly the name of apprentice en la ley was given indiscriminately to all students of law. In the reign of Edward IV. they were sometimes called apprentice ad barras. And in some of the ancient law writers, the term apprentice and barrister are synonymous. 2 Inst. 214; Eunom. Dial, 2, 53, p. 155.
APPRENTICESHIP, contracts. A contract entered into between a person who understands some art, trade or business, and called the master, and another person commonly a minor, during his or her minority, who is called the apprentice, with the consent of his or her parent or next friend by which the former undertakes to teach such minor his art, trade or business, and to fulfil such other covenants as may be agreed upon; and the latter agrees to serve the master during a definite period of time, in such art, trade or business. In a common indenture of apprenticeship, the father is bound for the performance of the covenants by the son. Daug. 500.
2. The term during which the apprentice is to serve is also called his apprenticeship. Pardessus, )Dr. Com. n. 34.
3. This contract is generally entered into by indenture or deed, and is to continue no longer than the minority of the apprentice. The English statute law as to binding out minors as apprentices to learn some useful art,. trade or business, has been generally adopted in the United States, with some variations which cannot, be noticed here. 2 Kent, Com. 212.
4. The principal duties of the parties are as follows: 1st, Duties of the master. He is bound to instruct the apprentice by teaching him, bona fide, the knowledge of the art of which he has undertaken to teach him the elements. He ought to, watch over the conduct of the apprentice, giving him prudent advice and showing him a good example, and fulfilling towards him the duties of a father, as in his character of master, he stands in loco parentis. He is also required to fulfil all the covenants he has entered into by the indenture. He must not abuse his authority, either by bad treatment, or by employing his apprentice in menial employments, wholly unconnected with the business he has to learn. He cannot dismiss his apprentice except by application to a competent tribunal, upon whose, decree the indenture may be cancelled. But an infant apprentice is not capable in law of consenting to his own discharge. 1 Burr. 501. Nor can the justices, according to some authorities, order money to be returned on the discharge of an apprentice. Strange, 69 Contra, Salk. 67, 68, 490; 11 Mod. 110 12 Mod. 498, 553. After the apprenticeship is at an end, he cannot retain the apprentice on the ground that he has not fulfilled his contract, unless specially authorized by statute.
5. – 2d. Duties of the apprentice. An apprentice is bound to obey his master in all his lawful commands, take care of his property, and promote his interest, endeavor to learn his trade or business, and perform all the covenants in his indenture not contrary to law. He must not leave his master's service during the term of the apprenticeship. The apprentice is entitled to payment for extraordinary services, when promised by the master; 1 Penn. Law Jour. 368. See 1 Whart. 113; and even when no express promise has been made, under peculiar circumstances. 2 Cranch, 240, 270; 3 Rob. Ad. Rep. 237; but see 1 Whart, 113. See generally, 2 Kent, Com. 211-214; Bac. Ab. Master and Servabt; 1 Saund. R. 313, n. 1, 2, 3, and 4; 3 Rawle, R. 307 3 Vin. Ab. 19; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 396, et seq. The law of France on this subject is strikingly similar to our own. Pardessus, Droit Com. n. 518-522.
6. Apprenticeship is a relation which cannot be assigned at the common law 5 Bin. 428 4 T. R. 373; Doug. 70 3 Keble, 519; 12 Mod. 554; although the apprentice may work with a second master by order and consent of the first, which is a service to the first under the indenture. 4 T. R. 373. But, in Pennsylvania and some other states the assignment of indentures of apprenticeship is authorized by statute. 1 Serg. & R. 249; 3 Serg. & R. 161, 164, 166.
APPRIZING. A name for an action in the Scotch law, by which a creditor formerly carried off the estates of his debtor in payment of debts due to him in lieu of which, adjudications are now resorted to.
APPROBATE AND REPROBATE. In Scotland this term is used to signify to approve and reject. It is a maxim quod approbo non reprobo. For example, if a testator give his property to A, and give A's property to B, A shall not be at liberty to approve of the will so far as the legacy is given to him, and reject it as to the bequest of his property to B in other words, he cannot approve and reject the will. 1 Bligh. 21; 1 Bell's Com. 146.
APPROPRIATION, contracts. The application of the payment of a sum of money, made by a debtor to his creditor, to one of several debts.
2. When a voluntary payment is made, the law permits the debtor in the first place, or, if he make no choice, then it allows the creditor to make an appropriation of such payment to either of several debts which are due by the debtor to the creditor. And if neither make an appropriation, then the law makes the application of such payment. This rule does not apply to payments made under compulsory process of law. 10 Pick. 129. It will be proper to consider, 1, when the debtor may make the appropriation; 2, when the creditor may make it; 3, when it will be made by law.
3. – 1. In general the appropriation may be made by the debtor, but this must be done by his express declaration, or by circumstances from which his intentions can be inferred. 2 C. M. & R. 723; 14 East, 239; 1 Tyrw. & Gr. 137; 15 Wend. 19; 5 Taunt. 7 Wheat. 13; 2 Ear. & Gill, 159; S. C. 4 Gill & Johns. 361; 1 Bibb, 334; 5 Watts, 544; 12 Pick. 463; 20 Pick. 441; 2 Bailey, 617; 4 Mass. 692; 17 Mass. 575. This appropriation, it seems, must be notified to the creditor at the time; for an entry made by the debtor in his own books, is not alone sufficient to determine the application of the payment. 2 Vern. 606; 4 B. & C. 715. In some cases, in consequence of the circumstances, the presumption will be that the payment was made on account of one debt, in preference to another. 3 Caines, 14; 2 Stark. R. 101. And in some cases the debtor has no right to make the appropriation, as, for example, to apply 4 partial payment to the liquidation of the principal, when interest is due. 1 Dall. 124; 1 H. & J. 754; 2 N. & M'C. 395; 1 Pick. 194; 17 Mass. 417.
4. – 2. When the debtor has neglected to make an appropriation, the creditor may, in general, make it, but this is subject to some exceptions. If, for example, the debtor owes a debt as executor, and one in his own right, the creditor cannot appropriate a payment to the liquidation of the former, because that may depend on the question of assets. 2 Str. 1194. See 1 M. & Malk. 40; 9 Cowen, 409; 2 Stark. R. 74; 1 C. & Mees. 33.
5. Though it is not clearly settled in England whether a creditor is bound to make the appropriation immediately, or at a subsequent time Ellis on D. and C. 406-408 yet in the United States, the right to make the application at any time has been recognized, and the creditor is not bound to make an immediate election. 4 Cranch, 317; 9 Cowen, 420, 436. See 12 S. & R. 301 2 B. & C. 65; 2 Verm. 283; 10 Conn. 176.
6. When once made, the appropriation cannot be changed; and, rendering an account, or bringing suit and declaring in a particular way, is evidence of such appropriation. 1 Wash. 128 3 Green. 314; 12
APPROPRIATION, contracts. The application of the payment of a sum of money, made by a debtor to his creditor, to one of several debts.
2. When a voluntary payment is made, the law permits the debtor in the first place, or, if he make no choice, then it allows the creditor to make an appropriation of such payment to either of several debts which are due by the debtor to the creditor. And if neither make an appropriation, then the law makes the application of such payment. This rule does not apply to payments made under compulsory process of law. 10 Pick. 129. It will be proper to consider, 1, when the debtor may make the appropriation; 2, when the creditor may make it; 3, when it will be made by law.
3. – 1. In general the appropriation may be made by the debtor, but this must be done by his express declaration, or by circumstances from which his intentions can be inferred. 2 C. M. & R. 723; 14 East, 239; 1 Tyrw. & Gr. 137; 15 Wend. 19; 5 Taunt. 7 Wheat. 13; 2 Ear. & Gill, 159; S. C. 4 Gill & Johns. 361; 1 Bibb, 334; 5 Watts, 544; 12 Pick. 463; 20 Pick. 441; 2 Bailey, 617; 4 Mass. 692; 17 Mass. 575. This appropriation, it seems, must be notified to the creditor at the time; for an entry made by the debtor in his own books, is not alone sufficient to determine the application of the payment. 2 Vern. 606; 4 B. & C. 715. In some cases, in consequence of the circumstances, the presumption will be that the payment was made on account of one debt, in preference to another. 3 Caines, 14; 2 Stark. R. 101. And in some cases the debtor has no right to make the appropriation, as, for example, to apply 4 partial payment to the liquidation of the principal, when interest is due. 1 Dall. 124; 1 H. & J. 754; 2 N. & M'C. 395; 1 Pick. 194; 17 Mass. 417.
4. – 2. When the debtor has neglected to make an appropriation, the creditor may, in general, make it, but this is subject to some exceptions. If, for example, the debtor owes a debt as executor, and one in his own right, the creditor cannot appropriate a payment to the liquidation of the former, because that may depend on the question of assets. 2 Str. 1194. See 1 M. & Malk. 40; 9 Cowen, 409; 2 Stark. R. 74; 1 C. & Mees. 33.
5. Though it is not clearly settled in England whether a creditor is bound to make the appropriation immediately, or at a subsequent time Ellis on D. and C. 406-408 yet in the United States, the right to make the application at any time has been recognized, and the creditor is not bound to make an immediate election. 4 Cranch, 317; 9 Cowen, 420, 436. See 12 S. & R. 301 2 B. & C. 65; 2 Verm. 283; 10 Conn. 176.
6. When once made, the appropriation cannot be changed; and, rendering an account, or bringing suit and declaring in a particular way, is evidence of such appropriation. 1 Wash. 128 3 Green. 314; 12 Shepl. 29; 2 N. H. Rep. 193; 2 Rawle, 316; 5 Watts, 544; 2 Wash. C. C. 47; 1 Gilp. 106; 12 S. & R. 305.
7. When no application of the payment has been made by either party, the law will appropriate it, in such a way as to do justice and equity to both parties. 6 Cranch, 8, 28; 4 Mason, 333; 2 Sumn. 99, 112; 5 Mason, 82; 1 Nev. & Man. 746; 5 Bligh, N. S. 1; 11 Mass. 300;1 H. & J. 754; 2 Vern. 24; 1 Bibb. 334; 2 Dea. & Chit. 534; 5 Mason, 11. See 6 Cranch, 253, 264; 7 Cranch, 575; 1 Mer. 572, 605; Burge on Sur. 126-138; 1 M. & M. 40. See 1 Bouv Inst. n. 8314. 8. In Louisiana, by statutory enactment, Civ. Code, art. 1159, et seq., it is provided that the debtor of several debts has a right to declare, when he makes a payment, what debt he means to discharge. The debtor of a debt which bears interest or produces rents, cannot, without the consent of the creditor, impute to the reduction of the capital, any payment he may make, when there is interest or rent due. When the debtor of several debts has accepted a receipt, by which the creditor has imputed what he has received to one of the debts especially, the debtor can no longer require the imputation to be made to a different debt, unless there have been fraud or surprise on the part of the creditor. When the receipt bears no imputation, the payment must be imputed to the debt which the debtor had at the time most interest in discharging of those that are equally due, otherwise to the debt which has fallen due, though less burdensome than those which are not yet payable. If the debts be of a like nature, the imputation is made to the less burdensome; if all things are equal, it is made proportionally." This is a translation of the Codo Napoleon, art. 1253-1256 slightly altered. See Poth. Obl. n. 528 translated by Evans, and the notes; Bac. Ab. Obligations, F; 6 Watts & Amer. Law Mag. 31; 1 Hare & Wall. Sel. Dec. 123-158.
APPROPRIATION, eccl. law. The setting apart an ecclesiastical benefice, which is the general property of the church, to the perpetual and proper use of some religious house, bishop or college, dean and chapter and the like. Ayl. Pat. 86. See the form of an appropriation in Jacob's Introd. 411.
TO APPROVE, approbare. To increase the profits upon a thing; as to approve land by increasing the rent. 2 Inst. 784.
APPROVEMENT, English crim. law. The act by which a person indicted of treason or felony, and arraigned for the same, confesses the same before any plea pleaded, and accuses others, his accomplices, of the same crime, in order to obtain his pardon. 2 This practice is disused. 4 Bl. Com. 330 1 Phil. Ev. 37. In modern practice, an accomplice is permitted to give evidence against his associates. 9 Cowen, R. 707; 2 Virg. Cas. 490; 4 Mass. R. 156; 12 Mass. R. 20; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 428; 1 Dev. R. 363; 1 City Hall Rec. 8. In Vermont, on a trial for adultery, it was held that a particeps criminis was not a competent witness, because no person can be allowed to testify his own guilt or turpitude to convict another. N. Chap. R. 9.
APPROVEMENT, English law. 1. The inclosing of common land within the lord's waste, so as to leave egress and regress to a tenant who is a commoner. 2. The augmentation of the profits of land. Stat. of Merton, 20 Hen. VIII.; F. N. B. 72 Crompt. Jus. 250; 1 Lilly's Reg. 110.
APPROVER, Bngl. crim. law. One confessing himself guilty of felony, and approving others of the same crime to save himself. Crompt. Inst. 250 3 Inst. 129.
APPURTENANCES. In common parlance and legal acceptation, is used to signify something belonging to another thing as principal, and which passes as incident to the principal thing. 10 Peters, R. 25; Angell, Wat. C. 43; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 169; 5 S. & R. 110; 5 S. & R. 107; Cro. Jac. 121 3 Saund. 401, n. 2; Wood's Inst. 121 Rawle, R. 342; 1 P. Wms. 603; Cro. Jac. 526; 2 Co. 32; Co. Litt. 5 b, 56 a, b; 1 Plowd. 171; 2 Saund. 401, n. 2; 1 Lev. 131; 1 Sid. 211; 1 Bos. & P. 371 1 Cr. & M. 439; 4 Ad., & Ell. 761; 2 Nev. & M. 517; 5 Toull. n. 531. 2. The word appurtenances, at least in a deed, will not pass any corporeal real property, but only incorporeal easements, or rights and privileges. Co. Lit. 121; 8 B. & C. 150; 6 Bing. 150; 1 Chit. Pr. 153, 4. Vide Appendant.
APPURTENANT. Belonging to; pertaining to of right.
AQUA. Water. This word is used in composition, as aquae ductus, &c. 2. It is a rule that water belongs to the land which it covers, when it is stationary: aqua cedit solo. But the owner of running water, or of a water course, cannot stop it the inferior inheritance having a right to the flow: aqua currit et debet currere, ut currere solebat.
AQUAE DUCTUS, civil law. The name of a servitude which consists in the right to carry water by means of pipes or conduits over or through the estate of another. Dig. 8, 3, 1; Inst. 2, 3; Lalaure, Des Serv. c. 5, p. 23.
AQUAE HAUSTUS, civil law. The name of a servitude which consists in the right to draw water from the fountain, pool, or spring of another. Inst. 2, 3, 2; Dig. 8, 3, 1, 1.
AQUAE IMMITTENDAE, Civil law. The name of a servitude, which frequently occurs among neighbors. It is the right which the owner of a house, built in such a manner as to be surrounded with other buildings, so that it has no outlet for its waters, has, to cast water out of his windows on his neighbor's roof court or soil. Lalaure, Des. Serv. 23.
AQUAGIUM, i. e. aquae agium. 1. A water course. 2. A toll for water.
AQUATIC RIGHTS. This is the name of those rights which individuals have in water, whether it be running, or otherwise.
ARBITER. One who, decides without any control. A judge with the most extensive arbitrary powers; an arbitrator.
ARBITRAMENT. A term nearly synonymous with arbitration. (q. v.)
ARBITRAMENT AND AWARD. The name of a plea to an action brought for the same cause which had been submitted to arbitration, and on which an award had been made. Wats. on Arb. 256.
ARBITRARY. What depends on the will of the judge, not regulated or established by law. Bacon (Aphor. 8) says, Optima lex quae minimum relinquit arbitrio judicis et (Aph. 46) optimus judex, qui mi nimum sibi
2. In all well adjusted systems of law every thing is regulated, and nothing arbitrary can be allowed; but there is a discretion which is sometimes allowed by law which leaves the judge free to act as he pleases to a certain extent. See Discretion
ARBITRARY PUNISHMENTS, practice. Those punishments which are left to the decision of the judge, in distinctiou from those which are defined by statute.
ARBITRATION, practice. A reference and submission of a matter in dispute concerning property, or of a personal wrong, to the decision of one or more persons as arbitrators.
2. They are voluntary or compulsory. The voluntary are, 1. Those made by mutual consent, in which the parties select arbitrators, and bind themselves by bond abide by their decision; these are made without any rule of court. 3 Bl. Com. 16.
3. – 2. Those which are made in a cause depending in court, by a rule of court, before trial; these are arbitrators at common law, and the award is enforced by attachment. Kyd on Awards, 21.
4. – 3. Those which are made by virtue of the statute, 9 & l0 Will. III., c. 15, by which it is agreed to refer a matter in dispute not then in court, to arbitrators, and agree that the submission be made a rule of court, which is enforced as if it had been made a rule of court; Kyd on Aw. 22; there are two other voluntary arbitrations which are peculiar to Pennsylvania.
5. – 4. The first of these is the arbitration under the act of June 16, 1836, which provides that the parties to, any suit may consent to a rule of court for referring all matters of fact in controversy to referees, reserving all matters of law for the decision of the court, and the report of the referees shall have the effect of a special verdict, which is to be proceeded upon by the court as a special verdict, and either party may have a writ of error to the judgment entered thereupon
6. – 5. Those by virtue of the act of 1806, which authorizes " any person or persons desirous of settling any dispute or controversy, by themselves, their agents or attorneys, to enter into an agreement in writing, or refer such dispute or controversy to certain persons to be by them mutually chosen; and it shall be the duty of the referees to make out an award and deliver20it to the party in whose favor it shall be made, together with the written agreement entered into by the parties; and it shall be the duty of the prothonotary, on the affidavit of a subscribing witness to the agreement, that it was duly executed by the parties, to file the same in Iiis office; and on the agreement being so filed as aforesaid, he shall enter the award on record, which shall be as available in law as an award made under a reference issued by the court, or entered on the docket by the parties."
7. Compulsory arbitrations are perhaps confined to Pennsylvania. Either party in a civil suit or action,, or his attorney, may enter at the prothonotary's office a rule of reference, wherein be shall declare his determination to have arbitrators chosen, on a day certain to be mentioned therein, not exceeding thirty days, for the trial of all matters in variance in the suit between the parties. A copy of this rule is served on the opposite party. On the day. appointed they meet at the prothonotary's, and endeavor to agree upon arbitrators; if they cannot, the prothonotary makes out a list on whicb are inscribed the names of a number of citizens, and the parties alternately strike each one of them from the list, beginning with the plaintiff, until there are but the number agreed upon or fixed by the prothonotary left, who are to be the arbitrators; a time of meeting is then agreed upon or appointed by the prothonotary, when the parties cannot agree, – at which time the arbitrators, after being sworn or affirm and equitably to try all matters in variance submitted to them, proceed to bear and decide the case; their award is filed in the office of the prothonotary, and has the effect of a judgment, subject, however, to appeal, which may be entered at any time within twenty days after the filing of such award. Act of 16th June, 1836, Pamphl. p. 715.
8. This is somewhat similar to the arbitrations of the Romans; there the praetor selected from a list Of citizens made for the purpose, one or more persons, who were authorized to decide all suits submitted to them, and which had been brought before him; the authority which the proctor gave them conferred on them a public character and their judgments were without appeal Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 3, ch. 4, n. 820. See generally, Kyd on Awards; Caldwel on Arbitrations; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 1 Salk. R. 69, 70-75; 2 Saund. R. 133, n 7; 2 Sell. Pr. 241; Doct. PI. 96; 3 Vin. Ab. 40; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2482.
ARBITRATOR. A private extraordinary judge chosen by the parties who have a matter in dispute, invested with power to decide the same. Arbitrators are so called because they have generally an arbitrary power, there being in common no appeal from their sentences, which are called awards. Vide Caldw. on Arb. Index,. h. t.; Kyd on Awards, Index, h. t. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2491.
ARBOR CONSANGUINITATIS. A table, formed in the shape of a tree, in order to show the genealogy of a family. The progenitor is placed beneath, as if for the root or stem the persons descended from him are represented by the branches, one for each descendant. For example : if it be desired to form the genealogical tree of Peter's family, Peter will be made the trunk of the tree; if he has two sons, John and James, their names will be written on the first two branches, which will themselves shoot as many twigs as John and James have children; these will produce others, till the whole family shall be represented on the tree.
ARCHAIONOMIA. The name of a collection of Saxon laws, published during the reign of the English Queen Elizabeth, in the Saxon language, with a Latin version, by Mr. Lambard. Dr. Wilkins enlarged this. collection in his work, entitled Leges Anglo Saxonicae, containing all the Saxon laws extant, together with those ascribed to Edward the Confessor, in Latin; those of William the Conqueror, in Norman and Latin; and of Henry I., Stephen, and Henry II., in Latin.
ARCHBISHOP, eccl. law. The chief of the clergy of a whole province. He has the, inspection of the bishops of that province, as well as of the inferior clergy, and may deprive them on notorious cause. The archbishop has also his own diocese, in which he exercises, episcopal jurisdiction, as in his province he exercises archiepiscopal authority. 1 Bl. Com. 380; L. Raym. 541; Code, 1, 2.
ARCHES COURT. The name of one of the English ecclesiastical courts. Vide Court of Arches.
ARCHIVES. Ancient cbarters or titles, which concern a nation, state, or community, in their rights or privileges. The place where the archives are kept bears the same name. Jacob, L. D. h. t.; Merl. Rep. h. t.
ARCHIVIST. One to whose care the archives have been confided.
ARE. A French measure of surface. This is a square, the sides of which are of the length of ten metres. The are is equal to 1076.441 square feet. Vide Measure.
AREA. An enclosed yard or opening in a house; an open place adjoining to a house. 1 Chit. Pr. 176.
AREOPAGITE. A senator, or a judge of the Areopagus. Solon first established the Areopagites; although some say, they were established in the time of Cecrops, (Anno Mundi, 2553,) the year that Aaron, the brother of Moses, died; that Draco abolished the order, and Solon reestablished it. Demosthenes, in his harangue against Aristocrates, before the Areopagus, speaks of the founders of that tribunal as unknown. See Acts of the Apostles, xviii. 34.
AREOPAGUS. A tribunal established in ancient Athens, bore this name. It is variously represented; some considered as having been a model of justice and perfection, while others look upon it as an aristocratic court, which had a very extended jurisdiction over all crimes and offences, and which exercised an absolute power. See Acts 17, 19 and 22.
ARGENTUM ALBUM. White money; silver coin. See Alba Firma,
ARGUMENT, practice. Cicero defines it ii probable reason proposed in order to induce belief. Ratio probabilis et idonea ad faciendam fidem. The logicians define it more scientifically to be a means, which by its connexion between two extremes) establishes a relation between them. This subject belongs rather to rhetoric and logio than to law.
ARGUMENT LIST. A list of cases put down for the argument of some point of law.
ARGUMENTATIVENESS. What is used by way of reasoning in pleading is so called.
2. It is a rule that pleadings must not be argumentative. For example, when a defendant is sued for taking away the goods of the plaintiff, he must not plead that "the plaintiff never had any goods," because although this may be an infallible argument it is not a good plea. The plea should be not guilty. Com. Dig. Pleader R 3; Dougl. 60; Co. Litt. 126 a.
ARGUMENTUM AB INCONVENIENTI. An argument arising from the inconvenience which the construction of the law would create, is to have effect only in a case where the law is doubtful where the law is certain, such an argument is of no force. Bac. Ab. Baron and Feme, H.
ARISTOCRACY. That form of government in which the sovereign power is exercised by a small number of persons to the exclusion of the remainder of the people.
ARISTODEMOCRACY. A form of government where the power is divided between the great men of the nation and the people.
ARKANSAS. The name of one of the new states of the United States. It was admitted into the Union by the act of congress of June 15th, 1836, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2444, by which it is declared that the state of Arkansas shall be one, and is hereby declared to be one of the United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states in all respects whatever.
2. A convention assembled at Little Rock, on Monday, the 4th day of January, 1836, for the purpose of forming a constitution, by which it is declared that " We, the people of the Territory of Arkansas, by our representatives in convention assembled, in order to secure to ourselves and our posterity the enjoyments of all the rights of life, liberty and property, and the free pursuit of happiness do mutually agree with each other to form ourselves into a free and independent state, by the name and style of `The State of Arkansas.' " The constitution was finally adopted on the 30th day of January, 1836.
3. The powers of the government are divided into three departments; each of them is confided to a separate body of magistry, to wit; those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another and those which are judicial, to a third.
4. – 1. The legislative authority of the state is vested in a general assembly, which consists of a senate and house of representatives. Each house shall appoint its own officers, and shall judge of the qualifications, returns and elections of its own members. Two-thirds of each shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house shall provide. Sect. 15. Each house may determine the rules of its own proceedings, punish its own members for disorderly behaviour, and with the concurrence of two-thirds of the members elected, expel a member; but no member shall be expelled a second time for the same offence. They shall each from time to time publish a journal of their proceedings, except such parts as, in their opinion, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays shall be entered on the journal, at the desire of any five members. Sect. 16.
5. The doors of each house while in session, or in a committee of the whole shall be kept open, except in cases which may require secrecy; and each house may punish by fine and imprisonment, any person, not a member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to the house, by any disorderly or contemptuous behaviour in their presence, during, their session; but such imprisonment shall not extend beyond the final adjournment of that session. Sect. 17.
6. Bills may originate in either house, and be amended or rejected in the other and every bill shall be read on three different days in each house, unless two-thirds of, the house where the same is pending shall dispense with the rules : and every bill having passed both houses shall be signed by the president of the senate, and the speaker of the house of representatives. Sect. 81.
7. Whenever an officer, civil or military, shall be appointed by the joint concurrent vote of both houses, or by the separate vote of either house of the general assembly, the vote shall be taken viva voce, and entered on the journal. Sect. 19.
8. The senators and representatives shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during the session of the general assembly, and for fifteen days before the commencement and after the termination of each session; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place. Sect. 20.
9. The members of the general assembly shall severally receive, from the public treasury, compensation for their services, which may be increased or diminished; but no alteration of such compensation of members shall take effect during the session at which it is made. Sect. 21.
10. – 1. The senate shall never consist of less than seventeen nor more than thirty-three members. Art. 4, Sect. 31. The members shall be chosen for four years, by the qualified electors of the several districts. Art. 4, Sect. 5. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years; Who shall not be a free white male citizen of the United States; who shall not have been an inhabitant of this state for one year; and who shall not, at the time of his election, have an actual residence in the district he may be chosen to represent. Art. 4, Sect. 6.
11. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate; and when sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be on oath or affirmation to do justice according to law and evidence. When the governor shall be tried, the chief justice of the supreme court shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators elected. Art. 4, Sect. 27.
12. – 2. The house of representatives shall consist of not less than fifty-four, nor more than one hundred representatives, to be apportioned among the several counties in this state, according to the number of free white male inhabitants therein, taking five hundred as the ratio, until the number of representatives amounts to seventy-five; and when they amount to seventy-five, they shall not be further increased until the population of the state amounts to five hundred thousand souls. Provided that each county now organized shall, although its population may not give the existing ratio, always be entitled to one representative. The members are chosen every second year, by the qualified electors of the several counties. Art. 4, Sect. 2.
13. The qualification of an elector is as follows: he must 1, be a free, white male citizen of the United States; 2, have attained the age of twenty-one years; 3, have been a citizen of this state six months; 4, be must actually reside in the county, or district where he votes for an office made elective under this state or the United States. But no soldier, seaman, or marine, in the army of the United States, shall be entitled to vote at any election within this state. Art. 4, Sect. 2.
14. No person shall be a member of the house of representatives, who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years; who shall not be a free, white male citizen of the United States; who shall not have been an inhabitant of this state one year; and who shall not, at the time of his election, have an, actual residence in the county he may be chosen to represent. Art. 4, Sect. 4.
15. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment. Art. 4, Sect. 27.
16. 2. The supreme executive power of this state is vested in a chief magistrate, who is styled " The Governor of the State of Arkansas." Art. 5, Sect. 1.
17. – 1. He is elected by the electors of the representatives.
18. – 2. He must be thirty years of age a native born citizen of Arkansas, or a native born citizen of the United States, or a resident of Arkansas ten years previous to the adoption of this constitution, if not a native of the United States; and, shall have been a resident of the same at least four years next before his election. Art. 4, s. 4.
19. – 3. The governor holds his office for the term of four years from the time of, his installation, and until his successor shall be duly qualified; but he is not eligible for more than eight years in any term of twelve years. Art. 5, sect. 4.
20. – 4. His principal duties are enumerated in the fifth article of the constitution, and are as follows: He Shall be commander-in-chief of the army of this state, and of the militia thereof, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States; s. 6: He may require information, in writing, from the officers of the executive department, on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; s. 7. He may by proclamation, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly, at the seat of government, or at a different place, if that shall have become, since their last adjournment, dangerous from an enemy, or from contagious diseases. In case of disagreement between the two houses, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not beyond the day of the next meeting of the general assembly; s, 8. He shall, from time to time, give to the general assembly information of the state of the government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem expedient; s. 9. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed s. 10. In all criminal and penal cases, except those of treason and impeachment, he shall have power to grant pardons, after conviction, and remit fines and forfeitures, under such rules and regulations as shall be prescribed by law in cases of treason, he shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to grant reprieve sand pardons; and he may, in the recess of the senate, respite the sentence until the end of the next session of the general assembly s. 11. He is the keeper of the seal of the' state, which is to be used by him officially; s. 12. Every bill which shall have passed both houses, shall be presented to the governor. If he approve, he shall sign it; but if he shall not approve it, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it Shall have originated, who shall enter his objections at large upon their journals, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, a majority of the whole number elected to that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, by which, likewise, it shall be reconsidered; and if approved by a majority of the whole number elected to that house it shall be a law; but in such cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of persons voting for or against the bill, shall be entered on the journals of each house respectively. If the bill shall not be returned by the governor within three days, Sundays excepted, after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if be had signed it, unless the general assembly, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in such case it shall not be a law; s. 16. 5. In case of the impeachment of the governor, his removal from office, death, refusal to qualify, or absence from the state, the president of the senate shall exercise all the authority appertaining to the office of governor, until another governor shall have been elected and qualified, or until the governor absent or impeached, shall return or be acquitted; s. 18. If, during the vacancy of the office of governor, the president of the senate shall be impeached, removed from office, refuse to qualify, resign, die, or be absent from the state, the speaker of the house of representatives shall, in like manner, administer the government; s. 19.
2l. – 3. The judicial power of this state is vested by the sixth article of the constitution, as follows
22. – 1. The judicial power of this state shall be vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts, in county courts, and in justices of the peace. The general assembly may also vest such jurisdiction as may be deemed necessary, in corporation courts; and, when they deem it expedient, may establish courts of chancery.
23. – 2. The supreme court shall be composed of three judges, one of whom shall be styled chief justice, any two of whom shall constitute a quorum and the concurrence of any two of the said judges shall, in every case, be necessary to a decision. The supreme court, except in cases otherwise directed by this constitution, shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be coextensive with the state, under such rules and regulations as may, from time to time, be prescribed by law; it shall have a general superintending control over all inferior and other courts of law and equity it shall have power to issue writs of error and Bupersedeas, certiorari and habeas corpus, mandamus, and quo warranto, and other remedial writs, and to hear and determine the same; said judges shall be conservators of the peace throughout the state, and shall severally have power to issue any of the aforesaid writs.
24. – 3. The circuit court shall have jurisdiction over all criminal cases whicb shall not be otherwise provided for by law and exclusive original jurisdiction of all crimes amounting to felony.at common law; and original jurisdiction of all civil cases which shall not be cognizable before justices of the peace, until otherwise directed by the general assembly; and original jurisdiction in all matters of contract) when the sum in controversy is over one hundred dollars. It shall hold its terms at such place in each county, as may be by law directed.
25. – 4. The state shall be divided into convenient circuits, each to consist of not less than five, nor more than seven counties contiguous to each other, for each of which a judge shall be elected, who, during his continuance in office, shall reside and be a conservator of the peace within the circuit for which he shall have been elected.
26. – 5. The circuit courts shall exercise a superintending control over the county courts, and over justices of the peace, in each county in their respective circuits; and shall have power to issue all the necessary writs to carry into effect their general and specific powers.
27. – 6. Until the general assembly shall deem it expedient to establish courts of chancery, the circuit courts shall have jurisdiction in matters of equity, subject to appeal to the supreme court, in such manner as may be prescribed by law.
28. – 7. The general asserably shall, by joint vote of both houses, elect the judges of the supreme and circuit courts, a majority of the whole number in joint vote being necessary to a choice. The judges of the supreme court shall be at least thirty years of age; they shall hold their offices for eight years from the date of their commissions. The judges of the circuit courts shall be at least twenty-five years of age, and shall be elected for the term of four years from the date of their commissions.
29. – 8. There shall be established in each county, a court to be holden by the justices of the peace, and called the county court, which shall have jurisdiction in all matters relating, to county taxes, dishursements of money for county purposes, and in every other case that may be necessary to the internal improvement and local concerns of the respective counties.
30. – 9. There shall be elected by the justices of the peace of the respective counties, a presiding judge of the county court, to be commissioned by the governor, and hold his office for the term of two years, and until his successor is elected or qualified. He shall, in addition to the duties that may be required of him by law, as presiding judge of the county court, be a judge of the court of probate, and have such jurisdiction in matters relative to the estates of deceased persons, executors, administrators, and guardians, as may be prescribed by law, until otherwise directed by the general assembly.
31. – 10. No judge shall preside in the trial of any cause, in the event of which he may be interested, or where either of the parties shall be connected with him by affinity or consanguinity, within such degrees as may be proscribed by law, or in which he shall have been of counsel, or have presided in any inferior court, except by consent of all the parties.
32. – 11. The qualified voters in each township shall elect the justices of the peace for their respective townships. For every fifty voters there may be elected one justice of the peace, provided, that each township, however small, shall have two justices of the peace. Justices of the peace shall be elected for two years, and shall be commissioned by the governor, and reside in the townships for which they shall have been elected, during their continuance in office. They shall have individually, or two or more of them jointly, exclusive original jurisdiction in all matters of contract, except in actions of covenant, where the sum in controversy is of one hundred dollars and under. Justices of the peace shall in no case have jurisdiction to try and determine any criminal case or penal offence against the state; but may sit as examining courts, and commit, discbarge, or recognize to the court having jurisdiction, for further trial, offenders against the peace. For the foregoing purposes they shall have power to issue all necessary process they shall also bave power to bind to keep the peace, or for good behaviour.
ARM OF THE SEA. Lord Coke defines an arm of the sea to be where the sea or tide flows or reflows. Constable's Case, 5 Co. 107. This term includes bays, roads, creeks, coves, ports, and rivers where the water flows and reflows, whether it be salt or fresh. Ang. Tide Wat. 61. Vide Creek; Haven; Navigable; Port; Reliction; River; Road.
ARMISTICE. A cessation of hostilities between belligerent nations for a considerable time. It is either partial and local, or general. It differs from a mere suspension of arms which takes place to enable the two armies to bury their dead, their chiefs to hold conferences or pourparlers, and the like. Vattel, Droit des Gens, liv. 3, c. 16, 233. The terms truce, (q. v.) and armistice, are sometimes used in the same sense. Vide Truce.
ARMS. Any thing that a man wears for his defence, or takes in his hands, or uses in his anger, to cast at, or strike at another. Co. Litt. 161 b, 162 a; Crompt. Just. P. 65; Cunn. Dict. h. t.
2. The Constitution of the United States, Amendm. art. 2, declares, "that a well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed." In Kentucky, a statute " to prevent persons from wearing concealed arms," has been declared to be unconstitutional; 2 Litt. R. 90; while in Indiana a similar statute has been holden valid and constitutional. 3 Blackf. R. 229. Vide Story, Const. – 1889, 1890 Amer. Citizen, 176; 1 Tuck. Black. App. 300 Rawle on Const. 125.
ARMS, heraldry. Signs of arms, or drawings painted on shields, banners, and the like. The arms of the United States are described in the Resolution of Congress, of June 20, 1782. Vide Seal of the United States.
ARPENT. A quantity of land containing a French acre. 4 Hall's Law Journal, 518.
ARPENTATOR, from arpent. A measurer or surveyor of land.
ARRAIGNMENT, crim. law practice. Signifies the calling of the defendant to the bar of the court, to answer the accusation contained in the indictment. It consists of three parts.
2. – 1. Calling the defendant to the bar by his name, and commanding him to hold up his hand; this is done for the purpose of completely identifying the prisoner, as the person named in the indictment; the holding20up his hand is not, however, indispensable, for if the prisoner should refuse to do so, he may be identified by any admission that he is the person intended. 1 Bl. Rep. 3.
3. – 2. The reading of the indictment to enable him fully to understand, the charge to be produced against him; The mode in which it is read is, after' saying, " A B, hold up your hand," to proceed, "you stand indicted by the name of A B, late of, &c., for that you on, &c." and then go through the whole of the indictment.
4. – 3. After this is concluded, the clerk proceeds to the third part, by adding, " How say you, A B, are you guilty or not guilty?" Upon this, if the prisoner, confesses the charge, the confession is recorded, and nothing further is done till judgment if, on the contrary, he answers "not guilty", that plea is entered for him, and the clerk or attorney general, replies that he is guilty; when an issue is formed. Vide generally, Dalt. J. h. t.; Burn's J. h. t.; Williams; J. h. t.; 4 Bl. Com. 322; Harg. St. Tr. 4 vol. 777, 661; 2 Hale, 219; Cro. C. C. 7; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 414.
ARRAMEUR, maritime law. The name of an ancient officer of a port, whose business was to load and unload vessels.
2. In the Laws of Oleron, art 11, (published in English in the App. to 1 Pet. Adm. R. xxv.) some account of arrameurs will be found in these words: " There were formerly, in several ports of Guyenne, certain officers called arrameurs, or stowers, who were master-carpenters by profession, and were paid by the merchants, who loaded the ship. Their business was to dispose right, ana Stow closely, all goods in casks, bales, boxes, bundles or otherwise to balance both sides, to fill up the vacant spaces, and manage every thing to the best advantage. It was riot but that the greatest part of the ship's crew understood this as well as these stowers but they would not meddle with it, nor undertake it, to avoid falling under the merchant's displeasure, or being accountable for any ill accident that might.happen by that means. There were also sacquiers, who were very ancient officers, as may be seen in the 14th book of the Theodosian code, Unica de Saccariis Portus Romae, lib. 14. Their business was to load and unload vessels loaded with salt, corn, or fish, to prevent the ship's crew defrauding the merchant by false tale, or cheating him of his merchandize otherwise." See Sacquier; Stevedore.
ARRAS, Span. law. The property contributed by the hushand, ad sustinenda onera matrimonii, is called arras. The hushand is under no obligation to give arras, but it is a donation purely voluntary. He is not permitted to give in arras more than a tenth of his property. The arras is the exclusive property of the wife, subject to the hushand's usufruct during his life. Burge on the Confl. of Laws, 417.
2. By arras is also understood the donation which the hushand makes to his wife, by reason or on account of marriage, and in consideration of the dote, or portion, which be receives from her. Aso & Man. Inst. h. t. 7, c. 3.
ARRAY, practice. The whole body of jurors summoned to attend a court, as they are arrayed or arranged on the panel. Vide Challenges, and Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 536; Com. Dig. Challenge, B.
ARREARAGE. Money remaining unpaid after it becomes due as rent unpaid interest remaining due Pow. Mortgages, Index, h. t.; a sum of money remaining in the hands of an accountant. Merl. Rep. h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
ARREST</'B>. To stop; to seize; to deprive one of his liberty by virtue of legal authority.
ARREST IN CIVIL CASES, practice. An arrest is the apprehension of a person by virtue of a lawful authority, to answer the demand against him in a civil action.
2. To constitute an arrest, no actual force or manual touching of the body is requisite; it is sufficient if the party be within the power of the officer, and submit to the arrest. 2 N. H. Rep. 318; 8 Dana, 190; 3 Herring. 416; 1 Baldw. 239; Harper, 453; 8 Greenl. 127; 1 Wend. 215 2 Blackf. 294. Barewords, however, will not make an arrest, without laying the person or otherwise confining him. 2 H. P. C. 129 1 Burn's Just. 148; 1 Salk. 79. It is necessarily an assault, but not necessarily a battery. Cases Temp. Hardw. 300.
3. Arrests are made either on mesne or final process. An arrest on mesne process is made in order that the defendant shall answer, after judgment, to satisfy the claim of the plaintiff; on being arrested, the defendant is entitled to be liberated on giving sufficient bail, which the officer is bound to take. 2. When the arrest is on final process, as a ca. sa., the defendant cannot generally be dis charged on bail; and his discharge is considered as an escape. Vide, generally, Yelv. 29, a, note; 3 Bl. Com. 288, n.; 1 Sup. to Ves. Jr. 374; Wats. on Sher. 87; 11 East, 440; 18 E. C. L. R. 169, note.
4. In all governments there are persons who are privileged from arrest in civil cases. In the United States this privilege continues generally while the defendant remains invested with a particular character. Members of congress and of the state legislatures are exempted while attending the respective assemblies to which they belong parties and witnesses, while lawfully attending court; electors, while attending a public election; ambassadors and other foreign ministers; insolvent debtors, when they have been lawfully discharged; married women, when sued upon their contracts, are generally privileged; and executors and administrators, when sued in their representative characters, generally enjoy the same privilege. The privilege in favor of members of congress, or of the state legislatures, of electors, and of parties and witnesses in a cause, extend to the time of going to, remaining at, and returning from, the places to which they are thus legally called.
5. The code of civil practice of Louisiana enacts as follows, namely: Art. 210. The arrest is one of the means which the law gives the creditor to secure the person of his debtor while the suit is pending, or to compel him to give security for his appearance after judgment. Art. 211. Minors of both sexes, whether emancipated or not, interdicted persons, and women, married or single, cannot be arrested. Art. 212. Any creditor, whose debtor is about to leave the state, even for a limited time, without leaving in it sufficient property to satisfy the judgment which he expects to obtain in the suit he intends to bring against him, may have the person of such debtor arrested and confined until he shall give sufficient security that be shall not depart from the state without the leave of the court. Art. 213. Such arrest may be ordered in all demands brought for a debt, whether liquidated or not, when the term of payment has expired, and even for damages for any injury sustained by the plaintiff in either his person or property. Art. 214. Previous to obtaining an order of arrest against his debtor, to compel him to give sufficient security that be shall not depart from the state, the creditor must swear in the petition which he presents to that effect to any competent judge, that the debt, or the damages which he claims, and the amount of which he specifies, is really due to him, and that he verily believes that, the defendant is about to remove from the state, without leaving in it and lastly, that he does not take this oath with the intention of vexing the defendant, but only in order to secure his demand. Art. 215. The oath prescribed in the preceding article, ulay be taken either by the creditor himself, or in his absence, by his attorney in fact or his agent, provided either the one or the other can swear to the debt from his personal and direct knowledge of its being due, and not by what he may know or have learned from the creditor he represent. Art. 216. The oath which the creditor is required to take of the existence and nature of the debt of which he claims payment, in the cases provided in the two preceding articles, may be taken either before any judge or justice of the peace of the place where the court is held, before which he sues, or before the judge of any other place, provided the signature of such judge be proved or duly authenticated. Vide Auter action pendant; Lis pendens: Privilege; Rights.
ARREST, in criminal cases. The apprehending or detaining of the person, in order to be forthcoming to answer an alleged or suspected crime. The word arrest is more properly used in civil cases, and apprehension in criminal. A man is arrested under a capias ad respondendum, apprehended under a warrant charging him with a larceny.
2. It will be convenient to consider, 1, who may be arrested; 2, for what crimes; 3, at what time; 4, in what places; 5, by whom and by what authority.
3. – 1. Who may be arrested. Generally all persons properly accused of a crime or misdeameanor, may be arrested; by the laws of the United States, ambassadors (q. v.) and other public ministers are exempt from arrest.
4. – 2. For what offences an arrest may be made. It may be made for treason, felony, breach of the peace, or other misdemeanor.
5. – 3. At what time. An arrest may be made in the night as well as in the day time and for treasons, felonies, and breaches of the peace, on Sunday as well as on other days. It may be made before as well as after indictment found. Wallace's R. 23.
6. – 4. At what places. No place affords protection to offenders against the criminal law; a man may therefore be arrested in his own house, (q. v.) which may be broken into for the purpose of making the arrest.
7. – 5. Who may arrest and by what authority. An offender may be arrested either without a warrant or with a warrant. First, an arrest may be made without a warrant by a private individual or by a peace officer. Private individuals are enjoined by law to arrest an offender when present at the time a felony is committed, or a dangerous wound given – 11 Johns. R. 486 and vide Hawk. B. 1, c, 12, s. 1; c. 13, F3. 7, 8; 4 Bl. Com. 292; 1 Hale, 587; Com. Dig. Imprisonment, H 4; Bac. Ab. Trespass, D.
3. Peace officers may, a fortiori, make an arrest for a crime or misdemeanor committed in their view, without any warrant. 8 Serg. & R. 47. An arrest may therefore be made by a constable, (q. v.) a justice of the peace, (q. v.) slieriff, (q. v.) or coroner. (q. v.) Secondly, an arrest may be made by virtue of a warrant, (q. v.) which is the proper course when the circumstances of the case will permit it. Vide, generally, 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 11 to 71; Russ. on Cr. Index, h. t.
ARREST OP JUDGMENT. The act of a court by which the judges refuse to give judgment, because upon the face of the record, it appears that the plaintiff is not entitled to it. See Judgment, arrest of.
ARRESTANDIS bonis ne dissipentur. In the English law, a writ for him whose cattle or goods, being taken during a controversy, are likely, to be wasted and consumed.
ARRESTEE, law of Scotland. He in whose hands a debt, or property in his possession, has been arrested by a regular arrestment. If, in contempt of the arrestment, he shall make payment of the sum, or deliver the goods arrested to the common debtor, he is not only liable criminally for breach of the arrestment, but he must pay the debt again to the arrester. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 3, 6, 6.
ARRESTER, law of Scotland. One who sues out and obtains an arrestment of his debtor's goods or movable obligations. Ersk. Pr. L. Soot. 3, 6, 1.
ARRESTMENT, Scotch law. By this term is sometimes meant the securing of a criminal's person till trial, or that of a debtor till he give security judicio sisti. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 1, 2, 12. It is also the order of a judge, by which he who isdebtor in a movable obligation to the arrester's debtor, is probibited to make payment or delivery till the debt due to the arrester be paid or secured. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 3, 6, 1. See Attachment, foreign. where arrestment proceeds on a depending action, it may be loosed by the common debtor's giving security to the arrester for his debt, in the event it shall be found due. Id. 3, 6, 7.
ARRET, French law. An arret is a judgment, sentence, or decree of, a court of competent jurisdiction. Saisie-arret is an attachment of property in the hands of a third person. Code of Pract. of Lo. art. 209.
ARRETTED, arrectatus, i. e. ad rectum vocatus. Convened before a judge and charged with a crime. Ad rectum malefactorem, is, according to Bracton, to have a malefactor forthcoming to be put on his trial. Sometimes it is used for imputed or laid to his charge; as, no folly may be arretted to any one under age. Bract. 1. 3, tr. 2, c. 10; Cunn. Dict. h. t.
ARRHAE, contracts, in the civil law. Money or other valuable things given by the buyer to the seller, for the purpose of evidencing the contract earnest.
2. There are two kinds of arrhae; one kind given when a contract has only been proposed; the other when a sale has actually taken place. Those which are given when a bargain has been merely proposed, before it has been concluded, form the matter of the contract, by which he who gives the arrhae consents and agrees to lose them, and to transfer the title to them in the opposite party, in case he should refuse to complete the proposed bargain; and the receiver of arrhae is obliged on his part to return double the amount to the giver of them in case be should fail to complete his part of the contract. Poth. Contr. de Vente, n. 498. After the contract of sale has been completed, the purchaser usually gives arrbae as evidence that the contract has been perfected. Arrbae are therefore defined quod ante pretium datur, et fidem fecit contractus, facti totiusque pecuniae solvendae. Id. n. 506; Code, 4, 45, 2.
TO ARRIVE. To come to a particular place; to reach a particular or certain place as, the ship United States arrived in New York. See 1 Marsh. Dec. 411.
ARROGATION, civil law. Signifies nearly the same as adoption; the only difference between them is this, that adoption was of a person under full age but as arrogation required the person arrogated, sui juris, no one could be arrogated till he was of full age. Dig. 1, 7, 5; Inst. 1, 11, 3 1 Brown's Civ. Law, 119.
ARSER IN LE MAIN. Burning in the hand. This punishment was inflicted on those who received the benefit of clergy. Terms de la Ley.
ARSON, criminal law. At common law an offence of the degree of felony; and is defined by Lord Coke to be the malicious and voluntary burning of the house of another, by night or day. 3 Inst. 66.
2. In order to make this crime complete, there must be, 1st, a burning of the house, or some part of it; it is sufficient if any part be consumed, however small it may be. 9 C. & P. 45; 38 E. C. L. R. 29; 16 Mass. 105. 2d. The house burnt must; belong to another; but if a man set fire to his own house with a view to burn his neighbor's, and does so, it is at least a great misdemeanor, if not a felony. 1 Hale, P. C. 568; 2 East, P. C. 1027; 2 Russ. 487. 3d. The burning must have been both malicious and willful.
3. The offence of arson at common law, does not extend further than the burning of the house of another. By statute this crime is greatly enlarged in some of the states, as in Pennsylvania, where it is extended to the burning of any barn or outhouse having bay or grain therein; any barrack, rick or stack of hay, grain, or bark; any public buildings, church or meeting-house, college, school or library. Act 23d April, 1829; 2 Russell on Crimes, 486; 1 Hawk. P. C. c. 39 4 Bl. Com. 220; 2 East, P. C. c. 21, s. 1, p. 1015; 16 John. R. 203; 16 Mass. 105. As to the extension of the offence by the laws of the United States, see Stat. 1825, c. 276, 3 Story's L. U. S. 1999.
ARSURA. The trial of money by fire after it was coined. This word is obsolete.
ART. The power of doing. something not taught by nature or instinct. Johnson. Eunomus defines art to be a collection of certain rules for doing anything in a set form. Dial. 2, p. 74. The Dictionaire des Sciences Medicales, h. v., defines it in nearly the same terms.
2. The arts are divided into mechanical and liberal arts. The mechanical arts are those which require more bodily than mental labor; they are usually called trades, and those who pursue them are called artisans or mecbanics. The liberal are those which have for the sole or principal object, works of the mind, and those who are engaged in them are called artists. Pard. Dr. Com. n. 35.
3. The act of Congress of July 4, 1836, s. 6, in describing the subjects of patents, uses the term art. The sense of this word in its usual acceptation is perhaps too comprehensive. The thing to be patented is not a mere elementary, principle, or intellectual discovery, but a principle put in practice, and applied to some art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter. 4 Mason, 1.
4. Copper-plate printing on the back of a bank note, is an art for which a patent may be granted. 4 Wash. C. C. R. 9.
ART AND PART, Scotch law. Where one is accessory to a crime committed by another; a person may be guilty, art and part, either by giving advice or counsel to commit the crime; or, 2, by giving warrant or mandate to commit it; or, 3, by actually assisting the criminal in the execution.
2. In the more atrocious crimes, it seems agreed, that the adviser is equally punishable with the criminal and that in the slighter offences, the circumstances arising from the adviser's lesser age, the jocular or careless manner of giving the advice, &c., may be received as pleas for softening the punishment.
3. One who gives a mandate to commit a crime, as he is the first spring of the action, seems more guilty than the person20employed as the instrument in executing it.
4. Assistance may be given to the committer of a crime, not only in the actual execution, but previous to it, by furnishing him, with a criminal intent, with poison, arms, or other means of perpetrating it. That sort of assistance which is not given till after the criminal act, and which is commonly called abetting, though it be itself criminal, does not infer art and part of the principal crime. Ersk. Pr. L; Scot. 4, 4, 4 ; Mack. Cr. Treat. tit. Art and Part.
ARTICLES. A division in some books. In agreements and other writings, for the sake of perspicuity, the subjects are divided into parts, paragraphs, or articles.
ARTICLES, chan. practice. An instrument in writing, filed by a party to a proceeding in chancery, containing reasons why a witness in the cause should be discredited.
2. As to the matter which ought to be contained in these articles, Lord Eldon gave some general directions in the case of Carlos v. Brook, 10 Ves. 49. " The court," says he, "attending with great caution to an application to permit any witness to be examined after publication, has held where the proposition was to examine a witness to credit, that the examination is either to be confined to general credit; that is, by produciug witnesses to swear, that the person is not to be believed upon his oath; or, if you find him swearing to a matter, not to issue in the cause, (and therefore not thought material to the merits,) in that case, as the witness is not produced to vary the case in evidence by, testimony that relates to matters in issue, but is to speak only to the truth or want of veracity, with which a witness had spoken to a fact not, in issue, there is no danger in permitting him to state that such fact, not put in issue, is false and, for the purpose of discrediting a witness, the court has not considered itself at liberty to sanction such a proceeding as an examination to destroy the credit of another witness, who had deposed only to points put in issue. In Purcell v. M'Namara, it was agreed that after publication it was competent to examine any witness to the point, whether he would believe that man upon his oath. It is not competent, even at law, to ask the ground of that opinion; but the general question only is permitted. In Purcell v. M'Namara, the witness went into the history of his whole life and as to his solvency, & c. It was not at all put at issue whether he had been insolvent, or had compounded with his creditors; but, having sworn the contrary, they proved by witnesses, that he, who had sworn to a, matter not in issue, had sworn falsely to that fact; and that he had been insolvent, and had compounded with his creditors; and it would be lamentable, if the court could not find means of getting at it; for he could not be indicted for perjury, though swearing falsely, the fact not being material. The rule is, in general cases the cause is heard upon evidence given before publication; but that you may examine after publication, provided you examine to credit only, and do not go to matters in issue in the cause, or in contradiction of them, under pretence of examing to credit only. Those depositions," he continued, " appear to me material to what is in issue in the cause; and therefore must be suppressed," See a form of articles in Gresl. Eq. Ev. 140, 141; and also 8 Ves. 327; 9 Ves. 145; 1 S. & S. 469.
ARTICLES, eccl. law. A complaint in the form of a libel, ex hibited to an ecclesiastical court.
ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT, contracts. Relate either to real or personal estate, or to both. An article is a memorandum or minute of an agreement, reduced to writing to make some future disposition or modification of property; and such an instrument will create a trust or equitable estate, of which a specific performance will be decreed in chancery. Cruise on Real Pr. tit. 32 c. 1, s. 31. And see Id. tit. 12, c. 1.
2. This instrument should contain: 1, the name and character of the parties; 2, the subject-matter of the contracts; 3, the covenants which each of the parties bind themselves to perform; 4, the date; 5, the signatures of the parties.
3. – 1. The parties should be named, and their addition should also be mentioned, in order to identify them. It should also be stated which persons are of the first, second, or other part. A confusion, in this respect, may occasion difficulties.
4. – 2. The subject-matter of the contract ought to be set out in clear and explicit language, and the time and place of the performance of the agreement ought to be mentioned and, when goods are to be delivered, it ought to be provided at whose expense they shall be removed, for there is a difference in the delivery of light and bulky articles. The seller of bulky articles is not in general bound to deliver them unless he agrees to do so. 5 S. & R. 19 12 Mass. 300; 4 Shepl. 49.
5. – 3. The covenants to be performed by each party should be specially and correctly stated, as a mistake in this respect leads to difficulties which might have been obviated had they been properly drawn.
6. – 4. The instrument should be truly dated.
7. – 5. It should be signed by the parties or their agents. When signed by an agent he should state his authority, and sign his principal's name, and then his own, as, A B, by his agent or attorney C D.
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION. The compact which was made by the original thirteen states of the United States of America, bore the name of the "Articles of Confederation and perpetual union between, the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia." It was adopted and went into force on the first day of March, 1781, and remained as the supreme law until the first Wednesday of March, 1789. 5 Wheat. R. 420. The following analysis of this celebrated instrument is copied from Judge Story's Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, Book 2, c. 3.
2. "In pursuance of the design already announced, it is now proposed to give an analysis of the articles of confederation, or, as they are denominated in the instrument itself, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States, as they were finally adopted by the thirteen states in 1781.
3. "The style of the Confederacy was, by the first article, declared to be, `The United States of America.' The second article declared, that each state retained its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right, which was not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in congress assembled. The third article declared, that the states severally entered into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare binding themselves to assist each other against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever. The fourth article declared, that the free inhabitants of each of the states, (vagabonds and fugitives from justice excepted,) should be entitled to all the privileges of free citizens in the several states; that the people of each state should have free ingress and regress to any from any other state, and should enjoy all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties and restrictions, as the inhabitants; that fugitives from justice should, upon the demand of the executive of the state, from which they fled, be delivered up; and that full faith and credit should be given, in each of the states, to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other state.
4. "Having thus provided for the security and intercourse of the states, the next article (5th) provided for the organization of a general congress, declaring that delegates should be chosen in such manner, as the legislature of each state should direct; to meet in congress on the first Monday in every year, with a power, reserved to each state, to recall any or all of the delegates, and to send others in their, stead. No state was to be represented in congress by less than two, nor than seven members. No delegate was eligible for more than three, in any term of six years; and no delegate was capable of holding any office of emolument under the United States. Each state was to maintain its own delegates; and, in determining questions in congress, was to have one vote. Freedom of speech and debate in congress was not to be impeached or questioned in any other place; and the members were to be protected from arrest and imprisonment, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
5. "By subsequent articles, congress was invested with the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, unless in case of an invasion of a state by enemies, or an imminent danger of an invasion by Indians; of sending and receiving ambassadors; entering into treaties and alliances, under certain limitations, as to treaties of commerce; of establishing rules for deciding all cases of capture on land and water, and for the division and appropriation of prizes taken by the land or naval forces, in the service of the United States of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace; of appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas; and of establishing courts for receiving and finally determining appeals in all cases of captures.
6. "Congress was also invested with power to decide in the last resort, on appeal, all disputes and differences between two or more states concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause whatsoever; and the mode of exercising that authority was specially prescribed. And all controversies concerning the private right of soil, claimed under different grants of two or more states before the settlement of their jurisdiction, were to be finally determined in the same manner, upon the petition of either of the grantees. But no state was to be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States.
7. "Congress was also invested with the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or that of the United States; of fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the United States; of regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the states, provided, that the legislative right of any state within its own limits should not be infringed or violated of establishing and regulating post offices from one state to another, and exacting postage to defray the expenses; of appointing all officers of the land forces in the service of the United States, except regimental officers; of appointing all officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatsoever in the service of the United States; and of making rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces, and directing their operations.
8. "Congress was also invested with authority to appoint a committee of the states to sit in the recess of congress, and to consist of one delegate from each state, and other committees and civil officers, to manage the general affairs under their direction; to appoint one of their number to preside, but no person was to serve in the office of president more than one year in the term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums for the, public service, and to appropriate the same for defraying the public expenses; to. borrow money and emit bills ou credit of the United States to build and equip a navy; to agree upon the number of land forces, and make requisitioins upon each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state. The legislatures of each state were to appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm, and equip them at the expense of the United States.
9. "Congress was also invested with power to adjourn for any time not exceeding six months, and to any place within the United States and provision was made for the publication of its journal, and for entering the yeas and nays thereon, when desired by any delegate.
10. "Such were the powers confided in congress. But even these were greatly restricted in their exercise; for it was expressly. provided, that congress should never engage in a war; nor grant letters of marque or reprisal in, time of peace; nor enter into any treaties or alliances; nor coin money or regulate the value thereof; nor ascertain the sums or expenses necessary for the, defence and welfare of the United States, nor emit bills nor borrow money on the credit of the United States nor appropriate money; nor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built, or purchased; or the number of land or sea forces to be raised; nor appoint a commander-in-chief of the army or navy; unless nine states should assent to the same. And no question on any other point, except for adjournng from day to day, was to be determined, except by vote of the majority of the states.
11. "The committee of the states or any tine of them, were authorized in the recess of congress to exercise such powers, as congress, with the assent of nine states, should think it expedient to vest them with, except such powers for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the assent of nine states was required, which could not be thus delegated.
12. "It was further. provided, that all bills of credit, moneys borrowed, and debts contracted by or under the authority of congress before the confederation, should be a charge against the United States; that when land forces were raised by any state for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel should be appointed by the legislature of the state, or in such manner as the state should direct; and all vacancies should be filled up in the same manner that all charges of war, and all other expenses for the common defence or general welfare, should be defrayed out of a common treasury, which should be supplied by the several states, in proportion to the value of the land within each state granted or surveyed, and the buildings and improvements thereon, to be estimated according to the mode prescribed by congress; and the taxes for that proportion were to be laid and levied by the legislatures of the states within the time agreed upon by congress.
13. "Certain prohibitions were laid upon the exercise of powers by the respective states. No state, without the consent of the United States, could send an embassy to, or receive an embassy from, or enter into, any treaty with any king, prince or state; nor could any person holding any office under the United States, or any of them, accept any present, emolument, office – or title, from any foreign king, prince or state; nor could congress itself grant any title of nobility. No two states could enter into any treaty, confederation, or alliance with each other, without the consent of congress. No state could lay any imposts or duties, which might interfere with any proposed treaties. No vessels of war were to be kept up by any state in time of peace, except deemed necessary by congress for its defence, or trade; nor any body of forces, except such as should be deemed requisite by congress to garrison its forts, and necessary for its defence. But every state was required always to keep up a well regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutred, and to be provided with suitable field-pieces, and tents, and arms, and amunition, and camp equipage. No state could engage in war without the consent of congress, unless actually invaded by enemies, or in danger of invasion by the Indians. Nor could any state grant commissions to any ships of war, nor letters of marque and reprisal, except after a declaration of war by congress, unless such state were infested by pirates, and then subject to the determination of congress. No state could prevent the removal of any property imported into any state to any other state, of which the owner was an inhabitant. And no imposition, duties, or restriction, could be laid by any state on the Property of the United States or of either of them.
14. "There was also provision made for the admission of Canada, into the Union, and of other colonies with the assent of nine states. And it was finally declared, that every state should abide by the determinations of congress on all questions submitted to it by the confederation; that the articles should be inviolably observed by every state; that the union should be perpetual; and that no alterations should. be made in any of the articles, unless agreed to by congress, and 'Confirmed by the legislatures of every state.
15. "Such is the substance of this celebrated instrument, under which the treaty of peace, acknowledging our independence, was negotiated, the war of the revolution concluded, and the union of the states maintained until the adoption of. the present constitution."
ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT. An instrument which, in cases of impeachment, (q. v.) is used, and performs the same office which an indictment does, in a common criminal case, is known by this name. These articles do not usually pursue the strict form and accuracy of an indictment., Wood. Lect. 40, p. 605; Foster, 389, 390; Com. Dig. Parliament, L 21. They are sometimes quite general in the form of the allegations, but always contain, or ought to contain, so much certainty, as to enable the party to put himself on the proper defence, and in case of an acquittal, to avail himself of it, as a bar to another impeachment. Additional articles may, perhaps, be exhibited at any stage of the prosecution. Story on the 806; Rawle on the Const. 216.
2. The answer to articles of impeachment is exempted from observing great strictness of form; and it may contain arguments as well as facts. It is usual to give a full and particular answer to each article of the accusation. Story, 808.
ARTICLES OF PARTNERSHIP. The name given to an instrument of writing by which the parties enter into a partnership, upon the conditions therein mentioned. This instrument generally contains certain provisions which it is the object here to point out.
2. But before proceeding more particularly to the consideration of the Subject, it will be proper to observe that sometimes preliminary agreements to enter into a partnership are formed, and that questions, not unfrequently, arise as to their effects. These are not partnerships, but agreements to enter into partnership at a future time. When such an agreement has been broken, the parties may apply for redress to a court of law, where damages will be given, as a compensation. Application is sometimes made to courts of equity for their more efficient aid to compel a specific performance. In general these courts will not entertain bills for specific performance of such preliminary contracts; but in order to suppress frauds, or manifestly mischievous consequences, they will compel such performance. 3 Atk. 383; Colly. Partn. B. 2, c. 2, 2 Wats. Partn. 60; Gow, Partn. 109; Story, Eq. Jur. 666, note; Story, Partn. 189; 1 Swanst. R. 513, note. When, however, the partnership may be immediately dissolved, it seems the contract cannot be specifically enforeed. 9 Ves. 360.
3. It is proper to premise that under each particular head, it is intended briefly to examine the decisions which have been made in relation to it.
4. The principal parts of articles of partnership are here enumerated. 1. The names of the contracting parties. These should all be severally set out.
5. – 2. The agreement that the parties actually by the instrument enter into partnership, and care must be taken to distinguish this agreement from a covenant to enter into partnership at a future time.
6. – 3. The commencement of the partnership. This ought always to be expressly provided for. When no other time is fixed by it, the commencement will take place from the date of the instrument. Colly. Partn. 140 5 Barn. & Cres. 108.
7. – 4. The duration of the partnership. This may be. for life, or for a, specific period of time; partnerships may be conditional or indefinite in their duration, or for a single adventure or dealing; this period of duration is either express or implied, but it will not be presumed to be beyond life. 1 Swanst. R. 521. When a term is fixed, it is presumed to endure until that period has elapsed; and, when no term is fixed, for the life of the parties, unless sooner dissolved by the acts of one of them, by mutual consent, or operation of law. Story, Part. 84.
8. A stipulation may lawfully be introduced for the continuance of the partnership after the death of one of the parties, either by his executors or administrators, or for the admission of one or more of his children into the concern. Colly. Partn. 147; 9 Ves. 500. Sometimes this clause provides, that the interest of the partner shall go to such persons, as be shall by his last will name and appoint, and for want of appointment to such persons as are there named. In these cases it seems that the executors or administrators have an option to continue the partnership or not. Colly. Partn. 149; 1 McCl. & Yo. 569; Colles, Parl. Rep. 157.
9. when the duration of the partnership has been fixed by the articles, and the partnership expires by mere effluxion of time, and, after such determination it is carried on by the partners without any new agreement, in the absence of all circumstances which may lead as to the true intent of the partners, the partnership will not, in general, be deemed one for a definite period; 17 Ves. 298; but in other respects, the old articles of the expired partnership are to be deemed adopted, by implication as the basis of the new partnership during its continuance. 5 Mason, R. 176, 185; 15 Ves. 218; 1 Molloy, R. 466.
10. – 5. The business to be carried on and the place where it is to be conducted. This clause ought to be very particularly written, as courts of equity will grant an injunction when one or more of the partners attempt, against the wishes of one or more of them, to extend such busiress beyond the provision contained in the articles. Story, Partn. 193; Gow, Partn 398.
11 – 6. The name of the firm, as for example, John Doe and Company, ought to be ascertained. The members of the partnership are required to use the name thus agreed upon, and a departure from it will make them individually liable to third persons or to their partners, in particular cases. Colly. Partn. 141; 2 Jac. & Walk. 266; 9 Adol. & Ellis, 314; 11 Adol. & Ellis, 339; Story, Partn. 102, 136, 142, 202.
12. – 7. A provision is not unfrequently inserted that the business shall be managed and administered by a particular partner,20or that one of its departments shall be under his special care. In this case, courts of equity will protect such partner in his rights. Story, Partn. 172, 182, 193, 202, 204 Colly. Partn. 753. In Louisiana, this provision is incorporated in it's civil code, art. 2838 to art. 2840. The French and civil law also agree as to this provision. Poth. de Societe, n. 71; Dig. 14, 1, 1, 13; Poth. Pand. 14, 1, 4.
13. Sometimes a provision is introduced that a majority of the partners shall have the management of the affairs of the partnership. This is requisite, particularly when the associates are numerous, As to the rights of the majority, see Partners.
14. – 8. A provision should be inserted as to the manner of furnishing the capital or stock of the partnership. When a partner is required to furnish his proportion of the stock at stated periods, or pay by installments, he will, where there are no stipulutions to the contrary, be considered a debtor to the firm. Colly. Partn. 141; Story, Partn. 203; 1 Swanst. R. 89, Sometimes a provision is inserted that real estate, and fixtures belonging to the firm shall be considered, as between the partners, not as partnership but as several property. In cases of bankruptcy this property will be treated as the separate property of the partners. Colly. Partn. 141, 595, 600; 5 Ves. 189; 3 Madd. R. 63.
15. – 9. A provision for the apportionment of the profits a and losses among the partners should be introduced. In the absence of all proof, and controlling circumstances, the partners are to share in both equally, although one may have furnished all the capital, and the other only his skill, Wats. Partn. 59; Colly. Partn. 105; Story, Partn. 24; 3 Kent, Com. 28; 4th ed.; 6 Wend. R. 263; but see 7 Bligh, R. 432; 5 Wils. & Shaw, 16.
16. – 10. Sometimes a stipulation for an annual account of the Property of the partnership whether in possession or in action, and of the debts due by partnership is inserted. These accounts when settled are at least prima facie evidence of the facts they contain. Colly. Partn. 146 Story Partn. 206; 7 Sim. R. 239.
17. – 11. A provision is frequently introduced forbidding any one partner to carry on any other business. This should be provided for, though there is an implied provision in every partnership that no partner shall carry. on any separate business inconsistent or contrary to the true interest of the partnership. Story, Partn. 178, 179, 209.
18. – 12. When the partners are numerous, a provision is often made for the expulsion of a partner for gross misconduct, for insolvency, bankruptcy, or other causes particularly enumerated. This provision will govern when the case occurs.
19. – 13. This instrument should allways contain a provision for winding up the business. This is generally provided for in one of three modes: first, by turning all the assets into cash, and, after paying all the liabilities of the partnership, dividing such money in proportion to the several interests of the parties; secondly, by providing that one or more of the partners shall be entitled to purchase the shares of the others at a valuation;thirdly, that all the property of partnership shall be appraised, and that after paying the partnership debts, it shall be divided in the proper proportions. The first of these modes is adopted by courts of equity in the absence of express stipulations. Colly. Partn. 145 Story, Partn. 207 8 Sim. R. 529.
20. – 14. It is not unusual to insert in these articles, a provision that in case of disputes the matter shall be submitted to arbitration. This clause seems nugatory, for no action will lie for a breach of it, as that would deprive the courts of their jurisdiction, which the parties cannot do. Story, Partn. 215; Gow, Partn. 72; Colly. Partn, 165 Wats. Partn. 383.
21. – 15. The articles should be dated, and executed by the parties. It is not requisite that the instrument, should be under seal. Vide Parties to contracts; Partners Partnership.
ARTICLES OF THE PEACE, Eng. practice. An instrument which is presented to a court of competent jurisdiction, in which the exhibitant shows the grievances under which be labors, and prays the protection of the court. It is made on oath. See a form in 12 Adol. & Ellis, 599; 40 E. C. L. R. 125, 126; 1 Chit. Pr. 678.
2. The truth of the articles cannot be contradicted, either by affidavit or otherwise; but the defendant may either except to their sufficiency, or tender affidavits in reduction of the amounts of bail. 13 East. 171.
ARTICLES OF WAR. The name commonly given to a code made for the government of the army. The act of April 10, 1806, 2 Story's Laws U. S. 992, contains the rulesand articles by which the armies of the United States shall be governed. The act of April 23, 1800, 1 Story's L. U. S. 761, contains the rules and regulations for the government of the navy of the United States.
ARTICULATE ADJUDICATION. A term used in Scotch, law in cases where there is more than the debt due to the adjudging creditor, when it is usual to accumulate each debt by itself, so that any error that may arise in ascertaining one of the debts need not reach to all the rest.
ARTIFICERS. Persons whose employment or business consists chiefly of bodily labor. Those who are masters of their arts. Cunn. Dict. h. t. Vide drt.
ARTIFICIAL. What is the result of, or relates to, the arts; opposed to natural; thus we say a corporation is an artificial person, in opposition to a natural person. Artificial accession is the uniting one property to another by art, opposed to a simple natural union. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 503.
ARTIFICIAL PERSON. In a figurative sense, a body of men or company are sometimes called an artificial person, because the law associates them as one, and gives them various powers possessed by natural persons. Corporations are such artificial persons. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 177.
AS. A word purely Latin. It has two significations. First, it signifies weight, and in this sense, the Roman as, is the same thing as the Roman pound, which was composed of twelve ounces. It was divided also into many other parts (as may be seen in the law, Servum de hoeredibus, Inst. Lib. xiii. Pandect,) viz. uncia, 1 ounce; sextans, 2 ounces; quodrans, 3 ounces; triens, 4 ounces quincunx, 5 ounces; semis, 6 ounces; septunx, 7 ounces; bes, 8 ounces, dodrans, 9 ounces; dextans, 10 ounces; deunx, 11 ounces.
2. From this primitive and proper sense of the word another was derived: that namely of the totality of a thing, Solidum quid. Thus as signified the whole of an inheritance, so that an heir ex asse, was an heir of the whole inheritance. An heir ex triente, ex semisse, ex besse, or ex deunce, was an heir of one-third, one-half, two-thirds, or eleven-twelfths.
ASCENDANTS. Those from whom a person is descended, or from whom he derives his birth, however remote they may be.
2. Every one has two ascendants at the first degree, his father and mother; four at the second degree, his paternal grandfather and grandmother, and his maternal grandfather and grandmother; eight at the third. Thus in going up we ascend by various lines which fork at every generation. By this progress sixteen ascendants are found at the fourth degree; thirty-two, at the fifth sixty-four, at the sixth; one hundred and twenty-eight at the seventh, and so on; by this progressive increase, a person has at the twenty-fifth generation, thirty-three millions five hundred and fifty-four thousand, four hundred and thirty-two ascendant's. But as many of the ascendants of a person have descended from the same ancestor, the lines which were forked, reunite to the first comnmon ancestor, from whom the other descends; and this multiplication thus frequently interrupted by the common ancestors, may be reduced to a few persons. Vide Line.
ASCRIPTITIUS, civil law. Among the Romans, ascriptitii were foreigners, who had been naturalized, and who had in general the same rights as natives. Nov. 22, ch. . 17 Code 11, 47.
ASPHYXY, med. jur. A temporary suspension of the motion of the heart and arteries; swooning, fainting. This term includes persons who have been asphyxiated by submersion or drowning; by breathing mephitic gas; by the effect of lightning; by the effect of cold; by heat; by suspension or strangulation. In a legal point of view it is always proper to ascertain whether the person who has thus been deprived of his senses is the victim of another, whether the injury has been caused by accident, or whether it is. the act of the sufferer himself.
2. In a medical point of view it is important to ascertain whether the person is merely asphyxiated, or whether he is dead. The following general remarks have been made as to the efforts which ought to be made to restore a person thus situated,
1st. Persons asphyxiated are frequently in a state of only apparent death.
2d. Real from apparent death, can be distinguished only by putrefaction.
3d. Till putrefaction commences, aid ought to be rendered to persons asphyxiated.
4th. Experience proves that remaining several hours under water does not always produce death.
5th. The red, violet, or black color of the face, the coldness of the body, the stiffness of the limbs, are not always signs of death.
6th. The assistance to persons thus situated, maybe administered by any intelligent person; but to insure success, it must be done without discouragement for several hours together.
7th. All unnecessary persons should be sent away; five or six are in general sufficient.
8th. The place where the operation is performed should not be too warm.
9th. The assistance should be rendered with activity, but without precipitation.
ASPORTATION. The act of carrying a thing away; the removing a thing from one place to another. Vide Carrying away; Taking.
ASSASSIN, crim, law. An assassin is one who attacks another either traitorously, or with the advantage of arms or place) or of a number of persons who support him, and kills his victim. This being done with malice, aforethought, is murder. The term assassin is but little used in the common law, it is borrowed from the civil law.
ASSASSINATION, crim. law. A murder committed by an assassin. By assassination is understood a murder committed for hire in money, without any provocation or cause of resentment given by the person against whom the crime is directed. Ersk. Inst. B. 4, t. 4, n. 45.
ASSAULT, crim. law. An assault is any unlawful attempt or offer with force or violence to do a corporal hurt to another, whether from malice or wantonness; for example, by striking at him or even holding up the fist at him in a threatening or insulting manner, or with other circumstances as denote at the time. an intention, coupled with a present ability, of actual violence against his person, as by pointing a weapon at him when he is within reach of it. 6 Rogers Rec: 9. When the injury is actually inflicted, it amounts to a battery. (q. v.)
2. Assaults are either simple or aggravated. 1. A simple assault is one Where there is no intention to do any other injury. This is punished at common law by fine and imprisonment. 2. An aggravated assault is one that has in addition to the bare intention to commit it, another object which is also criminal; for example, if a man should fire a pistol at another and miss him, the former would be guilty of an assault with intent to murder; so an assault with intent to rob a man, or with intent to spoil his clothes, and the like, are aggravated assaults, and they are more severely punished than simple assaults. General references, 1 East, P. C. 406; Bull. N. P. 15; Hawk. P. B. b. 1, c. 62, s. 12; 1 Russ. Cr. 604; 2 Camp. Rep. 650 1 Wheeler's Cr. C. 364; 6 Rogers' Rec. 9; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 347 Bac. Ab. h. t.; Roscoe. Cr. Ev. 210.
ASSAY. A chemical examination of metals, by which the quantity of valuable or precious metal contained in any mineral or metallic mixture is ascertained. 2. By the acts of Congress of March 3, 1823, 3 Story's L. U. S. 1924; of June 25, 1834, 4 Shars. cont. Story's L. U. S. 2373; and of June 28, 1834, Id. 2377, it is made the duty of the secretary of the treasury to cause assays to be made at the mint of the United States, of certain coins made current by the said acts, and to make report of the result thereof to congress.
ASSEMBLY. The union of a number of persons in the same place. There are several kinds of assemblies.
2. Political assemblies, or those authorized by the constitution and laws; for example, the general assembly, which includes the senate and house of representatives; the meeting of the electors of the president and vice-president of the United States, may also be called an assembly.
3. Popular assemblies are those where the people meet to deliberate upon their rights; these are guaranteed by the constitution. Const. U. S. Amend. art. 1 Const. of Penn. art. 9, s. 20.
4. Unlawful assemblies. An unlawful assembly is the meeting of three or more persons to do an unlawful act, although they may not carry their purpose into execution. It differs from a riot or rout, (q. v.) because in each of the latter-cases there is some act done besides the simple meeting.
ASSENT, contracts. An agreement to something that has been done before.
2. It is either express, where it is openly declared; or implied, where it is presumed by law. For instance, when a conveyance is made to a man, his assent to it is presumed, for the following reasons; cause there is a strong intendment of law, that it is for a person's benefit to take, and no man can be supposed to be unwilling to do that which is for his advantage. 2. Because it would seem incongruous and absurd, that when a conveyance is completely executed on the part of the grantor, the estate should continue in him. 3. Because it is contrary to the policy of law to permit the freehold to remain in suspense and uncertainty. 2 Ventr. 201; 3 Mod. 296A 3 Lev. 284; Show. P. C. 150; 3 Barn. & Alders. 31; 1 Binn. R. 502; 2 Hayw. 234; 12 Mass IR. 461 4 Day, 395; 5 S. & R. 523 20 John. R. 184; 14 S. & R. 296 15 Wend. R. 656; 4 Halst. R. 161; 6 Verm. R. 411.
3. When a devise draws after it no charge or risk of loss, and is, therefore, a mere bounty, the assent of the devisee to, take it will be presumed. 17 Mass. 73, 4. A dissent properly expressed would prevent the title from passing from the grantor unto the grantee. 1 2 Mass. R. 46 1. See 3 Munf. R. 345; 4 Munf. R. 332, pl. 9 5 Serg. & Rawle, 523; 8 Watts, R. 9, 11 20 Johns. R. 184. The rule requiring an express dissent, does not apply, however, when the grantee is bound to pay a consideration for the thing granted. 1 Wash. C. C. Rep. 70.
4. When an offer to do a thing has been made, it is not binding on the party making it, until the assent of the other paity has been given and such assent must be to the same subject-matter, in the same sense. 1 Summ. 218. When such assent is given, before the offer is withdrawn, the contract is complete. 6 Wend. 103. See 5 Wend. 523; 5 Greenl. R. 419; 3 Mass. 1; 8 S. R. 243; 12 John. 190; 19 John. 205; 4 Call, R. 379 1 Fairf. 185; and Offer.
5. In general, when an assignment is made to one for the benefit of creditors the assent of the assignees will be presumed. 1 Binn. 502, 518; 6 W. & S. 339; 8 Leigh, R. 272, 281. But see 24 Wend. 280.
ASSERTORY COVENANT. One by which the covenantor affirms that a certain fact is in a particular way, as that the grantor of land is lawfully seised; that it is clear of encumbrances, and the like. If the assertion is false, these covenants are broken the moment that the instrument is signed. See 11 S. & R. 109, 112.
TO ASSESS.
1. To rate or to fix the proportion which every person has to pay of any particular tax.
2. To assess damages is to ascertain what damages are due to the plaintiff; in actions founded on writings, in many cases after interlocutory judgment, the prothonotary is directed to assess the damages; in cases sounding in tort the damages are frequently assessed on a writ of inquiry by the sheriff and a jury.
2. In actions for damages, the jury are required to fix the amount or to assess the damages. In the exercise of this power or duty, the jury must be guided by sound discretion, and, when the circumstances will warrant it, may give high damages. Const. Rep. 500. The jury must, in the assessment of damages be guided by their own judgment, nd not by a blind chance. They cannot lawfully, therefore, in making up their verdict, each one put down a sum, add the sums together, divide the aggregate by the number of jurors, and adopt the quotient for their verdict. 1 Cowen, 238.
ASSESSMENT. The making out a list of property, and fixing its valuation or appraisement; it is also applied to making out a list of persons, and appraising their several occupations, chiefly with a view of taxing the said persons and their property.
ASSESSMENT OF DAMAGES. After an interlocutory judgment has been obtained, the damages must be, ascertained; the act of thus fixing the amount of damages is called the assessment of damages.
2. In cases sounding in damages, (q. v.) that is, when the object of the action is to recover damages only, and not brought for the specific recovery of lands, goods, or sums of money, the usual course is to issue a writ of inquiry, (q. v.) and, by virtue of such writ, the sheriff, aided by twelve lawful men, ascertains the amount of damages, and makes return to the court of the inquisition, which, unless set aside, fixes the damages, and a final judgment follows.
3. When, on the contrary, the action is founded on a promissory note, bond, or other contract in writing, by which the amount of money due may be easily computed, it is the practice, in some courts, to refer to the clerk or prothonotary the assessment of damages,. and in such case no writ of inquiry is issued. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 8300.
ASSESSORS, civil law. So called from the word adsidere, which Signifies to be seated with the judge. They were lawyers who were appointed to assist, by their advice, the Roman magistrates, who were generally ignorant of law. being mere military men. Dig. lib. 1, t. 22; Code, lib. 1, t. 51.
2. In our law an assessor is one who has been legally appointed to value and appraise property, generally. with a view of laying a tax on it.
ASSETS. The property in the hands of an heir, executor, administrator or trustee, which is legally or equitably chargeable with the obligations, which such heir, executor, administrator or other trustee, is, as such, required to discharge, is called assets. The term is derived from the French word assez, enough; that is, the heir or trustee has enough property. But the property is still called assets, although there may not be enough to discharge all the obligations; and the heir, executor, &c., is chargeable in distribution as far as such property extends.
2. Assets are sometimes divided by all the old writers, into assets enter mains and assets per descent; considered as to their mode of distribution, they are 1egal or equitable; as to the property from which they arise, they are real or personal.
3. Assets enter maim, or assets in hand, is such property as at once comes to the executor or other trustee, for the purpose of satisfying claims against him as such. Termes de la Ley.
4. Assets per descent, is that portion of the ancestor's estate which descends to the heir, and which is sufficient to charge him, as far as it goes, with the specialty debts of his ancestor. 2 Williams on Ex. 1011.
5. Legal assets, are such as constitute the fund for the payment of debts according to their legal priority.
6. Equitable assets, are such as can be reached only by the aid of a court of equity, and are to be divided,, pari passu, among all the creditors; as when a debtor has made his property subject to his debts generally, which, without his act would not have been so subject. 1 Madd. Ch. 586; 2 Fonbl. 40 1, et seq.; Willis on Trust, 118.
7. Real assets, are such as descend to the heir, as in estate in fee simple.
8. Personal assets, are such goods and chattels to which the executor or administrator is entitled.
9. In commerce, by assets is understood all the stock in trade, cash, and all available property belonging to a merchant or company. Vide, generally, Williams on Exec. Index, h. t.; Toll. on Exec. Index, h. t.; 2 Bl. Com. 510, 511; 3 Vin. Ab. 141; 11 Vin. Ab. 239; 1 Vern. 94; 3 Ves. Jr. 117; Gordon's Law of Decedents, Index, h. t.; Ram on Assets.
ASSEVERATION. The proof which a man gives of the truth of what be says, by appealing to his conscience as a witness. It differs from an oath in this, that by the latter he appeals to God as a witness of the truth of what he says, and invokes him as the avenger of falsehood and perfidy, to punish him if he speak not the truth. Vide Affirmation; Oath; and Merl. Quest. de Droit, mot Serment.
TO ASSIGN, contracts; practice. 1. To make a right over to another; as to assign an estate, an annuity, a bond, &c., over to another. 5 John. Rep: 391. 2. To appoint; as, to appoint a deputy,, &c. Justices are also said to be assigned to keep the peace. 3. To set forth or point out; as, to " assign errors," to show where the error is committed; or to assign false judgment, to show wherein it was unjust. F. N. B. 19.
ASSIGNATION, Scotch law. The ceding or yielding a thing to another of which intimation must be made. ASSIGNEE. One to whom an assignment has been made.
2. Assignees are either assignees in fact or assignees in law. An assignee in fact is one to whom an assignment has been made in fact by the party having the right. An assignee in law is one in whom the law vest's the right, as an executor or administrator. Co. Litt. 210 a, note 1; Hob. 9. Vide Assigns, and 1 Vern. 425; 1 Salk. 81 7 East, 337; Bac. Ab. Covenant, E; a Saund. 182, note 1; Arch. Civ. PI. 50, 58, 70 Supp, to Ves. Jr, 72 2 Phil. Ev. Index, h. t.
ASSIGNMENT, contracts. In common parlance this word signifies the transfer of all kinds of property, real, personal, and mixed, and whether the same be in possession or in action; as, a general assignment. In a more technical sense it Is usually applied to the transfer of a term for years; but it is more properly used to signify a transfer of some particular estate or interest in lands.
2. The proper technical words of an assignment are, assign, transfer, and set over; but the words grant, bargain, and sell, or any other words which will show the intent of the parties to make a complete transfer, will amount to an assignment.
3. A chose in action cannot be assigned at law, though it may be done in equity; but the assignee takes it subject to all the equity to which it was liable in the hands of the original party. 2 John. Ch. Rep. 443, and the cases there cited. 2 Wash. Rep. 233.
4. The deed by which an assignment is made,, is also called an assignment. Vide, generally, Com. Dig. h. t.; Bac. Ab. h. t. Vin. Ab. h. t.; Nelson's Ab. h. t.; Civ. Code of Louis. art. 2612. In relation to general assignments, see Angell on Assignments, passim; 1 Hate & Wall. Sel. Dec. 78-85.
5. By an assignment of a right all the accessories which belong to it, will pass with it as, if the assignor of a bond had collateral security, or a lien on property, the collateral security and the lien will pass with the assignment of the bond. 2 Penn. 361; 3 Bibb, 291; 4 B. Munroe, 529; 2 Drev. n. 218; 1 P. St. R. 454. 6. The assignment of a thing also carries with it all that belongs to it by right of accession; if, therefore, the thing produce interest or rent, the interest or the arrearages of the rent since the assignment, will belong to the assignee. 7 John. Cas. 90 6 Pick. 360.
ASSIGMENT OF DOWER. The act by which the rights of a widow, in her deceased hushand's real estate, are ascertained and set apart for her benefit. 2 Bouv. Inst. 242.
ASSIGNMENT OF ERRORS. The act by which the plaintiff in error points out the errors in the record of which he complains.
2. The errors should be assigned in distinct terms, such as the defeudant in error may plead to; and all the errors of which the plaintiff complains should be assigned. 9 Port. 186; 16 Conn. 83; 6 Dana, 242 3 How. (Miss.) R. 77.
ASSIGNOR. One who makes an assignment; one who transfers property to another.
2. In general the assignor can limit the operation of his assignment, and impose whatever condition he may think proper, but when he makes a general assignment in trust for the use of his creditors, he can impose no condition whatever which will deprive them of any right; 14 Pick. 123; 15 John. 151; 7 Cowen, 735; 5 Cowen, 547 20 John. 442; 2 Pick. 129; nor any condition forbidden by law; as giving preference when the law forbids it.
3. Ad assignor may legally choose his own trustees. 1 Binn. 514.
ASSIGNS, contracts. Those to whom rights have been transmitted by particular title, such as sale, gift, legacy, transfer, or cession. Vide Ham. Paities, 230; Lofft. 316. These words, and also the word forever, are commonly added to the word heirs in deeds conveying a fee simple, heirs and assigns forever "but they are in such cases inoperative. 2 Barton's Elem. Convey. 7, (n.) But see Fleta, lib. 3, cap. 14, 6. The use of naming them, is explained in Spencer's Case, 5 Rep. 16; and Ham. Parties, 128. The word heirs, however, does not include or imply assigns. 1 Anderson's Rep. 299.
ASSISES OF JERUSALEM. The name of a code of feudal law, made at a general assembly of lords, after the conquest of Jerusalem. It was compiled principally from the laws and customs of France. They were reduced to form about the year 1290, by Jean d'Iblin, comte de Japhe et d'Ascalon. Fournel (Hist. des Avocats, vol. i. p. 49,) calls them the most precious monument of our (French) ancient law. He defines the word assises to signify the assemblies of the great, men of the realm. See also, 2 Profession d'Avocat, par Dupin, 674 to 680; Steph. on Plead. App. p. xi.
ASSISORS, Scotch law. This term corresponds nearly to that of jurors.
ASSIZE, Eng. law. This was the name of an ancient court; it derived its name from assideo, to sit together. Litt. s. 234; Co. Litt. 153 b., 159 b. It was a kind of jury before which no evidence was adduced, their verdict being regarded as a statement of facts, which they knew of their own knowledge. Bract. iv. 1, 6.
2. The name of assize was also given to a remedy for the restitution of a freehold, of which the complainant had been disseised. Bac. Ab. h. t. Assizes were of four kinds: Mort d'ancestor Novel Disseisin Darrien Presentment; and Utrum. Neale's F. & F. 84. This reimedy has given way to others less perplexed and more expeditious. Bac. Ab. h. t.; Co. Litt. 153-155.
3. The final judgment for the plaintiff in an assize of Novel Disseisin, is, that he recover per visum recognitorum, and it is sufficiently certain. if the recognitors can put the demandant in possession. Dyer, 84 b; 10 Wentw. PI. 221, note. In this action, the plaintiff cannot be compelled to be nonsuited. Plowd. 11 b. See 17 Serg. & R. 187; 1 Rawle, Rep. 48, 9.
4. There is, however, in this class of actions, an interlocutory judgment, or award in the nature of a judgment, and which to divers intents and purposes, is a judgment; 11 Co. Rep. 40 b; like the judgment of quod computet, in account render; or quod partitio flat, in partition; quod mensuratio fiat; ouster of aid; award of a writ of inquiry, in waste.; of damages in trespass; upon these and the like judgments, a writ of error does not lie. 11 Co. Rep. 40 a; Metcalf's Case, 2 Inst. 344 a: 24 Ed. III, 29 B 19.
ASSIZE OF MORT D' ANCESTOR. The name, of an ancient writ, now obsolete. It might have been sued out by one whose father, mother, brother, &c., died seised of lands, and tonements, which they held in fee , and which, after their death, a stranger abated. Reg. Orig. 223. See Mort d' Ancestor.
ASSOCIATE. This term is applied to a judge who is not the president of a court; as associate judge.
ASSOCIATION. The act of a number of persons uniting together for some purpose; the persons so joined are also called an association. See Company.
ASSUMPSIT, contracts. An undertaking either express or implied, to perform a parol agreement. 1 Lilly's Reg. 132.
2. An express assumpsit is where one undertakes verbally or in writing, not under seal, or by matter of record, to perform an act, or to pay a sum of money to another.
3. An implied assumpsit is where one has not made any formal promise to do an act or to pay a sum of money to another, but who is presumed from his conduct to have assumed to do what is in point of law just and right; for, 1st, it is to be presumed that no one desires to enrich himself at the expense of another; 2d, it is a rule that he who desires the antecedent, must abide by the consequent; as, if I receive a loaf of bread or a newspaper daily sent to my house without orders, and I use it without objection, I am presumed to have accepted the terms upon which the person sending it had in contemplation, that I should pay a fair price for it; 3d, it is also a rule that every one is presumed to assent to what is useful to him. See Assent
ASSUMPSIT, remedies, practice., A form of action which may be defined to be an action for the recovery of damages for the non-performance of, a parol or simple contract; or, in other words, a contract not under seal, nor of record; circumstances which distinguish this remedy from others. 7 T. R. 351; 3 Johns. Cas. 60. This action differs from the action of debt; for, in legal consideration, that is for the recovery of a debt eo nomine, and in numero, and may be upon a deed as well as upon any other contract. 1 h. Bl. 554; B. N. P. 167. It differs from covenant, which, though brought for the recovery of damages, can only be supported upon a contract under seal. See Covenant.
2. It will be proper to consider this subject with reference, 1, to the contract upon which this action may be sustained; 2, the declaration 3, the plea; 4, the judgment.
3. – 1. Assumpsit lies to recover damages for the breach of all parol or simple contracts, whether written or not written express or implied; for the payment of money, or for the performance or omission of any other act. For example, to recover, money lent, paid, or had and received, to the use of the plaintiff; and in some cases, where money has been received by the defendant, in consequence of some tortious act to the plaintiff's property, the plaintiff may waive the tort, and sue the defendant in assumpsit. 5 Pick. 285; 1 J. J. Marsh. 543 3 Watts, R. 277; 4 Binn. 374; 3 Dana, R. 552; 1 N. H. Rep. 151; 12 Pick. 120 4 Call. R. 461; 4 Pick. 452. It is the proper remedy for work and labor done, and services rendered 1 Gill, 95; 8 S. & M. 397 2 Gilman, 1 3 Yeates, 250 9 Ala. 788 but such work, labor, or services, must be rendered at the request, express or implied, of the defendant; 2 Rep. Cons. Ct. 848; 1 M'Cord, 22; 20 John. 28 11 Mass. 37; 14 Mass. 176; 5 Monr. 513 1 Murph. 181; for goods sold and delivered; 6 J. J. Marsh. 441; 12 Pick. 120; 3 N. H. Rep. 384; 1 Mis. 430; for a breach of promise of marriage. 3 Mass. 73 2 Overton, 233 2 P. S. R. 80. Assumpsit lies to recover the purchase money for land sold; 14 Johns. R. 210; 14 Johns. R. 162; 20 Johns. R. 838 3 M'Cord, R. 421; and it lies, specially, upon wagers; 2 Chit. PI. 114; feigned issues; 2 Chit. PI. 116; upon foreign judgments; 8 Mass. 273; Dougl. 1; 3 East, 221; 11 East, 124; 3 T. R. 493; 5 Johns. R. 132. But it will not lie on a judgment obtained in a sister state. 1 Bibb, 361 19 Johns. 162; 3 Fairf. 94; 2 Rawle, 431. Assumpsit is the proper remedy upon an account stated. Bac. Ab. Assumpsit, A. It will lie for a corporation, 2 Lev. 252; 1 Camp. 466. In England it does not lie against a corporation, unless by express authority of some legislative act; 1 Chit. PI. 98; but in this country it lies against a corporation aggregate, on an express or implied promise, in the same manner as against an individual. 7 Cranch, 297 9 Pet. 541; 3 S. & R. 117 4 S. & R. 16 12 Johns. 231; 14 Johns. 118; 2 Bay, 109 1 Chipm. 371, 456; 1 Aik. 180 10 Mass, 397. But see 3 Marsh. 1; 3 Dall. 496.
4. – 2. The declaration must invariably disclose the consideration of the contract, the contract itself, and the breach of it; Bac. Ab. h. t. F 5 Mass. 98; but in a declaration on a negotiable instrument under the statute of Anne, it is not requisite to, allege any consideration; 2 Leigh, R. 198; and on a note expressed to have been given for value received, it is not necessary to aver a special consideration. 7 Johns. 321. See Mass. 97. The gist of this action is the promise, and it must be averred. 2 Wash. 187 2 N. H. Rep. 289 Hardin, 225. Damages should be laid in a sufficient amount to cover the real amount of the claim. See 4 Pick. 497; 2 Rep. Const. Ct. 339; 4 Munf. 95; 5 Munf. 23; 2 N. H. Rep. 289; 1 Breese, 286; 1 Hall, 201; 4 Johns. 280; 11 S. & R. 27; 5 S. & R. 519 6 Conn. 176; 9 Conn. 508; 1 N. & M. 342; 6 Cowen, 151; 2 Bibb, 429; 3 Caines, 286.
5. – 3. The usual plea is non-assumpsit, (q. v.) under which the defendant may give in evidence most matters of defence. Com. Dig. Pleader, 2 G 1. When there are several defendants they cannot plead the general issue severally; 6 Mass. 444; nor the same plea in bar, severally. 13 Mass. 152. The plea of not guilty, in an action of assumpsit, is cured by verdict. 8 S. & R. 541; 4 Call. 451. See 1 Marsh, 602; 17 Mass. 623. 2 Greenl. 362; Minor, 254 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
6. – 4. Judgment. Vide Judgment in Assumpsit. Vide Bac. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. Action upon the Case upon Assumpsit; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Viner's Ab. h. t.; 1 Chit. Pi. h. t.; Petersd. h. t.; Lawes PI. in Assumpsit the various Digests, h. t. Actions; Covenant; Debt; Indebitatus assumpsit; Padum Constitutiae pecuniae.
ASSURANCE, com. law. Insurance. (q. v.)
ASSURANCE, conveyancing. This is called a common assurance. But the term assurances includes, in an enlarged sense, all instruments which dispose of property, whether they be the grants of private persons, or not; such are fines and recoveries, and private acts of the legislature. Eunom. Dial. 2, s. 5.
ASSURED. A person who has been insured by some insurance company, or underwriter, against losses or perils mentioned in the policy of insurance. Vide Insured.
ASSURER. One who insures another against certain perils and dangers. The same as underwriter. (q. v.) Vide Insurer.
ASSYTHMENT, Scotch law. An indemnification which a criminal is bound to make to the party injured or his executors, though the crime itself should be extinguished by pardon. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4, 3, 13.
ASYLUM. A place, of refuge where debtors and criminals fled for safety.
2. At one time, in Europe, churches and other consecrated places served as asylums, to the disgrace of the law. These never protected criminals in the United States. It may be questioned whether the house of an ambassador (q. v.) would not afford protection temporarily, to a person who should take refuge there.
AT LAW. This phrase is used to point out that a thing is to be done according to the course of the common law; it is distinguished from a proceeding in equity.
2. In many cases when there is no remedy at law, one will be afforded in equity. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2411.
ATAVUS. The male ascendant in the fifth degree, was so called among the Romans, and in tables of genealogy the term is still employed.
ATHEIST. One who denies the existence of God.
2. As atheists have not any religion that can bind their consciences to speak the truth, they are excluded from being witnesses. Bull. N. P. 292; 1 Atk. 40; Gilb. Ev. 129; 1 Phil. Ev. 19. See also, Co. Litt. 6 b.; 2 Inst. 606; 3 Inst. 165; Willes, R. 451 Hawk. B. 2, c. 46, s. 148; 2 Hale's P. C. 279.
TO ATTACH, crim. law, practice. To an attachment for contempt for the non-take or apprehend by virtue of the order of a writ or precept, commonly called an attachment. It differs from an arrest in this, that he who arrests a man, takes him to a person of higher power to be disposed of; but be who attaches, keeps the party attached, according to the exigency of his writ, and brings him into court oh the day assigned. Kitch. 279; Bract. lib. 4; Fleta, lib. 5, c. 24; 17 S. & R. 199.
ATTACHE'. Connected with, attached to. This word is used to signify those persons who are attached to a foreign legation. An attache is a public minister within the meaning of the Act of April 30, 1790, s. 37, 1 Story's L. U. S. 89, which protects from violence "the person of an ambassador or other public minister." 1 Bald. 240 Vide 2 W. C. C. R. 205; 4 W. C. C. R. 531; 1 Dall. 117; 1 W. C. C. R. 232; 4 Dall. 321. Vide Ambassador; Consul; Envoy; Minister.
ATTACHMENT, crim. law, practice. A writ requiring a sheriff to apprehend a particular person, who has been guilty of. a contempt of court, and to bring the offender before the court. Tidd's Pr. Index, h. t.; Grab. Pr. 555.
2. It may be awarded by the court upon a bare suggestion, though generally an oath stating what contempt has been committed is required, or on their own knowledge without indictment or information. An attachment may be issued against officers of the court for disobedience or contempt of their rules and orders, for disobedience of their process, and for disturbing them in their lawful proceedings. Bac. Ab. h. t. A. in the nature of a civil execution, and it was therefore held it could not be executed on Sunday; 1 T. R. 266; Cowper, 394; Willes, R. 292, note (b); yet, in. one case, it was decided, that it was so far criminal, that it could not be granted in England on the affirmation of a Quaker. Stra. 441. See 5 Halst. 63; 1 Cowen, 121, note; Bac. Ab. h. t.
ATTACHMENT, remedies. A writ issued by a court of competent jurisdiction, commanding the sheriff or other proper officer to seize any property; credit, or right, belonging to the defendant, in whatever hands the same may be found, to satisfy the demand which the plaintiff has against him.
2. This writ always issues before judgment, and is intended to compel an appearance in this respect it differs from an execution. In some of the states this process can be issued only against absconding debtors, or those who conceal themselves; in others it is issued in the first instance, so that the property attached may respond to the exigency of the writ, and satisfy the judgment.
3. There are two kinds of attachment in Pennsylvania, the foreign attachment, and the domestic attachment. l. The foreign attachment is a mode of proceeding by a creditor against the property of his debtor, when the debtor is out of the jurisdiction of the state, and is not an inhabitant of the same. The object of this process is in the first instance to compel an appearance by the debtor, although his property may even eventually be made liable to the amount of the plaintiff Is claim. It will be proper to consider, 1. by whom it be issued; 2. against what property 3. mode of proceeding. 1. The plaintiff must be a creditor of the defendant; the claim of the plaintiff need not, however, be technically a debt, but it may be such on which an action of assumpsit would lie but an attachment will not lie for a demand which arises ex delicto; or when special bail would not be regularly required. Serg. on Att. 51. 2. The writ of attachment may be issued against the real and personal estate of any person not residing within the commonwealth, and not being within the county in which such writ may issue, at the time. of the issuing thereof. And proceedings may be had against persons convicted of crime, and sentenced to imprisonment. 3. The writ of attachment is in general terms, not specifying in the body of it the name of the garnishee, or the property to be attached, but commanding the officer to attach the defendant, by all and singular his goods and chattels, in whose hands or possession soever the same may be found in his bailiwick, so that he be and appear before the court at a certain time to answer, &c. The foreign attachment is issued solely for the benefit of the plaintiff.
4. – 2. The domestic attachment is issued by the court of common pleas of the county in which any debtor, being an inhabitant of the commonwealth, may reside; if such debtor shall have absconded from the place of his usual abode within the same, or shall have remained absent from the commonwealth, or shall have confined himself to his own house, or concealed himself elsewhere, with a design, in either case, to defraud his creditors. It is issued on an oath or affirmation, previously made by a creditor of such person, or by some one on his bebalf, of the truth of his debt, and of the facts upon which the attachment may be founded. Any other creditor of such person, upon affidavit of his debt as aforesaid, may suggest his name upon the record, and thereupon such creditor may proceed to prosecute his said writ, if the person suing the same shall refuse or neglect to proceed thereon, or if he fail to establish his right to prosecute the same, as a creditor of the defendant. The property attached is vested in trustees to be appointed by the court, who are, after giving six months public notice of their appointment, to distribute the assets attached among the creditors under certain regulations prescribed by the act of assembly. Perishable goods way be sold under an order of the court, both under a foreign and domestic attachment. Vide Serg. on Attachments Whart. Dig. title Attachment.
5. By the code of practice of Louisiana, an attachment in the hands of third person is declared to be a mandate which a creditor obtains from a competent officer, commanding the seizure of any property, credit or right, belonging to his debtor, in whatever hands they may be found, to satisfy the demand which he intends to bring against him. A creditor may obtain such attachment of the property of his debtor, in the following cases. 1. When such debtor is about permanently leaving the state, without there being a possibility, in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, of obtaining or executing judgment against him previous to, his departure; or when such debtor has already left the state never again to return. 2. When such debtor resides out of the state. 3. When he conceals himself to avoid being cited or forced to answer to the suit intended to be brought against him. Articles 239, 240.
6. By the local laws of some of the New England states, and particularly of the states of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Maine, personal property and real estate may be attached upon mesne process to respond the exigency of the writ, and satisfy the judgment. In such cases it is the common practice for the officer to bail the goods attached, to some person, who is usually a friend of the debtor, upon an express or implied agreement on his part, to have them forthcoming on demand, or in time to respond the judgment, when the execution thereon shall be issued. Story on Bailm. 124. As to the rights and duties of the officer or bailor in such cases, and as to the rights and duties of the bailee, who is conmmonly called the receiptor, see 2 Mass. 514; 9 Mass. 112 11 Mass. 211; 6 Johns. R. 195 9 Mass. 104, 265; 10 Mass. 125 15 Mass. 310; 1 Pick. R. 232, 389. See Metc. & Perk. Dig. tit. Absent and Absconding Debtors.
ATTACHMENT OF PRIVILEGE, Eng. law. A process by which a man by virtue of his privilege, calls another to litigate in that court to which he himself belongs; and who has the privilege to answer there.
ATTAINDER, English criminal law. Attinctura, the stain or corruption of blood which arises from being condemned for any crime.
2. Attainder by confession, is either by pleading guilty at the bar before the judges, and not putting one's self on one's trial by a jury; or before the coroner in sanctuary, when in ancient times, the offender was obliged to abjure the realm.
3. Attainder by verdict, is when the prisoner at the bar pleads not guilty to the indictment, and is pronounced guilty by the verdict of the jury.
4. Attainder by process or outlawry, is when the party flies, and is subsequently outlawed. Co. Lit. 391.
5. Bill of attainder, is a bill brought into parliament for attainting persons condemned for high treason. By the constitution of the United States, art. 1, sect. 9, 3, it is provided that no bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
ATTAINT, English law. 1. Atinctus, attainted, stained, or blackened. 2. A writ which lies to inquire whether a jury of twelve men gave a false verdict. Bract. lib. 4, tr. 1, c. 134; Fleta, lib. 5, c. 22, 8.
2. It was a trial by jury of twenty-four men empanelled to try the goodness, of a former verdict. 3 Bl. Com. 351; 3 Gilb. Ev. by Lofft, 1146. See Assize.
ATTEMPT, criminal law. An attempt to commit a crime, is an endeavor to accomplish it, carried beyond mere preparation, but falling short of execution of the ultimate design, in any part of it.
2. Between preparations and attempts to commit a crime, the distinction is in many cases, very indeterminate. A man who buys poison for the purpose of committing a murder, and mixes it in the food intended for his victim, and places it on a table where he may take it, will or will not be guilty of an attempt to poison, from the simple circumstance of his taking back the poisoned food before or after the victim has had an opportunity to take it; for if immediately on putting it down, he should take it up, and, awakened to a just consideration of the enormity of the crime, destroy it, this would amount only to preparations and certainly if before he placed it on the table, or before he mixed the poison with the food, he had repented of his intention there would have been no attempt to commit a crime; the law gives this as a locus penitentiae. An attempt to commit a crime is a misdemeanor; and an attempt to commit a misdemeanor, is itself a misdemeanor. 1 Russ. on Cr. 44; 2 East, R. 8; 3 Pick. R. 26; 3 Benth. Ev. 69; 6 C. & P. 368.
ATTENDANT. One who owes a duty or service to another, or in some sort depends upon him. Termes de la Ley, h. t. As to attendant terms, see Powell on Morts. Index, tit. Attendant term; Park on Dower, c. 1 7.
ATTENTAT, In the language of the civil and canon laws, is anything whatsoever in the suit by the judge a quo, pending an appeal. 1 Addams, R. 22, n.; Ayl. Par. 100.
ATTERMINING. The granting a time or term for the payment of a debt. This word is not used. See Delay.
ATTESTATION, contracts and evidence. The act of witnessing an instrument of writing, at the request of the party making the same, and subscribing it as a witness. 3 P. Wms. 254 2 Ves. 454 1 Ves. & B. 362;3 Marsh. 146; 3 Bibb. 494; 17 Pick. 373.
2. It will be proper to consider, 1. how it is to be made 2. bow it is proved; 3. its effects upon the witness; 4. its effect upon the parties.
3. – 1. The attestation should be made in the case of wills, agreeably to the direction of the statute; Com. Dig. Estates, E 1 and in the case of deeds or other writings, at the request of the party executing the same. A person who sees an instrument executed, but is not desired by the parties to attest it, is not therefore an attesting witness, although he afterwards subscribes it as such. 3 Camp. 232. See, as to the form of attestation, 2 South. R. 449.
4. – 2. The general rule is, that an attested instrument must be proved by the attesting witness. But to this rule there are various exceptions, namely: 1. If he reside out of the jurisdiction of the court; 22 Pick. R. 85; 2. or is dead; 3. or becomes insane; 3 Camp. 283; 4. or has an interest; 5 T. R. 371; 5. or has married the party who offers the instrument; 2 Esp. C. 698 6. or refuses to testify 4 M. & S. 353; 7. or where the witness swears he did not see the writing executed; 8. or becomes infamous; Str. 833; 9. or blind; 1 Ld. Raym. 734. From these numerous cases, and those to be found in the books, it would seem that, whenever from any cause the attesting witness cannot be had secondary evidence may be given. But the inability to procure the witness must be absolute, and, therefore, when be is unable to attend from sickness only, his evidence cannot be dispensed with. 4 Taunt. 46. See 4 Halst. R. 322; Andr. 236 2 Str. 1096; 10 Ves. 174; 4 M. & S. 353 7 Taunt. 251; 6 Serg. & Rawle, 310; 1 Rep. Const.; Co. So. Ca. 310; 5 Cranch, 13; Com. Dig. tit. Testmoigne, Evidence, Addenda; 5 Com. Dig. 441; 4 Yeates, 79.
5. – 3. When the witness attests an instrument which conveys away, or disposes of his property or rights, he is estopped from denying the effects of such instrument; but in such case he must have been aware of its contents, and this must be proved. 1 Esp. C. 58.
6. – 4. Proof of the attestation is evidence of the sealing and delivery. 6 Serg. & Rawle, 311; 2 East, R. 250; 1 Bos. & Pull. 360; 7 T. R. 266. See, in general, Starkie's Ev. part 2, 332; 1 Phil. Ev. 419 to 421; 12 Wheat. 91; 2 Dall. 96; 3 Rawle's Rep. 312 1 Ves. Jr. 12; 2 Eccl. Rep. 60, 214, 289, 367 1 Bro. Civ, Law, 279, 286; Gresl. Eq. Ev. 119 Bouv. Inst. n. 3126.
ATTESTATION CLAUSE, wills and contracts. That clause wherein the witnesses certify that the instrument has been executed before them, and the manner of the execution of the same. The usual attestation clause to a will, is in the following formula, to wit: "Signed, sealed, published and declared by the above named A B, as and for his last will and testament, in the presence of us, who have hereunto subscribed our names as the witnesses thereto, in the presence of the said testator, and of each other." That of deeds is generally in these words " Sealed and delivered in the presence of us."
2. When there is an attestation clause to a will, unsubscribed by witnesses, the presumption, though slight, is that the will is in an unfinished state; and it must be removed by some extrinsic circumstances. 2 Eccl. Rep. 60. This 'presumption is infinitely slighter, where the writer's iutention to have it regularly attested, is to be collected only from the single vord " witnesses." Id. 214. See 3 Phillim. R. 323; S. C. 1 Eng. Eccl. R. 407.
ATTESTING WITNESS. One who, upon being required by the parties to an instrument, signs his name to it to prove it, and for the purpose of identification.
2. The witness must be desired by the parties to attest it, for unless this be done, he will not be an attesting witness, although he may have seen the parties execute it. 3 Campb. 232. See Competent witness; Credible witness; Disinterested witness; Respectable witness; Subscribing witness; and Witness; Witness instrumentary; 5 Watts, 399; 3 Bin. 194.
ATTORNEY. One who acts for another byvirtue of an appointment by the latter. Attorneys are of various kinds.
2. Attorney in fact. A person to whom the authority of another, who is called the constituent, is by him lawfully delegated. This term is employed to designate persons who act under a special agency, or a special letter of attorney, so that they are appointed in factum, for the deed, or special act to be performed; but in a more extended sense it includes all other agents employed in any business, or to do any act or acts in pais for another. Bac. Ab. Attorney; Story, Ag. 25.
3. All persons who are capable of acting for themselves, and even those who are disqualified from acting in their own capacity, if they have sufficient understanding, as infants of a proper age and femes coverts, may act as attorneys of others. Co. Litt. 52, a; 1 Esp. Cas. 142; 2 Esp. Cas. 511 2 Stark. Cas. N. P. 204.
4. The form of his appointment is by letter of attorney. (q. v.)
5. The object of his appointment is the transaction of some business of the constituent by the attorney.
6. The attorney is bound to act with due diligence after having accepted the employment, and in the end, to 'render an account to his principal of the acts which be has performed for him. Vide Agency; Agent; Authority; and Principal.
7. Attorney at law. An officer in a court of justice, who is employed by a party in a cause to manage the same for him. Appearance by an attorney has been allowed in England, from the time of the earliest records of the courts of that country. They are mentioned in Glanville, Bracton, Fleta, and Britton; and a case turning upon the party's right to appear by attorney, is reported, B. 17 Edw. III., p. 8, case 23. In France such appearances were first allowed by letters patent of Philip le Bel, A. D. 1290. 1 Fournel, Hist. des Avocats, 42; 43, 92, 93 2 Loisel Coutumes, 14, 15. It results from the nature of their functions, and of their duties, as well to the court as to the client, that no one can, even by consent, be the attorney of both the litigating parties, in the same controversy. Farresly, 47.
8. In some courts, as in the supreme court of the United States, advocates are divided into counsellors at law, (q. v.) and attorneys. The business of attorneys is to carry on the practical and formal parts of the suit. 1 Kent, Com. 307. See as to their powers, 2 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 241, 254; 3 Chit. Bl. 23, 338; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 3 Penna. R. 74; 3 Wils. 374; 16 S. & R. 368; 14 S. & R. 307; 7 Cranch, 452; 1 Penna. R. 264. In general, the agreement of an attorney at law, within the scope of his employment, binds his client; 1 Salk. 86 as to amend the record, 1 Binn. 75; to refer a cause 1 Dall. Rep. 164; 6 Binn. 101; 7 Cranch, 436; 3 Taunt. 486; not to sue out a writ of error; 1 H. Bl. 21, 23 2 Saund. 71, a, b; 1 Term Rep. 388 to strike off a non pros; 1 Bin. 469-70 to waive a judgment by default; 1 Arcb. Pr. 26; and this is but just and reasonable. 2 Bin. 161. But the act must be within the scope of their authority. They cannot, for example, without special authority, purchase lands for the client at sheriff's sale. 2 S. & R. 21 11 Johns. 464.
9. The name of attorney is given to those officers who practice in courts of common law; solicitors, in courts. of equity and proctors, in courts of admiralty, and in the English ecclesiastical courts.
10. The principal duties of an attorney are, 1. To be true to the court and to his client; 2. To manage the business of his client with care, skill and integrity. 4 Burr. 2061 1 B. & A. 202; 2 Wils. 325; 1 Bing. R. 347; 3. To keep his client informed as to the state of his business; 4. To keep his secrets confided to him as such. See Client Confidential Communication.
11. For a violation of his duties, an action will in general lie; 2 Greenl. Ev. 145, 146; and, in some cases, he may be punished by an attachment. His rights are, to be justly compensated for his services. Vide 1 Keen's R. 668; Client; Counsellor at law.
12. Attorney-general of the United States, is an officer appointed by the president. He should be learned in the law, and be sworn or affirmed to a faithful execution of his office.
13. His duties are to prosecute and conduct all suits in the supreme court, in which the United States shall be concerned; and give his advice upon questions of law, when required by the president, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments, touching matters that may Concern their departments. Act of 24th Sept. 1789.
14. His salary is three thousand five hundred dollars per annum, and he is allowed one clerk, whose compensation shall not exceed one thousand dollars per annum. Act 20th Feb. 1819, 3 Story's Laws, 1720, and Act 20th April, 1818, s. 6, 3 Story's Laws, 1693. By the act of May 9, 1830, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story, L. U. S. 2208, 10, his salary is increased five hundred dollars per annum.
ATTORNMENT, estates. Was the agreement of the tenant to the grant of the seignory, or of a rent, or the agreement of the donee in tail, or tenant for life, or years, to a grant of a reversion or of a remainder made to another. Co. Litt. 309; Touchs. 253. Attornments are rendered unnecessary, even in England, by virtue of sundry statutes, and they are abolished in the United States. 4 Kent, Com. 479; 1 Hill. Ab. 128, 9. Vide 3 Vin. Ab. 317; 1 Vern. 330, n.; Saund. 234, n. 4; Roll. Ab. h. t.; Nelson's Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. h. t.
AU BESOIN. This is a French phrase, used in commercial law. When the drawer of a foreign bill of exchange wishes as a matter of precaution, and to-save expenses, he puts in the corner of the bill, " Au besoin chez Messieurs or, in other words, " In case of need, apply to Messrs. at __________ " ___________." 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1133 Pardess Droit Com. 208.
AUBAINE, French law. When a foreigner died in France, the crown by virtue of a right called droit d'aubaine, formerly claimed all the personal property such foreigner had in France at the time of his death. This barbarous law was swept away by the French revolution of 1789. Vide Albinatus Jus. 1 Malleville's Analyse de la Discussion du Code Civil, pp. 26, 28 1 Toullier, 236, n. 265.
AUCTION, commerce, contract. A public sale of property to the highest bidder. Among the Romans this kind of sale, was made by a crier under a spear (sub hasta) stuck in the ground.
2. Auctions are generally held by express authority, and the person who conducts them is licensed to do so under various regulations.
3. The manner of conducting an auction is imaterial; whether it be by public outcry or by any other manner. The essential part is the selection of a purchaser from a number of bidders. In a case where a woman continued silent during the whole time of the sale, but whenever anyone bid she gave him a glass of brandy, and when the sale broke up, the person who received the last glass of brandy was taken into a private room, and he was declared to be the purchaser; this was adjudged to be an auction. 1 Dow. 115.
4. The law requires fairness in auction sales, and when a puffer is employed to raise the property offered for sale on bona fide bidders, or a combination is entered into between two or more persons not to overbid each other, the contract may in general be avoided. Vide Puffer, and 6 John. R. 194; 8 John. R. 444; 3 John. Cas. 29; Cowp. 395; 6 T. R. 642; Harr. Dig. Sale, IV.; and the article Conditions Sale. Vide Harr. Dig. Sale, IV.; 13 Price, R. 76; M'Clel. R. 25; 6 East, R. 392; 5 B. & A. 257; S. C. 2 Stark. R. 295; 1 Esp. R. 340; 5 Esp. R. 103 4 Taunt. R. 209; 1 H. Bl. R. 81; 2 Chit. R. 253; Cowp. R. 395; 1 Bouv. Inst., n. 976.
AUCTIONEER, contracts, commerce. A person authorized by law to sell the goods of others at public sale.
2. He is the agent of both parties, the seller and the buyer. 2 Taunt. 38, 209 4 Greenl. R. 1; Chit. Contr. 208.
3. His rights are, 1. to charge a commission for his services; 2. be has an interest in the goods sold coupled with the possession; 3. he has a lien for his commissions; 4. he may sue the buyer for the purchase-money.
4. He is liable, 1. to the owner for a faithful discharge of his duties in the sale, and if he gives credit without authority, for the value of the goods; 2. he is responsible for the duties due to the government; 3. he is answerable to the purchaser when he does not disclose the name of the principal; 4. be may be sued when he sells the goods of a third person, after notice not to sell them. Peake's Rep. 120; 2 Kent, Com. 423, 4; 4 John. Ch. R. 659; 3 Burr. R. 1921;.2 Taunt. R. 38; 1, Jac. & Walk. R. 350; 3 V. & B. 57; 13 Ves. R. 472; 1 Y. & J. R. 389; 5 Barn, & Ald. 333; 1 H. Bl. 81; 7 East, R. 558; 4 B. & Adolpb. R. 443; 7 Taunt. 209; 3 Chit. Com. L. 210; Story on Ag. 27 2 Liv. Ag. 335 Cowp. 395; 6 T. R. 642; 6 John. 194; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
AUCTOR. Among the Romans the seller was called auctor; and public, sales were made by fixing a spear in the forum, and a person who acted as crier stood by the spear the catalogue of the goods to be sold was made in tables called auctionariae.
AUDIENCE. A hearing. It is usual for the executive of a country to whom a minister has been sent, to give such minister an audience. And after a minister has been recalled, au audience of leave usually takes place.
AUDIENCE COURT, Eng. eccl. law. A court belonging to the archbishop of Canterbury, having the same authority with the court of arches. 4 Inst. 337.
AUDIENDO ET TERMINANDO, oyer and terminer, English crim. law. A writ, or rather a commission, directed to certain persons for the trial and punishment of such persons as have been concerned in a riotous assembly, insurrection or other heinous misdemeanor.
AUDITA QUERELA. A writ applicable to the case of a defendant against whom a judgment has been recovered, (and who is therefore in danger of execution or perhaps actually in execution,) grounded on some matter of discharge which happened after the judgment, and not upon any matter which might have been pleaded as a defence to the action. 13 Mass. 453; 12 Mass. 270; 6 Verm. 243; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 2 Saund. 148, n. 1; 2 Sell. Pr. 252.
2. It is a remedial process, which bears solely on the wrongful acts of the opposite party, and not upon the erroneous judgments or acts of the court. 10 Mass. 103; 17 Mass. 159; 1 Aik. 363. It will therefore, where the cause of complaint is a proper subject for a writ of error. 1 Verm. 433, 491; Brayt. 27.
3. An audita querela is in the nature of an equitable suit, in which the equitable rights of the parties will be considered. 10 Mass. 101; 14 Mass. 448 2 John. Cas. 227.
4. An audita querela is a regular suit, in which the parties may plead, take issue, &c. 17 John. 484. But the writ must be allowed in open court, and is not, of itself, a supersedeas, which may or may not be granted, in the discretion of the court, according to circumstances. 2 John. 227.
5. In modern practice, it is usual to grant the same relief, on motion, which might be obtained by audita querela: 4 John. 191 11 S. & R. 274 and in Virginia, 5 Rand. 639, and South Carolina, 2 Hill, 298; the summary remedy, by motion, has superseded this ancient remedy. In Pennsylvania this writ. It seems, may still be maintained, though relief is more generally obtained on motion. 11 S. & R. 274. Vide, generally, Pet. C. C. R. 269; Brayt. 2 or, 28; Walker, 66 1 Chipm. 387; 3 Conn. 260; 10 Pick. 439 1 Aik. 107; 1 Overt. 425 2 John. Cas. 227 1 Root; 151; 2 Root, 178; 9 John. 221 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
AUDITOR. An officer whose duty is to examine the accounts of officers who have received and dishursed public moneys by lawful authority. See Acts of Congress, April 3, 1817; 3 Story's Laws U. S. 1630; and the Act of February 24, 1819, 3 Story's L. U. S. 1722.
AUDITORS, practice. Persons lawfully appointed to examine and digest accounts referred to them, take down the evidence in writing, which may be lawfully offered in relation to such accounts, and prepare materials on which a decree or judgment may be made; and to report the whole, together with their opinion, to the, court in which such accounts originated. 6 Cranch, 8; 1 Aik. 145; 12 Mass. 412.
2. Their report is not, per se, binding and conclusive, but will become so, unless excepted to. 5 Rawle, R. 323. It may be set aside, either with or without exceptions to it being filed. In the first case, when errors are apparent on its face, it may be set aside or corrected. 2 Cranch, 124; 5 Cranch, 313. In the second case, it may be set aside for any fraud, corruption, gross misconduct, or error. 6 Cranch, 8; 4 Cranch, 308; 1 Aik. 145. The auditors ought to be sworn, but this will be presumed. 8 Verm. 396.
3. Auditors are also persons appointed to examine the accounts subsisting between the parties in an action of account render, after a judgment quod computet. Bac. Ab. Accompt, F.
4. The auditors are required to state a special account, 4 Yeates, 514, and the whole is to be brought down to the time when they make an end of their account. 2 Burr. 1086. And auditors are to make proper charges and credits without regard to time, or the verdict. 2 S. & R. 317. When the facts or matters of law are disputed before them, they are to report them to the court, when the former will be decided by a jury, and the latter by the court, and the result sent to the auditors for their guidance. 5 Binn. 433.
AUGMENTATION, old English law. The name of a court erected by Henry VIII., which was invested with the power of determining suits and controversies relating to monasteries and abbey lands.
AULA REGIS. The name of an English court, so called because it was held in the great hall of the king's palace. Vide Curia Regis.
AUNT, domestic relations. The sister of one's father or mother; she is a relation in the third degree. Vide 2 Com. Dig. 474 Dane's Ab. c. 126, a. 3. 4.
AUTER. Another. This word is frequently used in composition, us auter droit, auter vie, auter action, &c. .
AUTRE ACTION PENDANT. A plea that another action is pending for the same cause.
2. It is evident that a plaintiff cannot have two actions at the same time, for the same cause, against the same defendant; and when a second action is so commenced, and this plea is filed, the first action must be discontinued, and the costs paid, and this ought to be done before the plaintiff replies nul tiel record. Grah. Pr. 98. See Lis Pendens.
3. But the suit must be for the same cause, in order to take advantage of it under these circumstances, for if it be for a different cause, as, if the action be for a lien, as, a proceeding in, rem to enforce a mechanic's lien, it cannot be pleaded in abatement in an action for the labor and materials. 3 Scamm. 201. See 16 Verm. 234; 1 Richards, 438; 3 Watts & S. 395 7 Mete. 570; 9 N. H. Rep. 545.
4. In general, the pending of another action must be pleaded in abatement; 3 Rawle, 320; 1 Mass. 495; 5 Mass. 174, 179; 2 N. H. Rep. 36 7 Verm. 124; 3 Dana, 157; 1 Ashm. 4, 2 Browne, 175 4 H. & M. 487; but in a penal action, at the suit of a common informer, the priority of a former suit for the same penalty in the name of a third person, may be pleaded in bar, because the party who first sued is entitled to the penalty. 1 Chit. PI. 443.
5. Having once arrested a defendant, the plaintiff cannot, in general, arrest him again for the same cause of action. Tidd. 184. But under special circumstance's, of which the court will judge, a defendant may be arrested a second time. 2 Miles, 99, 100, 141, 142. Vide Bac. Ab. Bail in civil cases, B 3; Grah. Pr. 98; Troub. & H. Pr. 44; 4 Yeates, 206, 1 John. Cas. 397; 7 Taunt. 151; 1 Marsh. 395; and Lis Pendens.
AUTER DROIT, or more properly, Autre Droit, another's right. A man may sue Or be sued in another's right; this is the case with executors and administrators.
AUTHENTIC. This term signifies an original of whichthere is no doubt.
AUTHENTIC ACT, civil law, contracts, evidence. The authentic act is that which has been executed before a notary or other public officer authorized to execute such functions, or which is testified by a public seal, or has been rendered public by the authority of a competent magistrate, or which is certified as being a copy of a public register. Nov. 73, c. 2; Code, 7, 52; 6; Id. 4, 21; Dig. 22, 4.
2. In Louisiana, the authentic act, as it relates to contracts, is that which has been executed before a notary public or other officer authorized to execute such functions, in presence of two witnesses, free, male, and aged at least fourteen years, or of three witnesses, if the party be blind. If the party does not know how to sign, the notary must cause him to affix his mark to the instrument. Civil Code of Lo., art. 2231.
3. The authentic act is full proof of the agreement contained in it, against the contracting parties and their. heirs or assigns, unless it be declared and proved to be a forgery. Id. art. 2233. Vide Merl. Rep. h. t.
AUTHENTICATION, practice. An attestation made by a proper officer, by which he certifies that a record is in due form of law, and that the person who certifies it is the officer appointed by law to do so.
2. The Constitution of the U. S., art. 4, s. 1, declares, "Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof." The object of the authentication is to supply all other proof of the record. The laws of the United States have provided a mode of authentication of public records and office papers; these acts are here transcribed.
3. By the Act of May 26, 1790, it is provided, "That the act of the legislatures of the several states shall be authenticated by havig the seal of their respective states affixed thereto: That the records and judicial proceedings of the courts of any state shall be proved or admitted, in any other court within the United States, by the attestation of the clerk, and the seal of the court annexed, if there be a seal, together with a certificate of the judge, chief justice or presiding magistrate, as the case may be, that the said attestation is in due form. And the said records and judicial proceedings, authenticated as aforesaid, shall have such faith and credit given to them, in every court within the United States, as they have, by law or usage, in the courts of the state from whence the said records are, or shall be taken."
4. The above act having provided only for one species of record, it was necessary to pass the Act of March 27, 1804, to provide for other cases. By this act it is enacted, 1. " That, from and after the passage of this act, all records and exemplifications of office books, which are or may be kept in any public office of any state, not appertaining to a court, shall be proved or admitted in any other court or office in any other state, by the attestation of the keeper of the said records or books, and the seal of his office thereto annexed, if there be a seal, together with a certificate of the presiding justice of the court of the county or district, as the case may be, in which such office is or may be kept or of the governor, the secretary of state, the chancellor or the keeper of the great seal of the state, that the said attestation is in due form, and by the proper officer and the said certificate, if given by the presiding justice of a court, shall be further authenticated by the clerk or prothonotary of the said court, who shall certify, under his hand and the seal of his office, that the said presiding justice is duly commissioned and qualified; or if the said certificate be given by the; governor, the secretary of state, the chancellor or keeper of the great seal, it shall be under the great seal of the state in which the said certificate is made. And the said records and exemplifications, authenticated as aforesaid, shall have such faith and credit given to them in every court and office within the United States, as they have by law or usage in the courts or offices of the state from whence the same are or shall be taken."
5. – 2. That all the provisions of this act, and the act to which this is, a supplement, shall apply, as well to the public acts, records, office books, judicial proceedings, courts, and offices of the respective territories of the United States, and countries subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, as to the public acts, records, office books, judicial proceedings, courts and offices of the several states."
6. The Act of May 8, 1792, s. 12, provides: That all the records and proceedings of the court of appeals, heretofore appointed, previous to the adoption of the present constitution, shall be deposited in the office of the clerk of the supreme court of the United States, who is hereby authorized and directed to give copies of all such records and proceedings, to any person requiring and paying for the same, in like manner as copies of the records and other proceedings of the said court are by law directed to be given; which copies shall have like faith and credit as all other proceedings of the said court."
7. By authentication is also understood whatever act is done either by the party or some other person with a view of causing an instrument to be known and identified as for example, the acknowledgment of a deed by the grantor; the attesting a deed by witnesses. 2 Benth. on Ev. 449.
AUTHENTICS, civ. law. This is the name given to a collection of the Novels of Justinian, made by an anonymous author. It is called authentic on account of its authority.
2. There is also another collection which bears the name of authentics. It is composed of extracts made from the Novels, by a lawyer named Irnier, and which he inserted in the code at such places as they refer; these extracts have the reputation of not being correct. Merlin, Repertoire, mot Authentique.
AUTHORITIES, practice. By this word is understood the citations which are made of laws, acts of the legislature, and decided cases, and opinions of elementary writers. In its more confined sense, this word means, cases decided upon solemn argument which are said to 'be authorities for similar judgments iii like cases. 1 Lilly's Reg. 219. These latter are sometimes called precedents. (q. v.) Merlin, Repertoire, mot Autorites.
2. It has been remarked, that when we find an opinion in a text writer upon any particular point, we must consider it not merely as the opinion of the author, but as the supposed result of the authorities to which he refers; 3 Bos. & Pull. 361; but this is not always the case, and frequently the opinion is advanced with the reasons which support it, and it must stand or fall as these are or are not well founded. A distinction has been made between writers who have, and those who have not holden a judicial station; the former are considered authority, and the latter are not so considered unless their works have been judicially approved as such. Ram. on Judgments, 93. But this distinction appears not to be well founded; some writers who have occupied a judicial station do not possess the talents or the learning of others who have not been so elevated, and the works or writings of the latter are much more deserving the character of an authority than those of the former. See 3 T. R. 4, 241.
AUTHORITY, contracts. The delegation of power by one person to another.
2. We will consider, 1. The delegation 2. The nature of the authority. 3. The manner it is to be executed. 4. The effects of the authority.
3. – 1. The authority may be delegated by deed, or by parol. 1. It may be delegated by deed for any purpose whatever, for whenever an authority by parol would be sufficient, one by deed will be equally so. When the authority is to do something which must be performed through the medium of a deed, then the authority must also be by deed, and executed with all the forms necessary, to render that instrument perfect; usless, indeed, the principal be present, and verbally or impliedly authorizes the agent to fix his name to the deed; 4 T. R. 313; W. Jones, R. 268; as, if a man be authorized to convey a tract of land, the letter of attorney must be by deed. Bac. Ab. h. t.; 7 T. R. 209; 2 Bos. & Pull, 338; 5 Binn. 613;. 14 S. & A. 331; 6 S. & R. 90; 2 Pick. R. 345; 6 Mass. R. 11; 1 Wend. 424 9 Wend. R. 54, 68; 12 Wend. R. 525; Story, Ag. 49; 3 Kent, Com. 613, 3d edit.; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 195. But it does not require a written authority to sign an unscaled paper, or a contract in writing not under seal. Paley on Ag. by Lloyd, 161; Story, Ag. 50.
4. – 2. For many purposes, however, the authority may be by parol, either in writing not under seal, or verbally, or by the mere employment of the agent. Pal. on Agen. 2. The exigencies of commercial affairs render such an appointment indispensable; business would be greatly embarrassed, if a regular letter of attorney were required to sign or negotiate a promissory note or bill of exchange, or sell or buy goods, or write a letter, or procure a policy for another. This rule of the common law has been adopted and followed from the civil law. Story, Ag. 47; Dig. 3, 3, 1, 1 Poth. Pand. 3, 3, 3; Domat, liv. 1, tit. 15, 1, art. 5; see also 3 Chit. Com. Law, 5, 195 7 T. R. 350.
5. – 2. The authority given must have been possessed by the person who delegates it, or it will be void; and it must be of a thing lawful, or it will not justify the person to whom it is given. Dyer, 102; Kielw. 83. It is a maxim that delegata potestas non potest delegari, so that an agent who has a mere authority must execute it himself, and cannot delegate his authority to a sub-agent. See 5 Pet. 390; 3 Story, R. 411, 425; 11 Gill & John. 58; 26 Wend. 485; 15 Pick. 303, 307; 1 McMullan, 453; 4 Scamm. 127, 133; 2 Inst. 597. See Delegation.
6. Authorities are divided into general or special. A general authority is one which extends to all acts connected with a particular employment; a special authority is one confined to "an individual instance." 15 East, 408; Id. 38.
7. They are also divided into limited and unlimited. When the agent is bound by precise instructions, it is limited; and unlimited when be is left to pursue his own discretion. An authority is either express or implied.
8. An express authority may be by deed of by parol, that is in writing not under seal, or verbally.. The authority must have been actually given.
9. An implied authority is one which, although no proof exists of its having been actually given, may be inferred from the conduct of the principal; for example, when a man leaves his wife without support, the law presumes he authorizes her to buy necessaries for her maintenance; or if a master, usually send his servant to buy goods for him upon credit, and the servant buy some things without the master's orders, yet the latter will be liable upon the implied authority. Show. 95; Pal. on Ag. 137 to 146.
10. – 3. In considering in what manner the authority is to be executed, it will be necessary to examine, 1. By whom the authority must be executed. 2. In what manner. 3. In what time.
11. – 1. A delegated authority can be executed only by the person to whom it is given, for the confidence being personal, cannot be assigned to a stranger. 1 Roll. Ab. 330 2 Roll. Ab. 9 9 Co. 77 b .; 9 Ves. 236, 251 3 Mer. R. 237; 2 M. & S. 299, 301.
12. An authority given to two cannot be executed by one. Co. Litt. 112 b, 181 b. And an authority given to three jointly and separately, is not, in general, well executed by two. Co. Litt. 181 b; sed vide 1 Roll. Abr. 329, 1, 5; Com. Dig. Attorney, C 8 3 Pick. R. 232; 2 Pick. R. 345; 12 Mass. R. 185; 6 Pick. R. 198; 6 John. R. 39; Story, Ag. 42. These rules apply to on authority of a private nature, which must be executed by all to whom it is given; and notto a power of a public nature, which may be executed by all to whom majority. 9 Watts, R. 466; 5 Bin. 484, 5; 9 S, & R. 99. 2. When the authority is particular, it must in general be strictly pursued, or it will be void, unless the variance be merely circumstantial. Co. Litt. 49 b, 303, b; 6 T. R. 591; 2 H. Bl. 623 Co. Lit. 181 , b; 1 Tho. Co. Lit. 852.
13. – 2. As to the form to be observed in the execution of an authority, it is a general rule that an act done under a power of attorney must be done in the name Of the person who gives a power, and not in the attorney's name. 9 Co. 76, 77. It has been holden that the name of the attorney is not requisite. 1 W. & S. 328, 332; Moor, pl. 1106; Str. 705; 2 East, R. 142; Moor, 818; Paley on Ag. by Lloyd, 175; Story on Ag. 146 T 9 Ves. 236: 1 Y. & J. 387; 2 M. & S. 299; 4 Campb. R. 184; 2 Cox, R. 84; 9 Co. R. 75; 6 John. R. 94; 9 John. Pi,. 334; 10 Wend. R. 87; 4 Mass. R. 595; 2 Kent, Com. 631, 3d ed. But it matters not in what words this is done, if it sufficiently appear to be in the name of the principal, as, for A B, (the principal,) C D, (the attorney,) which has been held to be sufficient. See 15 Serg. & R. 55; 11 Mass. R. 97; 22 Pick. R. 168; 12 Mass. R. 237 9 Mass. 335; 16 Mass. R. 461; 1 Cowen, 513; 3 Wend. 94; Story, Ag. 154,275, 278, 395; Story on P. N., 69; 2 East, R. 142; 7 Watt's R. 121 6 John. R. 94. But see contra, Bac. Ab. Leases, J 10; 9 Co, 77; l Hare & Wall. Sel. Dec. 426.
14. – 3. The execution musr take place during the continuance, of the authority, which is determined either by revocation, or performance of the commission.
15. In general, an authority is revocable, unless it be given as a security, or it be coupled with an interest. 3 Watts & Serg. 14; 4 Campb. N. P. 272; 7 Ver. 28; 2 Kent's Com. 506; 8 Wheat. 203; 2 Cowen, 196; 2 Esp. N. P. Cases, 565; Bac. Abr. h. t. The revocation (q. v.) is either express or implied; when it is express and made known to the person authorized, the authority is at an end; the revocation is implied when the principal dies, or, if a female, marries; or the subject of the authority is destroyed, as if a man have authority to sell my house, and it is destroyed by fire or to buy for me a horse, and before the execution of the authority, the horse dies.
16. When once the agent has exercised all the authority given to him, the authority is at an end.
17. – 4. An authority is to be so construed as to include all necessary or usual means of executing it with effect 2 H. Bl. 618; 1 Roll. R. 390; Palm. 394 10 Ves. 441; 6 Serg. & R. 149; Com'. Dig. Attorney, C 15; 4 Campb. R. 163 Story on Ag. 58 to 142; 1 J. J. Marsh. R. 293 5 Johns. R. 58 1 Liv. on Ag. 103, 4 and when the agent acts, avowedly as such, within his authority, he is not personally responsible . Pal. on Ag. 4, 5. Vide, generally, 3 Vin. Ab. 416; Bac. Ab. h. f.; 1 Salk. 95 Com. Dig. h. t., and the titles there referred to. 1 Roll. Ab. 330 2 Roll. Ab. 9 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. and the articles, Attorney; Agency; Agent; Principal.
AUTHORITY, government. The right and power which an officer has in the exercise of a public function to compel obedience to his lawful commands. A judge, for example, has authority to enforce obedience to his not being correct. Merlin, Repertoire, mot Authentique.
AUTOCRACY. The name of a government where the monarch is unlimited by law. Such is the power of the emperor of Russia, who, following the example of his predecessors, calls himself the autocrat of all the Russias.
AUTRE VIE. Another's life. Vide, Pur autre vie.
AUTREFOIS. A French word, signifying formerly, at another time; and is usually applied to signify that something was done formerly, as autrefois acquit, autrefois convict, &c.
AUTREFOIS ACQUIT, crim. law, pleading. A plea made by a defendant, indicted for a crime or misdemeaner, that he has formerly been tried and acquitted of the same offence. See a form of this plea in Arch. Cr. PI. 90.
2. To be a bar, the acquittal must have been by trial, and by the verdict of a jury on a valid indictment. Hawk. B. 2, c. 25, s. 1; 4 Bl. Com. 335. There must be an acquittal of the offence charged in law and in fact. Stark. PI. 355; 2 Swift's Dig. 400 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 452; 2 Russ. on Cr. 41.
3. The Constitution of the U. S., Amend. Art. 5, provides that no person shall be subject for the same offence to be put twice in jeopardy of life or limb. Vide generally, 12 Serg. & Rawle, 389; YeIv. 205 a, note.
AUTREFOIS ATTAINT, crim. law. Formerly attainted.
2. This is a good plea in bar, where a second trial would be quite superfluous. Co. Litt. 390 b, note 2; 4 Bl. Com. 336. Where, therefore, any advantage either to public justice, or private individuals, would arise from a second prosecution, the plea will not prevent it; as where the criminal is indicted for treason after an attainder of felony, in which case the punishment will be more severe and more extensive. 3 Chit. Cr. Law, 464.
AUTREFOIS CONVICT, crim. law, pleading. A plea made by a defendant, indicted for a crime or misdemeanor, that he has formerly been tried and convicted of the same.
2. As a man once tried and acquitted of an offence is not again to be placed in jeopardy for the same cause, so, a fortiori, if he has suffered the penalty due to his offence, his conviction ought to be a bar to a second indictment for the same cause, least he should be punished twice for the same crime. 2 Hale, 251; 4 Co, 394; 2 Leon,. 83.
3. The form of this plea is like that of autrefois acquit; (q. v.) it must set out the former record, and show the identity of the offence and of the person by proper averments. Hawk. B. 2, c. 36; Stark. Cr. Pi. 363; Arcb. Cr, PI, 92; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 462; 4 Bl. Com. 335; 11 Verm. R. 516.
AVAIL. Profits of land; hence tenant paravail is one in actual possession, who makes avail or profits of the land. Ham. N. P. 393.
AVALUM. By this word is understood the written engagement of a third person to guaranty and to become security that a bill of exchange shall be paid when due.
AVERAGE. A term used in commerce to signify a contribution made by the owners of the ship, freight and goods, on board, in proportion to their respective interests, towards any particular loss or expense sustained for the general safety of the ship and cargo; to the end that the particular loser may not be a greater sufferer than the owner of the ship and the other owners of goods on board. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7; Code de Com. art. 397; 2 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. 407; Poth. Aver. art. Prel.
2. Average is called general or gross average, because it falls generally upon the whole or gross amount of the ship, freight and cargo; and also to distinguish it from what is often though improperly termed particular average, but which in truth means a particular or partial, and not a general loss; or has no affinity to average properly so called. Besides these there are other small charges, called petty or accustomed averages; such as pilotage, towage, light-money, beaconage, anchorage, bridge toll, quarantine, river charges, signals, instructions, castle money, pier money, digging the ship out of the ice, and the like.
3. A contribution upon general average can only be claimed in cases where, upon as much deliberate on and consultation between the captain and his officers as the occasion will admit of, it appears that the sacrifice at the time it was made, was absolutely and indispensably necessary for the preservation of the ship and cargo. To entitle the owner of the goods to an average contribution, the loss must evidently conduce to the preservation of the ship and the rest of the cargo; and it must appear that the ship and the rest of the cargo were in fact saved. Show. Ca. Parl. 20. See generally Code de Com. tit. 11 and 12; Park, Ins. c. 6; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7 4 Mass. 548; 6 Mass. 125; 8 Mass. 467; 1 Caines' R. 196; 4 Dall. 459; 2 Binn. 547 4 Binn. 513; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 237, in note; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 229 3 Johns. Cas. 178; 1 Caines' R. 43; 2 Caines' R. 263; Id. 274; 8 Johns. R . 237, 2d edit 9 Johns. R. 9; 11 Johns. R 315 1 Caines' R. 573; 7 Johns R. 412; Wesk. Ins. tit. Average; 2 Barn. & Crest. 811 1 Rob. Adlm. Rep. 293; 2 New Rep. 378 18 Ves. 187; Lex. Mer. Armer. ch. 9; Bac Abr. Merchant, F; Vin. Abr. Contribution and' Average; Stev. on Av.; Ben. on Av.
AVERIA. Cattle. This word, in its most enlarged signification is used to include horses of the plough, oxen and cattle. Cunn. Dict. h. t.
AVERIIS CAPTIS IN WlTHERNAM, Eng. law. The name of a writ which lies in favor of a man whose cattle have been unlawfully taken by another, and driven out of the county where they were taken, so that they cannot be replevied.
2. This writ issues against the wrong doer to take his cattle to the plaintiff's use. Reg. of Writs, 82.
AVERMENT, pleading. Comes from the Latin verificare, or the French averrer, and signifies a positive statement of facts in opposition to argument or inference. Cowp. 683, 684.
2. Lord Coke says averments are two-fold, namely, general and particular. A general averment is that which is at the conclusion of an offer to make good or prove whole pleas containing new affirmative matter, but this sort of averment only applies to pleas, replications, or subsequent pleadings for counts and a vowries which are in the nature of counts, need not be averred, the form of such averment being et hoc paratus. est verificare.
3. Particular averments are assertions of the truth of particular facts, as the life of tenant or of tenant in tail is averred: and, in these, says Lord Coke, et hoc, &c., are not used. Co. Litt. 362 b. Again, in a particular averment the party merely protests and avows the truth of the fact or facts averred, but in general averments he makes an offer to prove and make good by evidence what he asserts.
4. Averments were formerly divided into immaterial and impertinent; but these terms are now treated as synonymous. 3 D. & R. 209. A better division may be made of immaterial or impertinent averments, which are those which need not be stated, and, if stated, need not be proved; and unnecessary averments, which consist of matters which need not be alleged, but if alleged, must be proved. For example, in an action of assumpsit, upon a warranty on the sale of goods, allegation of deceit on the part of the seller is impertinent, and need not be proved. 2 East, 446; 17 John. 92. But if in an action by a lessor against his tenant, for negligently keeping his fire, a demise for seven years be alleged, and the proof be a lease at will only, it will be a fatal variance; for though an allegation of tenancy generally would have been sufficient, yet having unnecessarily qualified it, by stating the precise term, it must be proved as laid. Carth. 202.
5. Averments must contain not only matter, but form. General averments are always in the same form. The most common form of making particular averments is in express and direct words, for example: And the party avers or in fact saith, or although, or because, or with this that, or being, &c. But they need not be in these words, for any words which necessarily imply the matter intended to be averred are sufficient. See, in general, 3 Vin. Abr. 357 Bac. Abr. Pleas, B 4 Com. Dig. Pleader, C 50, C 67, 68, 69, 70; 1 Saund. 235 a, n. 8 3 Saund. 352, n. 3; 1 Chit. PI. 308; Arch. Civ. PI. 163; Doct. PI. 120; 1 Lilly's Reg. 209 United States Dig. Pleading II (c); 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2835-40.
AVOIDANCE, eccl. law. It is when a benefice becomes vacant for want of an incumbent; and, in this sense, it is opposed to plenarty. Avoidances are in fact, as by the death of the incumbent or in law.
AVOIDANCE, pleading. The introductiou of new or special matter, which, admitting the premises of the opposite party, avoids or repels his conclusions. Gould on PI. c. 1 24, 42.
AVOIR DU POIS, comm. law. The name of a peculiar weight. This kind of weight is so named in distinction from the Troy weight. One pound avoir du pois contains 7000 grains Troy; that is, fourteen ounces, eleven pennyweights and sixteen grains Troy a pound avoir du pois contains sixteen ounces; and an ounce sixteen drachms. Thirty-two cubic feet of pure spring-water, at the temperature of fifty-six degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, make a ton of 2000 pounds avoir du pois, or two thousand two hundred and forty pounds net weight. Dane's Abr. c. 211, art. 12, 6. The avoir du pois ounce is less than the Troy ounce in the proportion of 72 to 79; though the pound is, greater. Eneye. Amer. art. Avoir du pois., For the derivation of this phrase, see Barr. on the Stat. 206. See the Report of Secretary of State of the United States to the Senate, February 22d, 1821, pp. 44, 72, 76, 79, 81, 87, for a learned exposition of the whole subject.
AVOUCIIER. The call which the tenant makes on another who is bound to him by warranty to come into court, either to defend the right against the demandant, or to yield him other land in value. 2 Tho. Co. Lit. 304.
AVOW or ADVOW, practice. Signifies to justify or maintain an act formerly done. For example, when replevin is brought for a thing distrained, and the distrainer justifies the taking, he is said to avow. Termes de la Ley. This word also signifies to bring forth anything. Formerly when a stolen thing was found in the possession of any one" he was bound advocare, i. e. to produce the seller from whom he alleged he had bought it, to justify the sale, and so on till they found the thief. Afterwards the word was taken to mean anything which a man admitted to be his own or done by him, and in this sense it is mentioned in Fleta, lib. 1, c. 5, par 4. Cunn., Dict. h. t.
AVOWANT, practice, pleading. One who makes an avowry.
AVOWEE, eccl. law. An advocate of a church benefice.
AVOWRY, pleading. An avowry is where the defendant in an action of replevin, avows the taking of the distress in his own right, or in right of his wife, and sets forth the cause of it, as for arrears of rent, damage done, or the like. Lawes on PI. 35 Hamm. N. P. 464; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3571.
2. An avowry is sometimes said to be in the nature of an action or of. a declaration, and privity of estate is necessary. Co. Lit. 320 a; 1 Serg. & R. 170-1. There is no general issue upon an avowry and it cannot be traversed cumulatively. 5 Serg. & R. 377. Alienation cannot be replied to it without notice; for the tenure is deemed to exist for the purposes of an avowry till notice be given of the alienation. Ham. Parties, 131-2; Ham. N. P. 398, 426.
AVOWTERER, Eng. law. An adulterer with whom a married woman continues in adultery. T. L.
AVOWTRY, Eng. law. The crime of adultery.
AVULSION. Where, by the immediate and manifest power of a river or stream, the soil is taken suddenly from one man's estate and carried to another. In such case the property belongs to the first owner. An acquiescence on his part, however, will in time entitle the owner of the land to which it is attached to claim it as his own. Bract. 221; Harg. Tracts, De jure maris, &c. Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. tom. 3, p. 106; 2. Bl. Com. 262; Schultes on Aq. Rights, 115 to 138. Avulsion differs from alluvion (q. v.) in this, that in the latter case the change of the soil is gradual and imperceptible.
AVUS. Grandfather. This term is used in making genealogical tables.
AWAIT, crim. law. Seems to signify what is now understood by lying in wait, or way-laying.
AWARD. The judgment of an arbitrator or arbitrators on a matter submitted to him or them : arbitrium est judicium. The writing which contains such judgment is also called an award.
2. The qualifications requisite to the validity of an award are, that it be consonant to the submission; that it be certain; be of things possible to be performed, and not contrary to law or reason; and lastly, that it be final.
3. – 1. It is manifest that the award must be confined within the powers given to the arbitrators, because, if their decisions extend beyond that authority, this is all assumption of, power not delegated, which cannot legally affect the parties. Kyd on Aw. 140 1 Binn. 109; 13 Johns. 187 Id. 271; 6 Johns. 13, 39 11 Johns. 133; 2 Mass. 164; 8 Mass. 399; 10 Mass. 442 Caldw. on Arb. 98; 2 Harring. 347; 3 Harring. 22; 5 Sm. & Marsh. 172; 8 N. H. Rep. 82; 6 Shepl. 251; 12 Gill & John. 456; 22 Pick. 144. If the arbitrators, therefore, transcend their authority, their award pro tanto will be void but if the void part affect not the merits. of the submission, the residue will be valid. 1 Wend. 326; 13 John. 264; 1 Cowen, 117 2 Cowen, 638; 1 Greenl. 300; 6 Greenl. 247; 8 Mass. 399; 13 Mass. 244; 14 Mass.43; 6 Harr. & John. 10; Doddr. Eng, Lawyer, 168-176; Hardin, 326; 1 Yeates, R. 513.
4. – 2. The award ought to be certain, and so expressed that no reasonable doubt can arise on the face of it, as to the arbitrator's meaning, or as to the nature and extent of the duties imposed by it on the parties. An example of such uncertainty may be found in the following cases: An award, directing one party to bind himself in an obligation for the quiet enjoyment of lands, without expressing in what sum the obligor should be bound. 5 Co. 77 Roll. Arbit. Q 4. Again , an award that one should give security to the other, for the payment of a sum of money, or the performance of any particular, act, when the kind of security is not specified. Vin. Ab. Arbitr. Q 12; Com. Dig. Arbitrament, E 11 Kyd on Aw. 194 3 S. & R. 340 9 John. 43; 2 Halst. 90; 2 Caines, 235 3 Harr. & John. 383; 3 Ham. 266 1 Pike, 206; 7 Metc. 316 5 Sm. & Marsh. 712 13 Verm. 53; 5 Blackf. 128; 2 Hill, 75 3 Harr 442.
5. – 3. It must be possible to be performed, be lawful and reasonable. An award that could not by any possibility be performed, as if it directed that the party should deliver a deed not in his possession, or pay a sum of money at a day past, it would of course be void. But the, award that the party should pay a sum of money, although he might not then be able to do so, would be binding. The award must not direct anything to be done contrary to law, such as the performance of an act which would render the party a trespasser or a felon, or would subject him to an action. It must also be reasonable, for if it be of things nugatory in themselves, and offering no advantage to either of the parties, it cannot be enforced. Kirby, 253.
6. – 4. The award must be final that is, it must conclusively adjudicate all the matters submitted. 1 Dall. 173 2 Yeates, 4 Rawle, 304; 1 Caines, 304 Harr. & Gill, 67 Charlt. 289; 3 Pike) 324; 3 Harr. 442; 1 P. S. R. 395; 4 Blackf. 253; 11 Wheat. 446. But if the award is as final as, under the circumstances of the case it might be expected, it will be considered as valid. Com. Dig. Arbitrament, E 15. As to the form, the award may be by parol or by deed, but in general it must be made in accordance with the provisions and requirements of the submission. (q. v.) Vide, generally, Kyd on Awards, Index, h. t.; Caldwell on Arbitrations, Index, h. t.; Dane's Ab. c. 13; Com. Dig. Arbitrament, E; Id Chancery, 2 K 1, &c.; 3 Vin. Ab. 52, 372 1 158 15 East, R. 215; 1 Ves. Jr. 364 1 Saund. 326, notes 1, 2, and 3; Wats. on Arbitrations and Awards; 3 Bouv. Inst., n. 2402 to 2500.
AWM, or AUME. An ancient measure, used in measuring Rhenish wines it contained forty gallons. AYANT CAUSE. French law. This term, which is used in Louisiana, signifies one to whom a right has been assigned, either by will, gift, sale, exchange, or the like. An assignee. An ayant cause differs from an heir who acquires the right by inheritance. 8 Toull. n. 245.
AYUNTAMIENTO, Spanish law. A congress of persons the municipal council of a city or town. 1 White's Coll. 416; 12 Pet. 442, notes.

B
BACHELOR. The first degree taken at the universities in the arts and sciences, as bachelor of arts, & c. It is called, in Latin, Baccalaureus, from bacalus, or bacillus, a staff, because a staff was given, by way of distinction, into the hands of those who had completed their studies. Some, however, have derived the word from baccalaura, others from bas chevalier, as designating young squires who aspire to the knighthood. (Dupin.) But the derivation. of the word is uncertain.
BACK-BOND. A bond given by one to a surety, to* indemnify such surety in case of loss. In Scotland, a back-bond is an instrument which, in conjunction with another which gives an absolute disposition, constitutes a trust. A declaration of trust.
BACK-WATER. That water in a stream which, in consequence of some obstruction below, is detained or checked in its course, or reflows.
2. Every riparian owner is entitled to the benefit of the water in its natural state. Whenever, therefore, the owner of land dams or impedes the water in such a manner as to back it on his neighbor above, he is liable to an action; for no one has a right to alter the level of the water, either where it enters, or where it leaves his property. 9 Co. 59; 1 B. & Ald. 258; 1 Wils. R. 178; 6 East, R. 203; 1 S. & Stu. 190.; 4 Day, R. 244; 7 Cowen, R. 266; 1 Rawle, R. 218; 5 N. R. Rep. 232; 9 Mass. R. 316; 7 Pick. R. 198; 4 Mason, R. 400; 1 Rawle, R. 27; 2 John. Ch. R. 162, 463; 1 Coxe's. R. 460. Vide, Dam; Inundation; Water-course; and 5 Ohio R. 322.
BACKING, crim. law practice. Backing a warrant occurs whenever it becomes necessary to execute it out of the jurisdiction of the magistrate who granted it; as when an offender escapes out of the county in which he committed the offence with which he is charged, into another county. In such a case, a magistrate of the county in which the offender may, be found, endorses, or writes his name on the back of the warrant, and thereby gives authority to execute it within his jurisdiction. This is called backing the warrant. This may be from county to county, if necessary.
BACKSIDE, estates. In England this term was formerly used in conveyances and even in pleadings, and is still, adhered to with reference to ancient descriptions in deeds, in continuing the transfer of the same. property. It imports a yard at the back part of, or behind a house, and belonging thereto: but although formerly used in pleadings, it is now unusual to adopt it, and the word yard is preferred. 1 Chitty's Pr. 177; 2 Ld. Raym. 1399.
BADGE. A mark or sign worn by some persons, or placed upon certain things for the purpose of designation. Some public officers, as watchmen, policemen, and the like, are required to wear badges that they may be readily known. It is used figuratively when we say, possession of personal property by the seller, is. a badge of fraud.
BAGGAGE. Such articles as are carried by a traveller; luggage. Every thing which a passenger, carries, with him is not baggage. Large sums of money, for example, carried in a travelling trunk, will not be considered baggage, so as to render the carrier responsible. 9 Wend. R. 85. But a watch deposited in his trunk is part of his baggage. 10 Ohio R. 145. See, as to what is baggage, 6 Hill, R. 586 5 Rawle, 188, 189; 1 Pick. 50.
2. In general a common carrier of passengers is responsible for baggage, if lost, though no distinct price be paid for transporting it, it being included in the passenger's fare. Id. The carrier's responsibility for the baggage begins as soon as it has been delivered to him, or to his servants, or to some other person authorized by him to receive it. Then the delivery is complete. The risk and responsibility of the carrier is at an end as soon as he has delivered the baggage to the owner or his agent; and if an offer to deliver it be made at a proper time, the carrier will be discharged from responsibility, us 'such yet, if the baggage remain in his custody afterwards, he will hold as, bailee, and be responsible for it according to the terms of such bailment ana, R. 92. Vide Common Carriers
3. By the act of congress of March 2, 1799, sect. 46, 1 Story's L. U. S. 612, it is declared that all wearing apparel and other personal baggage, &c., of persons who shall arrive in the United States, shall be free and exempted from duty.
BAIL, practice, contracts. By bail is understood sureties, given according to law, to insure the appearance of a party in court. The persons who become surety are called bail. Sometimes the term is applied, with a want of exactness, to the security given by a defendant, in order to obtain a stay of execution, after judgment, in civil cases., Bail is either civil or criminal.
2.- 1. Civil bail is that which is entered in civil cases, and is common or special bail below or bail above.
3. Common bail is a formal entry of fictitious sureties in the proper office of the court, which is called filing. common bail to the action. It is in the same form as special bail, but differs from it in this, that the sureties are merely fictitious, as John Doe and Richard Roe: it has, consequently, none of, the incidents of special bail. It is allowed to the defendant only when he has been discharged from arrest without bail, and it is necessary in such cases to perfect the appearance of the defendant. Steph. Pl. 56, 7; Grah. Pr. 155; Highm. on Bail 13.
4. Special bail is an undertaking by one or more persons for another, before some officer or court properly authorized for that purpose, that he shall appear at a certain time and place, to answer a certain charge to be exhibited against him. The essential qualification to enable a person to become bail, are that he must be, 1. a freeholder or housekeeper; 2. liable to the ordinary process of the court 3. capable of entering into a contract; and 4. able to pay the amount for which he becomes responsible.
1. He must be a freeholder or housekeeper. (q. v.) 2 Chit. R. 96; 5 Taunt. 174; Lofft, 148 3 Petersd. Ab. 104.
2. He must be subject to the ordinary process of the court; and a person privileged from arrest, either permanently or temporarily, will not be taken. 4 Taunt. 249; 1 D. & R. 127; 2 Marsh. 232.
3. He must be competent to enter into a contract; a feme covert, an infant, or a person non compos mentis, cannot therefore become bail.
4. He must be able to pay the amount for which he becomes responsible. But it is immaterial whether his property consists of real or personal estate, provided it be his own, in his own right; 3 Peterd. Ab. 196; 2 Chit. Rep. 97; 11 Price, 158; and be liable to the ordinary process of the law; 4 Burr. 2526; though this rule is not invariably adhered to, for when part of the property consisted of a ship, shortly expected, bail was permitted to justify in respect of such property. 1 Chit. R. 286, n. As to the persons who cannot be received because they are not responsible, see 1 Chit. R. 9, 116; 2 Chit. R. 77, 8; Lofft, 72, 184; 3 Petersd. Ab. 112; 1 Chit. R. 309, n.
5. Bail below. This is bail given to the sheriff in civil cases, when the defendant is arrested on bailable process; which is done by giving him a bail bond; it is so called to distinguish it from bail above. (q. v.) The sheriff is bound to admit a man to bail, provided good and sufficient sureties be tendered, but not otherwise. Stat. 23 H. VI. C. 9, A. D. 1444; 4 Anne, c. 16, §20; B. N. P. 224; 2 Term Rep., 560. The sheriff, is not, however, bound-to demand bail, and may, at his risk, permit the defendant to be at liberty, provided he will appear, that is, enter bail above, or surrender himself in proper time. 1 Sell. Pr. 126, et seq. The undertaking of bail below is, that the defendant will appear or put in bail to the action on the return day of the writ.
6. Bail above, is putting in bail to the action, which is an appearance of the defendant. Bail above are bound either to satisfy the plaintiff his debt and costs, or to surrender the defendant into custody, provided judgment should be against him and he should fail to do so. Sell. Pr. 137.
7. It is a general rule that the defendant having been held to bail, in civil cases, cannot be held a second time for the same cause of action. Tidd' s Pr. 184 Grah. Pr. 98; Troub. & Hal. 44; 1 Yeates, 206 8 Ves. Jur. 594. See Auter action Pendent; Lis pendens.
8. - 2. Bail in criminal cases is defined to be a delivery or bailment of a person to sureties, upon their giving, together with himself, sufficient security for his appearance, he being supposed to be in their friendly custody, instead of going to prison.
9. The Constitution of the United States directs that "excessive bail shall not be required." Amend. art. 8.
10. By the acts of congress of September, 24, 1789, s. 33, and March 2, 1793, s. 4, authority is given to take bail for any crime or offence against the United States, except where the punishment is death, to any justice or judge of the United States, or to any chancellor, judge of the supreme or superior court, or first judge of any court of common pleas, or mayor of any city of any state, or to any justice of the peace or other magistrate of any state, where the offender may be found the recognizance tal,-en by any of the persons authorized, is to be returned to the court having cognizance of the offence.
11. When the punishment by the laws of the United States is death, bail can be taken only by the supreme or circuit court, or by a judge of the district court of the United States. If the person committed by a justice of the supreme court, or by the judge of a district court, for an offence not punishable with death, shall, after commitment, offer bail, any judge of the supreme or superior court of law, of any state, (there being no judge of the United States in the district to take such bail,) way admit such person to bail.
12. Justices of the peace have in general power to take bail of persons accused; and, when they have such authority they are required to take such bail There are many cases, however, under the laws of the several states, as well as under the laws of the United States,, as above mentioned, where justices of the peace cannot take bail, but must commit; and, if the accused offers bail, it must be taken by a judge or other,, officer lawfully authorized.
13. In Pennsylvania, for example, in cases of murder, or when the defendant is charged with the stealing of any horse, mare, or gelding, on the direct testimony of one witness; or shall be taken having possession of such horse, mare, or gelding, a justice of the peace cannot admit the party to bail. 1 Smith's L. of Pa. 581.
14. In all cases where the party is admitted to bail, the recognizance is to be returned to the court having jurisdict on of the offence charged. Vide Act of God. Arrest; Auter action pendent; Deat Lis pendens.
BAIL BOND, practice, contracts. A specialty by which the defendant and other persons, usually not less than two, though the sheriff may take only one, become bound to the sheriff in a penalty equal to that for which bail is demanded, conditioned for the due appearance of such defendant to the legal process therein described, and by which the sheriff has been commanded to arrest him. It is only where the defendant is arrested or in the custody of the sheriff, under other than final process, that the sheriff can take such bond. On this bond being tendered to him, which he is compelled to take if the sureties are good, he must discharge the defendant. Stat. 23 H. VI. c. 9.
2. With some exceptions, as for example, where the defendant surrenders; 5 T. R. 754; 7 T. R. 123; 1 East, 387; 1 Bos. & Pull. 326; nothing can be a performance of the condition of the bail bond, but putting in bail to the action. 5 Burr. 2683.
3. The plaintiff has a right to demand from the sheriff an assignment of such bond, so that he may sue it for his own benefit. 4 Ann. c. 16, §20; Wats. on Sheriff, 99; 1 Sell. Pr. 126, 174. For the general requisites of a bail bond, see 1 T. R. 422; 2 T. R. 569 15 East. 320; 2 Wils. 69; 6 T. R. 702; 9 East, 55; . D. & R. 215; 4 M. & S. 338; 1 Moore, R. 514; 6 Moore, R. 264 East, 568; Hurls. on Bonds, 56; U. S. Dig. Bail V.
BAIL PIECE. A certificate given by a judge or the clerk of the court, or other person authorized to keep the record, in which it is certified that A B, the bail, became bail, for C D, the defendant, in a certain sum, and in a particular case. It was the practice formerly, to write these certificates upon small pieces of parchment, in the following form: (See 3 Bl. Com. Appendix.)
In the Court of ______________, of the Term of ________, in the year of our Lord, ____________, ________________City and County of ________________, ss. Theunis Thew is delivered to bail upon the taking of his body, to Jacobus Vanzant, of the city of_________________, merchant, and to John Doe, of the same city, yeoman. SMITH, JR. At the suit of Attorney for Deft. PHILIP CARSWELL. Taken and acknowledged the ____ day of _______, A. D. _____, before me. D. H.
2. As the bail is supposed to have the custody of the defendant, when he is armed with this process, he may arrest the latter, though he is out of the jurisdiction of the court in which he became bail, and even in a different state. 1 Baldw. 578; 3 Com. 84, 421; 2 Yeates, 263 8 pick. 138; 7 John. 145; 3 Day, 485. The bail may take him even while attending court as a suitor, or any time, even on Sunday. 4 Yeates, 123; 4 Conn. 170. He may break even an outer door to seize him; and command the assistance of the sheriff or other officers; 8 Pick. 138; and depute his power to others.. 1 John. Cas. 413; 8 Pick. 140. See 1 Serg. & R. 311.
BAILABLE ACTION. One in which the defendant is entitled to be discharged from arrest, only upon giving bail to answer.
BAILABLE PROCESS. Is that process by which an officer is required to arrest a person, and afterwards to take bail for his appearance. A capias ad respondendum is bailable, but a capias ad satisfaciendum is not.
BAILEE, contracts. One to whom goods are bailed.
2. His duties are to act in good faith he is bound to use extraordinary diligence in those contracts or bailments, where he alone receives the benefit, as in loans; he must observe ordinary diligence of those bailments, which are beneficial to both parties, as hiring; and he will be responsible for gross negligence in those bailments which are only for the benefit of the bailor, is deposit and mandate. Story's Bailm. §17, 18, 19. He is bound to return the property as soon as the purpose for which it was bailed shall have been accomplished.
3. He has generally a right to retain and use the thing bailed, according to the contract, until the object of the bailment shall have been accomplished.
4. A bailee with a mere naked authority, having a right to remuneration for his trouble, but coupled with no other interest, may support trespass for any injury, amounting to a trespass, done while he was in the actual possession of the thing. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3608.
BAILIFF, account render. A bailiff is a person who has, by delivery, the custody and administration of lands or goods for the benefit of the owner or bailor, and is liable to render an account thereof. Co. Lit. 271; 2 Leon. 245; 1 Mall . Ent. 65. The word is derived from the old French word bailler, to bail, that is, to deliver. Originally, the word implied the delivery of real estate, as of land, woods, a house, a part of the fish in a pond; Owen, 20; 2 Leon. 194; Keilw. 114 a, b; 37 Ed. III. 7; 10 H. VII. 7, 30; but was afterwards extended to goods and chattels. Every bailiff is a ,receiver, but every receiver is not a bailiff. Hence it is a good plea that the defendant never was receiver, but as bailiff. 18 Ed. III. 16. See Cro. Eliz. 82-3; 2 Anders. 62-3, 96-7 F. N. B. 134 F; 8 Co. 48 a, b.
2. From a bailiff is required administration, care, management, skill. He is, therefore, entitled to allowance for the expense of administration, and for all things done in his office, according to his own judgment, without the special direction of his principal, and also for casual things done in the common course of business: 1 Mall. Ent. 65, (4) 11; 1 Rolle, Ab. 125, 1, 7; Co. Lit. 89 a; Com. Dig. E 12 Bro. Ab. Acc. 18 Lucas, Rep. 23 but not for things foreign to his office. Bro. Ab. Acc .26, 88; Plowd. 282b, 14; Com. Dig. Acc. E13; Co. Lit. 172; 1 Mall. Ent. 65, (4) 4. Whereas, a mere receiver, or a receiver who is not also a bailiff, is not entitled to allowance for any expenses. Bro. Ab. Acc. 18; 1 Mall. Ent. 66, (4) 10; 1 Roll. Ab. 118; Com. Dig. E 13; 1 Dall. 340.
3. A bailiff may appear and plead for his principal in an assize; " and his plea com- mences " thus, " J. S., bailiff of T. N., comes " &c., not " T. N., by his bailiff, J. S., comes," &c. 2 Inst. 415; Keilw. 117 b. As to what matters he may plead, see 2 Inst. 414.
BAILIFF, office. Magistrates who for merly administered justice in the parliaments or courts of France, answering to the English sheriffs as mentioned by Bracton. There are still bailiffs of particular towns in England as the bailiff of Dover Castle, &c., otherwise bailiffs are now only officers or stewards, &c. as Bailiffs of liberties, appointed by every lord within his liberty, to serve writs, &c. Bailiff errent or itenerant, appointed to go about the country for the same purpose. Sheriff 's bailies, sheriff's officers to execute writs; these are also called bound bailiffs because they are usually bound in a bond to the sheriff for the due exeecution of their office. Bailiffs of court baron, to summon the court, &c. Bailffs of hushandry, appointed by private persons to collect their rents and manage their estates. Water bailiffs, officers in port towns for searching ships, gathering tolls, &c. Bac. Ab. h. t.
BAILMENT, contracts. This word is derived from the French, bailler, to deliver. 2 Bl. Com. 451; Jones' Bailm. 90 Story on Bailm. c. 1, §2. It is a compendious expression, to signify a contract resulting from delivery. It has been defined to be a delivery of goods on a condition, express or implied, that they shall be restored by the bailee to the bailor, or according to his directions, as soon as the purposes for which they are bailed shall be answered. 1 Jones' Bailm. 1. Or it is a delivery of goods in trust, on a contract either expressed or implied, that the trust shall be duly executed, and the goods redelivered, as soon as the time or use for which they were bailed shall have elapsed or be performed. Jones' Bailm. 117.
2. Each of these definitions, says Judge Story, seems redundant and inaccurate if it be the proper office of a definition to include those things only which belong to the genus or class. Both these definitions suppose that the goods are to be restored or redelivered; but in a bailment for sale, as upon a consignment to a factor, no redelivery is contemplated between the parties. In some cases, no use is contemplated by the bailee, in others, it is of the essence of the contract: in some cases time is material to terminAte the contract; in others, time is necessary to give a new accessorial right. Story, on Bailm. c. 1, §2.
3. Mr. Justice Blackstone has defined a bailment to be a delivery of goods in trust, upon contract, either expressed or implied, that the trust shall be faithfully executed on the part of the bailee. 2 Bl. Com. 451. And in another place, as the delivery of goods to another person for a particular use. 2 Bl. Com. 395. Vide Kent's Comm. Lect. 40, 437.
4. Mr. Justice Story says, that a bailment is a delivery of a thing in trust for some special object or purpose, and upon a contract, express or implied, to conform to the object or purpose of the trust. Story on Bailm. c. 1, §2. This corresponds very nearly with the definition of Merlin. Vide Repertoire, mot Bail.
5. Bailments are divisible into three kinds: 1. Those in which the trust is for the benefit of the bailor, as deposits and mandates. 2. Those in which the trust is for the benefit of the bailee, as gratuitous loans for use. 3. Those in which the trust is for the benefit of both parties, as pledges or pawns, and hiring and letting to hire. See Deposit; Hire; Loans; mandates and Pledges.
6. Sir William Jones has divided bailments into five sorts, namely: 1. Depositum, or deposit. 2. Mandatum, or commission without recompense. 3. Commodatum, or loan for use, without pay. 4. Pignori acceptum, or pawn. 5. Locatum, or hiring, which is always with reward. This last is subdivided into, 1. Locatio rei, or biring, by which the hirer gains a temporary use of the thing. 2. Locatio operis faciendi, when something is to be done to the thing delivered. 3. Locatio operis mercium vehendarum, when the thing is merely to be carried from one place to another. See these several words. As to the obligations and duties of bailees in general, see Diligence, and Story on Bailm. c. 1; Chit. on Cont. 141; 3 John. R. 170; 17 Mass. R. 479; 5 Day, 15; 1 Conn. Rep. 487; 10 Johns. R. 1, 471; 12 Johns. R. 144, 232; 11 Johns. R. 107; 15 Johns. R. 39; 2 John. C. R. 100; 2 Caines' Cas. 189; 19 Johns. R. 44; 14 John. R. 175; 2 Halst. 108; 2 South. 738; 2 Harr. & M'Hen. 453; 1 Rand. 3; 2 Hawks, 145; 1 Murphy, 417; 1 Hayw. 14; 1 Rep. Con. Ct. 121, 186; 2 Rep. Con. Ct. 239; 1 Bay, 101; 2 Nott & M'Cord, 88, 489; 1 Browne, 43, 176; 2 Binn. 72; 4 Binn. 127; 5 Binn. 457; 6 Binn. 129; 6 Serg. & Rawle, 439; 8 Serg. & Rawle, 500, 533; 14 Serg. & R. 275; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 978-1099.
BAILOR, contracts. He who bails a thing to another.
2. The bailor must act with good faith towards the bailee; Story's Bailm. §74, 76, 77; permit him to enjoy the thing bailed according to contract; and, in some bailments, as hiring, warrant the title and possession of the thing hired, and probably, to keep it in suitable order and repair for the purpose of the bailment. Id. §Vide Inst. lib. 3, tit. 25.
BAILIWICK. The district over which a sheriff has jurisdiction; it signifies also the same as county, the sheriff's bailiwick extending over the county.
2. In England, it signifies generally that liberty which is exempted from the sheriff of the county over which the lord of the liberty appoints a bailiff. Vide Wood's Inst. 206.
BAIR-MAN, Scottish law. A poor insolvent debtor left bare.
BAIRN'S PART, Scottish, law. Children's part a third part of the defunct's free movables, debts deducted, if the wife survive, and a half if there be no relict.
BALANCE, com. law. The amount which remains due by one of two persons, who have been dealing together, to the other, after the settlement of their accounts.
2. In the case of mutual debts, the balance only can be recovered by the assignee of an insolvent, or the executor of a deceased person. But this mutuality must have existed at the time of the assignment by the insolvent, or at the death of the testator.
3. The term general balance is sometimes used to signify the difference which is due to a party claiming a lien on goods in his hands, for work or labor done, or money expended in relation to those and other goods of the debtor. 3 B. & P. 485; 3 Esp. R. 268.
BALANCE SHEET. A statement made by merchants and others to show the true state of a particular business. A balance sheet should exhibit all the balances of debits and credits, also the value of merchandize, and the result of the whole. Vide Bilan.
BALANCE OF TRADE, Com. law. The difference between the exports and importations, between two countries. The balance of trade is against that country which has imported more than it has exported, for which it is debtor to the other country.
BALIVA. A bailiwick or jurisdiction.
BALIVO AMOVENDO, Eng. practice. A writ to remove a bailiff out of his office.
BALLASTAGE, mar. law. A toll paid for the privilege, of taking up ballast from the bottom of the port. This arises from the property in the soil. 2 Chit. Com. Law, 16.
BALLOT, government. A diminutive ball, i. e. a little ball used in giving votes; the act itself of giving votes. A little ball or ticket used in voting privately, and, for that purpose, put, into a box, (commonly called a ballot-box,) or into some other contrivance.
BALNEARII, civil law. Stealers of the clothes of person who were washing in the public baths. Dig. 47, 17; 4 Bl. Com. 239; Calviui Lex. Jurid.
BAN, A proclamation, or public notice any summons or edict by which a thing is forbidden or commanded. Vide Bans of Matrimony; Proclamation; Cowell's Interp.
BANC or BANK. The first of these is a French word signifying bench, pronounced improperly bank. 1. The seat of judgment, as banc le roy, the king's bench banc le common pleas, the bench of common pleas.
2. The meeting of all the judges or such as may form a quorum, as, the court sit in banc. Cowell's Interp.
BANCO. A commercial term, adopted from the Italian, used to distinguish bank money from the common currency; as $1000,
BANDIT. A man outlawed; one who is said to be under ban.
BANE. This word was formerly used to signify a malefactor. Bract. 1. 2, t. 8, c. 1.
BANISHMENT, crim. law. A punishment inflicted upon criminals, by compelling them to quit a city, place, or country, for, a specified period of time, or for life. Vide 4 Dall. 14. Deportation; Relegation.
BANK, com. law. 1. A place for the deposit of money. 2. An institution, generally incorporated, authorized to receive deposits of money, to lend money, and to issue promissory notes, usually known by the name of bank notes. 3. Banks are said to be of three kinds, viz : of deposit, of discount, and of circulation; they generally perform all these operatious. Vide Metc. & Perk. Dig. Banks and Banking.
BANKBOOK ,commerce. A book which persons dealing with a bank keep, in which the officers of the bank enter the amount of money deposited by them, and all notes or bills deposited by them, or discounted for their use.
BANK NOTE, contracts. A bank note resembles a common promissory note, (q. v.) issued by a bank or corporation authorized to act as a bank. It is in fact a promissory note, but such notes are not, for many purposes, to be considered as mere securities for money; but are treated as money, in the ordinary course and transactions of business, by the general consent of mankind and, on payment of them, when a receipt is required, the receipts are always given as for money, not as for securities or notes. 1 Burr. R. 457; 12 John. R. 200; 1 John. Ch. R. 231; 9 John. R. 120; 19 John. 144; 1 Sch. & Lef. 318, 319; 11 Ves. 662; 1 Roper, Leg. 3; 1 Ham. R. 189, 524; 15 Pick. 177; 5 G. & John. 58; 3 Hawks, 328; 5 J. J. Marsh. 643.
2. Bank notes are assignable by delivery. Rep. Temp. Hard. 53 9 East, R. 48; 4 East, R. 510 Dougl. 236. The holder of a bank note is prima facie entitled to prompt payment of it, and cannot be affected by the fraud of any former holder in obtaining it, unless evidence be given to bring it home to his privity. 1 Burr. 452; 4 Rawle, 185 13 East, R. 135 Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Pow. on Mortg. lndex, h. t. U. S. Dig. h. t. Vide Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. Note; Promissory note; Reissuable note.
3. They cannot be taken in execution. Cunning. on Bills, 537; Hardw. Cases, 53; 1 Arch. Pr. 268 1 Wils. Rep. 9 Cro. Eliz. 746, pl. 25
BANK STOCK. The capital of a bank. It is usually divided in shares of a certain amount. This stock is generally transferable on the bools of the bank, and considered as personal property. Vide Stock.
BANKER, com. law. A banker is one engaged in the business of receiving other persons money in deposit, to be returned on demand discounting other persons' notes, and issuing his own for circulation. One who performs the business usually transacted by a bank. Private bankers are generally not permitted.
2. The business of bankers is generally performed through the medium of incorporated banks.
3. A banker may be declared a bankrupt by adverse proceedings against him. Act of Congress of 19th Aug. 1841. See 1 Atk. 218; 2 H. Bl. 235; 1 Mont. B. L. 12.
4. Among the ancient Romans there were bankers called argentarii, whose office was to keep registers of contracts between individuals, either to loan money, or in relation to sales and stipulations. These bankers frequently agreed with the creditor to pay him the debt due to him by the debtor. Calvini Lex. Jurid.
BANKERS' NOTE, contracts. In England a distinction is made between bank notes, (q. v.) and bankers' notes. The latter are promissory notes, and resemble bank notes in every respect, except that they are given by persons acting as private bankers. 6 Mod. 29; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 590; 1 Leigh's N. P. 338.
BANKRUPT. A person who has done, or suffered some act to be done, which is by law declared an act of bankruptcy; in such case he may be declared a bankrupt.
2. It is proper to notice that there is much difference between a bankrupt and an insolvent. A man may be a bankrupt, and yet be perfectly solvent; that is, eventually able to pay all his debts or, he may be insolvent, and, in consequence of not having done, or suffered, an act of bankruptcy. He may not be a bankrupt. Again, the bankrupt laws are intended mainly to secure creditors from waste, extravagance, and mismanagement, by seizing the property out of the hands of the debtors, and placing it in the custody of the law; whereas the insolvent laws only relieve a man from imprisonment for debt after he has assigned his property for the benefit of his creditors. Both under bankrupt and insolvent laws the debtor is required to surrender his property, for the benefit of his creditors. Bankrupt laws discharge the person from imprisonment, and his property, acquired after his discharge, from all liabilities for his debts insolvent laws simply discharge the debtor from imprisonment, or liability to be imprisoned, but his after-acquired property may be taken in satisfaction of his former debts. 2 Bell, Com. B. 6, part 1, c. 1, p. 162; 3 Am. Jur. 218.
BANKRUPTCY. The state or condition of a bankrupt.
2. Bankrupt laws are an encroacbment upon the common law. The first in England was the stat. 34 and 35 H. VIII., c. 4, although the word bankrupt appears only in the title, not in the body of the act. The stat. 13 Eliz. c. 7, is the first that defines the term bankrupt, and discriminates bankruptcy from mere insolvency. Out of a great number of bankrupt laws passed from time to time, the most considerable are the statutes 13 Eliz. c. 7; 1 James I., c. 19 21 James I., c. 19 5 Geo. II., c. 30. A careful consideration of these statutes is sufficient to give am adequate idea of the system of bankruptcy in England. See Burgess on Insolvency, 202-230.
3. The Constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 8, authorizes congress "to establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States." With the exception of a short interval during which bankrupt laws existed in this country, this power lay dormant till the passage of the act of 1841, since repealed.
4. Any one of the states may pass a bankrupt law, but no state bankrupt or insolvent law can be permitted to impair the obligation of contracts; nor can the several states pass laws conflicting with an act of congress on this subject 4 Wheat. and the bankrupt laws of a state cannot affect the rights of citizens of another state. 12 Wheat. It. 213. Vide 3 Story on the Const. §1100 to 1110 2 Kent, Com. 321 Serg. on Const. Law, 322 Rawle on the Const. c. 9 6 Pet. R. 348 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. Vide Bankrupt.
BANKS OF RIVERS, estates. By this term is understood what retains the river in its natural channel, when there is the greatest flow of water.
2. The owner of the bank of a stream, not navigable, his in general the right to the middle of the stream. Vide Riparian Proprietor.
3. When by imperceptible increase the banks on one side extend into the river, this addition is called alluvion. (q. v.) When the increase is caused by the sudden transfer of a mass of earth or soil from the opposite bank, it is called an increase by avulsion. (q. v.)
BANNITUS. One outlawed or banished. See Calvini Lex.
BANS OF MATRIMONY. The giving public notice or making proclamation of a matrimonial contract, and the intended celebration of the marriage of the parties in pursuance of such contract, to the end that persons objecting to the same, may have an opportunity to declare such objections before the marriage is solemnized. Poth. Du Mariage, partie 2, c. 2. Vide Ban.
BAR, actions. A perpetual destruction or temporary taking away of the action of the plaintiff. In ancient authors it is called exceptio peremptorid. Co. Litt. 303 b Steph. Pl. Appx. xxviii. Loisel (Institutes Coutumieres, vol. ii. p. 204) says, "Exceptions (in pleas) have been called bars by our ancient practitioners, because, being opposed, they arrest the party who has sued out the process, as in war (une barriere) a barrier arrests an enemy; and as there have always been in our tribunals bars to separate the advocates from the judges, the place where the advocates stand (pour parler) when they speak, has been called for that reason (barreau) the bar."
2. When a person is bound in any action, real or personal, by judgment on demurrer, confession or verdict, he is barred, i. e. debarred, as to that or any other action of the like nature or degree, for the same thing, forever; for expedit reipublicae ut sit finis litim.
3. But there is a difference between real and personal actions.
4. In personal actions, as in debt or account, the bar is perpetual, inasmuch as the plaintiff cannot have an action of a higher nature, and therefore in such actions he has generally no remedy, but by bringing a writ of error. Doct. Plac. 65; 6 Co. 7, 8 4 East, 507, 508.
5. But if the defendant be barred in a real action, by judgment on a verdict, demurrer or confession, &c., he may still have an action of a higher nature, and try the same right again. Lawes, Pl. 39, 40. See generally, Bac. Ab. Abatement, N; Plea in bar. Also the case of Outram v. Morewood, 3 East, Rep. 346-366; a leading case on this subject.
BAR, practice. A place in a court where the counsellors and advocates stand to make their addresses to the court and jury; it is so called because formerly it was closed with a bar. Figuratively the counsellors and attorneys at law are called the bar of Philadelphia, the New York bar.
2. A place in a court having criminal jurisdiction, to which prisoners are called to plead to the indictment, is also called, the bar. Vide Merl. Repert. mot Barreau, and Dupin, Profession d'Avocat, tom. i. p. 451, for some eloquent advice to gentlemen of the bar.
BAR, contracts. An obstacle or opposition. 2. Some bars arise from circumstances, and others from persons. Kindred within the prohibited degree, for example, is a bar to a marriage between the persons related; but the fact that A is married, and cannot therefore marry B, is a circumstance which operates as a bar as long as it subsists; for without it the parties might marry.
BAR FEE, Eng. law. A fee taken time out of mind by the sheriff for every prisoner who is acquitted. Bac. Ab. Extortion.
BARBICAN. An ancient word to signify a watch-tower. Barbicanage was money given for the support of a barbican.
BARGAIN AND SALE, conveyancing, contracts. A contract in writing to convey lands to another person; or rather it is the sale of a use therein. In strictness it is not an absolute conveyance of the seizin, as a feoffment. Watk. Prin. Conv. by Preston, 190, 191. The consideration must be of money or money's worth. Id. 237.
2. In consequence of this conveyance a use arises to a bargainee, and the statute 27 Henry VIII. immediately transfers the˜20legal estate and possession to him.
3. A bargain and sale, may be in fee, for life, or for years.
4. The proper and technical words of this conveyance are bargain and sale, but any other words that would have been sufficient to raise a use, upon a valuable consideration, before the statute, are now sufficient to constitute a good bargain and sale. Proper words of limitation must, however, be inserted. Cruise Dig. tit. 32, c. 9; Bac. Ab. h. t. Com. Dig. h. t.; and the cases there cited; Nels. Ab. h. t. 2 Bl. Com. 338.
5. This is the most common mode of conveyance in the United States. 4 Kent, Com. 483; 3 Pick. R. 529; 3 N. H. Rep. 260; 6 Harr. & John. 465; 3 Wash. C. C. Rep. 376; 4 Mass. R. 66; 4 Yeates, R. 295; 1 Yeates, R. 828; 3 John. R. 388; 4 Cowen's R. 325; 10 John. R. 456, 505; 3 N. H. Rep. 261; 14 John. R. 126; 2 Harr. & John. 230; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 207 7 8.
BARGAINEE. A person to whom a bargain is made; one who receives the advantages of a bargain.
BARGAINOR. A person who makes a a bargain, and who becomes bound to perform it.
BARGEMEN. Persons who own and keep a barge for the purpose of carrying the goods of all. such other persons who may desire to employ them. They are liable as common, carriers. Story, Bailm. 496.
BARLEYCORN. A lineal measure, containing one-third of an inch. Dane's Ab. c. 211, a. 13, s. 9. The barleycorn was the first measure, with its division and multiples, of all our measures of length, superfices, and capacity. Id. c. 211, a. 1 2, s. 2.
BARN, estates. A building on a farm used to receive the crop, the stabling of animals, and other purposes.
2. The grant or demise of a barn, without words superadded to extend its meaning, would pass no more than the barn itself, and as much land as would be necessary for its complete enjoyment. 4 Serg. & Rawle, 342.
BARON. This word has but one signification in American law, namely, hushand: we use baron and feme, for hushand and wife. And in this sense it is going out of use.
2. In England, and perhaps some other countries, baron is a title of honor; it is the first degree of nobility below a viscount. Vide Com. Dig. Baron and Feme; Bac. Ab. Baron and Feme; and the articles. Hushand; Marriage; Wife.
3. In the laws of the middle ages, baron or bers, (baro) signifes a great vassal; lord of a fief and tenant immediately from the king: and the words baronage, barnage and berner, signify collectively the vassals composing the court of the king; as Le roi et son barnage, The king and his court. See Spelman's Glossary, verb. Baro.
BARONS OF EXCHEQUER, Eng. law. The name given to the five judges of the Exchequer formerly these were baros of the realm, but now they are chosen from persons learned in the law.
BARRACK. By this term, as used in Pennsylvania, is understood an erection of upright posts supporting a sliding roof, usually of thatch. 5 Whart. R. 429.
BARRATOR, crimes. One who has been guilty of the offence of barratry.
BARRATRY, crimes. In old law French barat, baraterie, signifying robbery, deceit, fraud. In modern usage it may be defined as the habitual moving, exciting, and maintaining suits and quarrels, either at law or otherwise. 1 Inst. 368; 1 Hawk. 243.
2. A man cannot be indicted as a common barrator in respect of any number of false and groundless actions brought in his own right, nor for a single act in right of another; for that would not make him a common barrator.
3. Barratry, in this sense, is different from maintenance (q. v.) and champerty. (q. v.)
4. An attorney cannot be indicted for this crime, merely for maintaining another in a groundless action. Vide 15 Mass. R. 229 1 Bailey's R. 379; 11 Pick. R. 432; 13 Pick. R. 362; 9 Cowen, R. 587; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Hawk. P. C. B. 1, c. 21; Roll. Ab. 335; Co. Litt. 368; 3 Inst. 175.
BARRATRY, maritime law, crimes. A fraudulent act of the master or mariners, committed contrary to their duty as such, to the prejudice of the owners of the ship. Emer. tom. 1, p. 366; Merlin, Repert. h. t.; Roccus, h. t.; 2 Marsh. Insur. 515; 8 East, R. 138, 139. As to what will amount to barratry, see Abbott on Shipp. 167, n. 1; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 61; 9 East, R. 126; 1 Str. 581; 2 Ld. Raym. 1349; 1 Term R. 127; 6 Id. 379; 8 Id. 320; 2 Cain. R. 67, 222; 3 Cain. R. 1; 1 John. R. 229; 8 John. R. 209, n. 2d edit.; 5 Day. R. 1; 11 John. R. 40; 13 John. R, 451; 2 Binn. R. 274; 2 Dall. R. 137; 8 Cran. R. 39; 3 Wheat. R. 168; 4 Dall. R. 294; 1 Yeates, 114.
2. The act of Congress of April, 30, 1790, s. 8, 1 Story's Laws U. S. 84, punishes with death as piracy, "any captain or mariner of any ship or other vessel who shall piratically and feloniously run away with such ship or vessel, or any goods or merchandize to the value of fifty dollars; or yield up such ship or vessel to any pirate or if any such seamen shall lay violent hands upon his commander, thereby to binder or prevent his fighting in defence of his ship, or goods, committed to his trust, or shall make a revolt in the said ship."
BARREL. A measure of capacity, equal to tliirty-six gallons.
BARREN MONEY, civil law. This term is used to denote money which bears no interest.
BARRENNESS. The incapacity to produce a child. This, when arising from impotence, is a cause for dissolving a marriage. 1 Fodere, Med. Leg. §254.
BARRISTER, English law. A counsellor admitted to plead at the bar.
2. Ouster barrister, is one who pleads ouster or without the bar.
3. Inner barrister, a serjeant or king's counsel who pleads within the bar.
4. Vacation barrister, a counsellor newly called to the bar, who is to attend for several long vacations the exercise of the house.
5. Barristers are called apprentices, apprentitii ad legem, being looked upon as learners, and not qualified until they obtain the degree of serjeant. Edmund Plowden, the author of the Commentaries, a volume of elaborate reports in the reigns of Edward VI., Mary, Philip and Mary, and Elizabeth, describes himself as an apprentice of the common law.
BARTER. A contract by which the parties exchange goods for goods. To complete the contract the goods must be delivered, for without a delivery, the right of property is not changed.
2. This contract differs from a sale in this, that barter is always of goods for goods, whereas a sale is an exchange of goods for money. In the former there never is a price fixed, in the latter a price is indispensable. All the differences which may be pointed out betwen these two contracts, are comprised in this; it is its necessary consequence. When the contract is an exchange of goods on one side, and on the other side the consideration is partly goods and partly money, the contract is not a barter, but a sale. See Price; Sale.
3. If an insurance be made upon returns from a country where trade is carried on by barter, the valuation of the goods in return shall be made on the cost of those given in barter, adding all charges. Wesk. on Ins. 42. See 3 Camp. 351 Cowp. 818; 1 Dougl. 24, n.; 1 N. R. 151 Tropl. de l'Echange.
BARTON, old English law. The demesne land of a manor; a farm distinct from the mansion.
BASE. Something low; inferior. This word is frequently used in composition; as base court, base estate, base fee, &c.
BASE COURT. An inferior court, one not of record. Not used.
BASE ESTATE, English law. The estate which base tenants had in their lands. Base tenants were a degree above villeins, the latter being compelled to perform all the commands of their lords; the former did not hold their lands by the performance of such commands. See Kitch. 41.
BASE FEE, English law. A tenure in fee at the will of the lord. This was distinguished from socage free tenure. See Co. Litt. 1, 18.
BASILICA, civil law. This is derived from a Greek word, which signifies imperial constitutions. The emperor Basilius, finding the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian too long and obscure, resolved to abridge it, and under his auspices the work proceeded to the fortieth book, which, at his death, remained unfinished. His son and successor, Leo, the philosopher, continued the work, and published it in sixty books, about the year 880. Constantine Porphyro-genitus, younger brother of Leo, revised the work, re-arranged it, and republished it, Anno Domini, 910. From that time the laws of Justinian ceased to have any force in the eastern empire, and the Basilica were the foundation of the law observed there till Constantine XIII, the last of the Greek emperors, under whom, in 1453, Constantinople was taken by Mahomet the Turk, who put an end to the empire and its laws. Histoire de la Jurisprudence Etienne, Intr. a 1'etude du Droit Romain, §LIII. The Basilica were written in Greek. They were translated into Latin by J. Cujas (Cujacius) Professor of Law in the University of Bourges, and published at Lyons, 22d of January, 1566, in one vol. fo.
BASTARD. A word derived from bas or bast, signifying abject, low, base; and aerd, nature. Minshew, Co. Lit. 244; a. Enfant de bas, a child of low birth. Dupin. According to Blackstone, 1 Com. 454, a bastard in the law sense of the word, is a person not only begotten, but born out of lawful matrimony. This definition does not appear to be complete, inasmuch as it does not embrace the case of a person who is the issue of an illicit connection, during the coverture of his mother. The common law, says the Mirror, only taketh him to be a son whom the marriage proveth to be so. Horne's Mirror, c. 2, §7; see Glanv. lib 8, cap. 13 Bract. 63, a. b.; 2 Salk. 427;, 8 East, 204. A bastard may be perbaps defined to be one who is born of an illicit union, and before the lawful marriage of his parents.
2. A man is a bastard if born, first) before the marriage of his parents; but although he may have been begotten while his parents were single, yet if they afterwards marry, and he is born during the coverture, he is legitimate. 1 Bl. Com. 455, 6. Secondly, if born during the coverture, under circumstances which render it impossible that the hushand of his mother can be his father. 6 Binn. 283; 1 Browne's R. Appx. xlvii.; 4 T. R. 356; Str. 940 Id. 51 8 East, 193; Hardin's R. 479. It seems by the Gardner peerage case, reported by Dennis Le Marebant, esquire, that strong moral improbability that the hushand is not the father, is sufficient to bastardize the issue. Bac. Ab. tit. Bastardy, A, last ed. Thirdly, if born beyond a competent time after the coverture has determined. Stark. Ev. part 4, p. 221, n. a Co. Litt. 123, b, by Hargrave & Butler in the note. See Gestation.
3. The principal right which bastard children have, is that of maintenance from their parents. 1 Bl. Com. 458; Code Civ. of Lo. 254 to 262. To protect the public from their support, the law compels the putative father to maintain his bastard children. See Bastardy; Putative father.
4. Considered as nullius filius, a bastard has no inheritable blood in him, and therefore no estate can descend. to him; but he may take by testment, if properly described, after he has obtained a name by reputation. 1 Rop. Lew. 76, 266; Com. Dig. Descent, C, l2; Ie. Bastard, E; Co. Lit. 123, a; Id. 3, a; 1 T. R. 96 Doug. 548 3 Dana, R. 233; 4 Pick. R. 93; 4 Desaus. 434. But this hard rule has been somewhat mitigated in some of the states, where, by statute, various inheritable qualities have been conferred upon bastards. See 5 Conn. 228; 1 Dev. Eq. R. 345; 2 Root, 280; 5 Wheat.. 207; 3 H. & M. 229, n; 5 Call. 143; 3 Dana, 233.
5. Bastards can acquire the rights of legitimate children only by an act of the legislature. 1 Bl. Com. 460; 4 Inst. 36.
6. By the laws of Louisiana, a bastard is one who is born of an illicit union. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 27, 199. There are two sorts of illegitimate cbildren; first, those who are born of two persons, who, at the moment such children were conceived, might have legally contracted marriage with each other; and, secondly, those who are born from persons, to whose marriage there existed at the time, some legal impediment. Id. art. 200. An adulterous bastard is one produced by an unlawful connexion between two persons, who, at the time he was conceived, were, either of them, or both, connected by marriage with some other person or persons. Id. art. 201. Incestuous bastards are those who are produced by the illegal connexion of two persons who are relations within the degrees prohibited by law. Id. art. 202.
7. Bastards, generally speaking, belong to no family, and have no relations; accordingly they are not subject to paternal authority, even when they have been acknowledged. See 11 East, 7, n. Nevertheless, fathers and mothers owe alimony. to their children when they are in need. Id. art. 254, 256. Alimony is due to bastards, though they be adulterous or incestuous, by the mother and her ascendants. Id. art. 262.
8. Children born out of marriage, except those who are born from an incestuous or adulterous connexion, may be legitimated by the subsequent marriage of their father and mother, whenever the latter have legally acknowledged them for their children, either before the marriage or by the contract of marriage itself. Every other mode of legitimating children is abolished. Id. art. 217. Legitimation may even be extended to deceased children who have left issue, and in that ease, it enures to the benefit of that issue. Id. art. 218. Children legitimated by a subsequent marriage, have the same rights as if born during the marriage. Id. art. 219. See, generally, Vin. Abr. Bastards Bac. Abr. Bastard; Com. Dig. Bastard; Metc. & Perk. Dig. h. t.; the various other American Digests, h. t.; Harr. Dig. h. t.; 1 Bl. Com. 454 to 460; Co. Litt. 3, b.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t., And Access; Bastardy; Gestation; Natural Children.
BASTARD EIGNE', Eng. law. Elder bastard. By the old English law, when, a man had a bastard son, and he afterwards married the mother, and by her had a legitimate son, the first was called a bastard eigne, or, as it is now spelled, aine, and the second son was called puisne, or since born, or sometimes he was called mulier puisne. See Mulier; Eigne, 2 Bl. Com. 248.
BASTARDY, crim. law. The offence of begetting a bastard child.
BASTARDY, persons. The state or condition of a bastard. The law presumes every child legitimate, when born of a woman in a state of wedlock, and casts the onus probandi (q. v.) on the party wlio affirms the bastardy. Stark. Ev. h. t.
BASTON. An old French word, which signifies a staff, or club, In some old English statutes the servants or officers of the wardens of the Fleet are so called, because they attended the king's courts with a red staff. Vide Tipstaff.
BATTEL, in French Bataille; Old English law. An ancient and barbarous mode of trial, by Bingle combat, called wager of battel, where, in appeals of felony, the appellee might fight with the appellant to prove his innocence. It was also used in affairs of chivalry or honor, and upon civil cases upon certain issues. Co. Litt. 294. Till lately it disgraced the English code. This mode of trial was abolished in England by stat. 59 Geo.,III. c. 46.
2. This mode of trial was not peculiar to England. The emperor Otho, A. D. 983, held a diet at Verona, at which several sovereigns and great lords of Italy, Germany and France were present. In order to put a stop to the frequent perjuries in judicial trials, this diet substituted in all cases, even in those which followed the course of the Roman law, proof by combat for proof by oath. Henrion de Pansey, Auth. Judic. Introd. c. 3; and for a detailed account of this mode of trial see Herb. Antiq. of the Inns of Court, 119-145.
BATTERY. It is proposed to consider, 1. What is a battery; 2. When a battery, may be justified.
2. §1. A battery is the unlawful touching the person of another by the aggressor himself, or any other substance put in motion by him. 1 Saund. 29, b. n. 1; Id. 13 & 14, n. 3. It must be either wilfully committed, or proceed from want of due care. Str. 596; Hob. 134; Plowd. 19 3 Wend. 391. Hence an injury, be it never so small, done to the person of another, in an angry, spiteful, rude or insolent manner, as by spitting in his face, or any way touching him in anger, or violently jostling him, are batteries in the eye of the law. 1 Hawk. P. C. 263. See 1 Selw. N. P. 33, 4. And any thing attached to the person partakes of its inviolability if, therefore, A strikes a cane in the hands of B, it is a battery. 1 Dall. 1 14 1 Ch. Pr. 37; 1 Penn. R. 380; 1 Hill's R. 46; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 534 . 1 Baldw. R. 600.
3. - §2. A battery may be justified, 1. on the ground of the parental relation 2. in the exercise of an office; 3. under process of a court of justice or other legal tribunal 4. in aid of an authority in law; and lastly, as a necessary means of defence.
4. First. As a salutary mode of correction. For example: a parent may correct his child, a master his apprentice, a schoolmaster his scholar; 24 Edw. IV.; Easter, 17, p. 6 and a superior officer, one under his command. Keilw. pl. 120, p. 136 Bull. N. P. 19 Bee, 161; 1 Bay, 3; 14 John. R. 119 15 Mass. 365; and vide Cowp. 173; 15 Mass. 347.
5. - 2. As a means to preserve the peace; and therefore if the plaintiff assaults or is fighting with another, the defendant may lay hands upon him, and restrain him until his anger is cooled; but he cannot strike him in order to protect 'the party assailed, as he way in self-defence. 2 Roll. Abr. 359, E, pl. 3.
6. - 3. Watchmen may arrest, and detain in prison for examination, persons walking in the streets by might, whom there is reasonable ground to suspect of felony, although there is no proof of a felony having been committed. 3 Taunt. 14.
7. - 4. Any person has a right to arrest another to prevent a felony.
8. - 5. Any one may arrest another upon suspicion of felony, provided a felony has actually been committed and there is reasonable ground for suspecting the person arrested to be the criminal, and that the party making the arrest, himself entertained the suspicion.
9. - 6. Any private individual may arrest a felon. Hale's P. C. 89.
10. - 7. It is lawful for every man to lay hands on another to preserve public decorum; as to turn him out of church, and to prevent him from disturbing the congregation or a funeral ceremony. 1 Mod. 168; and see 1 Lev. 196; 2 Keb. 124. But a request to desist should be first made, unless the urgent necessity of the case dispenses with it.
11. Secondly. A battery may be justified in the exercise of an office. 1. A constable may freshly arrest one who, in, his view, has committed a breach of the peace, and carry him before a magistrate. But if an offence has been committed out of the constable's sight, he cannot arrest, unless it amounts to a felony; 1 Brownl. 198 or a felony is likely to ensue. Cro. Eliz. 375.
12. - 2. A justice of the peace may generally do all acts which a constable has authority to perform hence he may freshly arrest one who, in his view has broken the peace; or he may order a constable at the moment to take him up. Kielw. 41.
13. Thirdly. A battery may be justified under the process of a court of justice, or of a magistrate having competent jurisdiction. See 16 Mass. 450; 13 Mass. 342.
14. Fourthly. A battery may be justified in aid of an authority in law. Every person is empowered to restrain breaches of the peace, by virtue of the authority vested in him by the law.
15. Lastly. A battery may be justified as a necessary means of defence. 1. Against the plaintiffs assaults in the following instances: In defence of himself, his wife, 3 Salk. 46, his child, and his servant. Ow. 150; sed vide 1 Salk. 407. So, likewise, the wife may justify a battery in defending her hushand; Ld. Raym. 62; the child its parent; 3 Salk. 46; and the servant his master. In these situations, the party need not wait until a blow has been given, for then he might come too late, and be disabled from warding off a second stroke, or from protecting the person assailed. Care, however, must be taken, that the battery do not exceed the bounds of necessary defence and protection; for it is only permitted as a means to avert an impending evil, which might otherwise overwhelm the party, and not as a punishment or retaliation for the injurious attempt. Str. 953. The degree of force necessary to repel an assault will naturally depend upon, and be proportioned to, the violence of the assailant; but with this limitation any degree is justifiable. Ld. Raym. 177; 2 Salk. 642.
16. - 2. A battery may likewise be justified in the necessary defence of one's property; if the plaintiff is in the act of entering peaceably upon the defendant's land, or having entered, is discovered, not committing violence, a request to depart is necessary in the first instance; 2 Salk. 641; and if the plaintiff refuses, the defendant may then, and not till then, gently lay hands upon the plaintiff to remove him from the close and for this purpose may use, if necessary, any degree of force short of striking the plaintiff, as by thrusting him off. Skinn. 228. If the plaintiff resists, the defendant may oppose force to force. 8 T. R. 78. But if the plaintiff is in the act of forcibly entering upon the land, or having entered, is discovered subverting the soil, cutting down a tree or the like, 2 Salk. 641, a previous request is unnecessary, and the defendant may immediately lay hands upon the plaintiff. 8 T. R. 78. A man may justify a battery in defence of his personal property, without a previous request, if another forcibly attempt to take away such property. 2 Salk. 641. Vide Rudeness; Wantonness.
BATTURE. An elevation of the bed of a river under the surface of the water; but it is sometimes used to signify the same elevation when it has risen above the surface. 6 M. R. 19, 216. The term battures is applied, principally, to certain portions of the bed of the river Mississippi, which are left dry when the water is low, and are covered again, either in whole or in part by the annual swells. The word battures, in French, signifies shoals or shallows, where there is not water enough for a ship to float. They are otherwise called basses or brisans. Neuman's Marine Pocket Dict.; Dict. de Trevoux.
BAWDY-HOUSE, crim. law. A house of ill-fame, (q. v.) kept for the resort and unlawful commerce of lewd people of both sexes.
2. Such a house is a common nuisance, as it endangers the public peace by drawing together dissolute and debauched persons; and tends to corrupt both sexes by an open profession of lewdness. 1 Russ. on Cr.; 299: Bac. Ab. Nuisances, A; Hawk. B. 1, c. 74, §1-5.
3. The keeper of such a house may be indicted for the nuisance; and a married woman, because such houses are generally kept by the female sex, may be indicted with her hushand for keeping such a house. 1 Salk. 383; vide Dane's Ab. Index, h. t. One who assists in establishing a bawdyhouse is guilty of a misdemeanor. 2 B. Monroe, 417.
BAY. Is an enclosure to keep in the water for the supply of a mill or other contrivance, so that the water may be able to, drive the wheels of such mill. Stat. 27 Eliz. c. 19.
2. A large open water or harbor where ships may ride, is also called a bay; as, the Chesapeake Bay, the, Bay of New York.
BEACH. The sea shore. (q. v.)
BEACON. A signal erected as a sea mark for the use of mariners; also, to give warning of the approach of an enemy. 1 Com. Dig. 259; 5 Com. Dig. 173.
TO BEAR DATE. In the description of a paper in a declaration, to say it bears date such a day, is to aver that such date is upon it; and if, on being produced, it is dated at another day, the variance will be fatal. But if it be averred it was made on such a day, and upon its production it bears date on another day, it will not be a variance, because it might have been made one day and dated another. 3 Burr. 904.
BEADLE. Eng. law. A messenger or apparitor of a court, who cites persons to appear to what is alleged against them, is so called.
BEARER. One who bears or carries a thing.
2. If a bill or note be made payable to bearer, it will pass by delivery only, without endorsement; and whoever fairly acquires a right to it, may maintain an action against the drawer or acceptor.
3. It has been decided that the bearer of a bank note, payable to bearer, is not an assignee of a chose in action within the 11th section of the judiciary act of, 1789, c. 20, limiting the jurisdiction of the circuit court. 3 Mason, R. 308.
4. Bills payable to bearer are contra-distinguished from those payable to order, which can be transferred only by endorsement and delivery.
5. Bills payable to fictitious payees, are considered as bills payable to, bearer.
BEARERS, Eng. crim. law. Such as bear down or oppress others; maintainers. In Ruffhead's Statutes it is employed to translate the French word emparnours, which signifies, according to Kelham, undertakers of suits. 4 Ed. III. c. 11. This word is no longer used in this sense.
BEARING DATE. These words are frequently used in conveyancing and in pleading; as, for example, a certain indenture bearing date the first day of January, 1851, which signifies not that the indenture was made on that day, but simply that such date has been put to it.
2. When in a declaration the plaintiff alleges that the defendant made his promissory note on such a day, he will not be considered as having alleged it bore date on that day, so as to cause a variance between the declaration and the note produced bearing a different date. 2 Greenl. Ev. §1610; 2 Dowl. & L. 759.
BEAU PLEADER, Eng. law. Fair pleading. See Stultiloquium.
2. This is the name of a writ upon the statute of Marlbridge, 52 H. III. c. 11, which enacts, that neither in the circuit of justices, nor in counties, hundreds, or courts baron, any fines shall be taken for fair pleading; namely, for not pleading fairly or aptly to the purpose. Upon this statute this writ was ordained, directed to the sheriff, bailiff, or him who shall demand the fine; and it is a prohibition or command not to do it. Now Nat. Br. 596 2 Inst. 122; Termes de la Le 2 Reeves' Hist. Eng. Law, 70 Cowel; Crabb's Hist. of the Eng. Law, 150. The explanations given of this term are not very satisfactory.
BEDEL, Eng. law. A cryer or messenger of a court, who cites men to appear and answer. There are also inferior officers of a parish or liberty who bear this name.
BEE. The name of a well known insect.
2. Bees are considered ferae naturae while unreclaimed; and they are not more subjects of property while in their natural state, than the birds which have their nests on the tree of an individual. 3 Binn. R. 546 5 Sm. & Marsh. 333. This agrees with the Roman law. Inst. 2 1, 14; Dig. 41, 1, 5, 2; 7 Johns. Rep. 16; 2 Bl. Com. 392 Bro. Ab. Propertie, 37; Coop. Justin. 458.
3. In New York it has been decided that bees in a tree belong, to the owner of the soil, while unreclaimed. When they have been reclaimed, and the owner can identify them, they belong to him, and not to the owner of the soil. 15 Wend. R. 550. See 1 Cowen, R. 243.
BEGGAR. One who obtains his livelihood by asking alms. The laws of several of the states punish begging as an offence.
BEHAVIOUR. In old English, haviour without the prefix be. It is the manner of having, holding, or keeping one's self or the carriage of one's self with respect to propriety, morals, and the requirements of law. Surety to be of -good behaviour is a larger requirement than surety to keep the peace. Dalton, c. 122; 4 Burn's J. 355.
BEHOOF. As a word of discourse, Signifies need, (egestas, necessitas, indigentia.) It comes from behoove, (Sax. behoven,) to need or have need of. In a secondary sense, which is the law sense of the word, it signifies use, service, profit, advantage, (interesse, opus.) It occurs in conveyances of land in fee simple.
BELIEF. The conviction of the mind, arising from evidence received, or from information derived, not from actual perception by our senses, but from. the relation or information of others who have had the means of acquiring actual knowledge of the facts and in whose qualifications for acquiring that knowledge, and retaining it, and afterwards in communicating it, we can place confidence. " Without recurring to the books of metaphysicians' "says Chief Justice Tilghman, 4 Serg. & Rawle, 137, "let any man of plain common sense, examine the operations of, his own mind, he will assuredly find that on different subjects his belief is different. I have a firm belief that, the moon revolves round the earth. I may believe, too, that there are mountains and valleys in the moon; but this belief is not so strong, because the evidence is weaker." Vide 1 Stark. Ev. 41; 2 Pow. Mortg. 555; 1 Ves. 95; 12 Ves. 80; 1 P. A. Browne's R 258; 1 Stark. Ev. 127; Dyer, 53; 2 Hawk. c. 46, s. 167; 3 Wil. 1, s. 427; 2 Bl. R. 881; Leach, 270; 8 Watts, R. 406; 1 Greenl. Ev. §7-13, a.
BELOW. Lower in place, beneath, not so high as some other thing spoken of, of tacitly referred to.
2. The court below is an inferior court, whose, proceedings may be examined on error by a superior court, which is called the court above.
3. Bail below is that given to the sheriff in bailable actions, which is so called to distinguish it from bail to t-he action, which is called bail above. See Above; Bail above; Bail below.
BENCH. Latin Bancus, used for tribunal. In England there are two courts to which this word is applied. Bancus Regius, King's Bench Bancus Communis, Com- mon Bench or Pleas. The jus banci, says Spelman, properly belongs to the king's judges, who administer justice in the last resort. The judges of the inferior courts, as of the barons, are deemed to, judge plano pede, and are such as are called in the civil law pedanei judices, or by the Greeks Xauaidixastai, that is, humi judicantes. The Greeks called the seats of their higher judges Bumata, and of their inferior judges Bathra. The Romans used the word sellae and tribunalia, to designate the seats of their higher judges, and subsellia, to designate those of the lower. See Spelman's Gloss. (ad verb.) Bancus; also, 1 Reeves Hist. Eng. Law, 40, 4to ed., and postea Curia Regis.
BENCH WARRANT, crim. law. The name of a process sometimes given to an attachment issued by order of a criminal court, against an individual for some contempt, or for the purpose of arresting a person accused; the latter is seldom granted unless when a true bill has been found.
BENCHER, English law. A bencher is a senior in the inns of court, entrusted with their government and direction.
BENEFICE, eccles. law. In its most extended sense, any ecclesiastical preferment or dignity; but in its more limited sense, it is applied only to rectories and vicarages.
BENEFICIA. In the early feudal times, grants were made to continue only during the pleasure of the grantor, which were called munera, (q. v.) but soon afterwards these grants were made for life, and then they assumed the name of beneficia. Dalr. Feud. Pr. 199. Pomponius Laetus, as cited by Hotoman, De Feudis, ca. 2, says, " That it was an ancient custom, revived by the emperor Constantine, to give lands and villas to those generals, prefects, and tribunes, who had grown old in enlarging the empire, to supply their necessities as long as they lived, which they called. parochial parishes, &c. But, between (feuda) fiefs or feuds, and (parochias) parishes, there was this difference, that the latter were given to old men, veterans, &c., who, as they had deserved well of the republic, sustained the rest of their life (publico beneficio) by the public benefaction; or, if any war afterwards arose, they were called out, not so much as soldiers, as leaders, (majistri militum.) Feuds, (feuda,) on the other hand, were usually given to robust young men who could sustain the labors of war. In later times, the word parochia was appropriated exclusively to ecclesiastical persons, while the word beneficium (militare) continued to be used in reference to military fiefs or fees.
BENEFICIAL. Of advantage, profit or interest; as the wife has a beneficial interest in property held by a trustee for her. Vide Cestui que trust.
BENEFICIAL INTEREST. That right which a person has in a contract made with another; as if A makes a contract with B that he will pay C a certain sum of money, B has the legal interest in the contract, and C the beneficial interest. Hamm. on Part. 6, 7, 25 2 Bulst. 70.
BENEFICIARY. This term is frequently used as synonymous with the technical phrase cestui que trust. (q. v.)
BENEFICIO PRIMO ECCLESIASTICO HABENDO, Eng. eccl. law. A writ directed from the king to the chancellor, commanding him to bestow the benefice which shall first fall in the king's gift, above or under a certain value, upon a particular and certain person.
BENEFICIUM COMPETENTIAE. The right which an insolvent debtor had, among the Romans, on making session of his property for the benefit of his creditors, to retain what was required for him to live honestly according to his condition. 7 Toull. n. 258.
BENEFIT. This word is used in the same sense as gain (q. v.) and profits. (q. v.) 20 Toull. n. 199.
BENEFIT OF CESSION, Civil law. The release of a debtor from future imprisonment for his debts, which the law operates in his favor upon the surrender of his property for the benefit of his, creditors, Poth. Proced. Civ. 5eme part., c. 2, §1. This was something like a discharge under the insolvent laws, which releases the person of the debtor, but not the goods he may acquire afterwards. See Bankrupt; Cessio Bo. Insolvent.
BENEFIT OF CLERGY, English law. An exemption of the punishment of death which the laws impose on the commission of certain crimes, on the culprit demanding it. By modern statute's, benefit of clergy was rather a substitution of a more mild punishment for the punishment of death.
2. It was lately granted, not only to the clergy, as was formerly the case, but to all persons. The benefit of clergy seems never to have been extended to the crime of high treason, nor to have embraced misdemeanors inferior to felony. Vide 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 667 to 668 4 Bl. Com. ch. 28. But this privilege improperly given to the clergy, because they had more learning than others) is now abolished by stat. 7 Geo. IV. c. 28, s. 6.
3. By the Act of Congress of April 30, 1790, it is provided, §30, that the benefit of clergy shall not be used or allowed, upon conviction of any crime, for which, by any statute of the United States, the punishment is, or shall be declared to be, death.
BENEFIT OF DISCUSSION, civil law. The right which a surety has to cause the property of the principal debtor to be applied in satisfaction of the obligation in the first instance. See Civil Code of Lo. art. 3014 to 3020, and Discussion.
BENEFIT OF DIVISION. In the civil law, which, in this respect, has been adopted in Louisiana, although, when there are several sureties, each one is bound for the whole debt, yet when one of them is sued alone, he has a right to have the debt apportioned among all the solvent sureties on the same obligation, so that he shall be compelled to pay his own share only. This is called the benefit of division. Civil Code of Lo. art. 3014 to 3020. See 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1414.
BENEFIT OF INVENTORY, civil law. The benefit of inventory is the privilege which the heir obtains of being liable for the charges and debts of the succession, only to the value of the effects of the succession, in causing an inventory of these effects within the time and manner proscribed by law. Civil Code of Louis. art. 1025. Vide Poth. Traits des Successions, c. 3, s. 3, a. 2.
BENEVOLENCE, duty. The doing a kind action to another, from mere good will, without any legal obligation. It is a moral duty only, and it cannot be enforeed by law. A good wan is benevolent to the poor, but no law can compel him to be so.
BENEVOLENCE, English law. An aid given by the subjects to the king under a pretended gratuity, but in realty it was an extortion and imposition.
TO BEQUEATH. To give personal property by will to another.
BEQUEST. A gift by last will or testament; a legacy. (q. v.) This word is sometimes, though improperly used, as synonymous with devise. There is, however, a distinction between them. A bequest is applied, more properly, to a gift by will of a legacy, that is, of personal property; devise is properly a gift by testament of real property. Vide Devise.
BESAILE or BESAYLE, domestic relations. The grea-grandfather, proavus. 1 Bl. Com. 186. Vide dile.
BEST EVIDENCE. Means the best evideince of which the nature of the case admits, not the highest or strongest evidence which the nature of the thing to be proved admits of: e. g. a copy of a deed is not the best evidence; the deed itself is better. Gilb. Ev. 15; 3 Campb.. 236; 2 Starkey, 473 2 Campb. 605; 1 Esp. 127.
2. The rule requiring the best evidence to be produced, is to be understood of the best legal evidence. 2 Serg. & R. 34; 3 Bl. Com. 368, note 10, by Christian. It is relaxed in some cases, as, e. g. where the words or the act of the opposite party avow the fact to be proved. A tavern keeper's sign avows his occupation; taking of tithes avows the clerical character; so, addressing one as The Reverend T. S." 2 Serg. & R. 440 1 Saund. on Plead. & Evid. 49.
BETROTHMENT. A contract between a man and a woman, by which they agree that at a future, time they will marry together.
2. The requisites of this contract are 1. That it be reciprocal. 2. That the parties be able to contract.
3. The contract must be mutual; the Promise of the one must be the consideration for the promise of the other. It must be obligatory on both parties at the same instant, so that each may have an action upon it, or it will bind neither. 1 Salk. 24, Carth. 467; 5 Mod. 411; 1 Freem. 95; 3 Keb. 148; Co. Lit. 79 a, b.
4. The parties must be able to contract. if either be married at the time of betrothment, the contract is void; but the married party cannot take advantage of his own wrong, and set up a marriage or previous engageinent, as an answer to the action for the breach of the contract, because this disability proceeds from the defendant's own act. Raym. 387 3 Just. 89; I Sid. 112 1 Bl. Com. 438.
5. The performance of this engagement or completion of the marriage, must be performed within a reasonable time. Either party may, therefore, call upon the other to fulfil the engagement, and in case of refusal or neglect to do so, within a reasonable time after request made, may treat the betrothment as at an end, and bring action for the breach of the contract. 2 C. & P. 631.
6. For a breach of the betrothment, without a just cause, an action on the case may be maintained for the recovery of damages. See Affiance; Promise of Marriage.
BETTER EQUITY. In England this term has lately been adopted. In the case of Foster v. Blackston, the master of the rolls said, be could no where find in the authorities what in terms was a better equity, but on a reference to all the cases, he considered it might be thus defined: If a prior incumbrancer did not take a security which effectually protected him against any subsequent dealing to his prejudice, by the party who had the legal estate, a second incumbrancer, taking a security which in its nature afforded him that protection, had what might properly be called a better equity. 1 Ch. Pr. 470, note. Vide 4 Rawle, R. 144 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2462.
BETTERMENTS. Improvement's made to an estate. It signifies such improvements as have been made to the estate which render it better than mere repairs. See 2 Fairf. 482; 9 Shepl. 110; 10 Shepl. 192; 13 Ohio, R. 308; 10 Yerg. Verm. 533; 17 Verm. 109.
BEYOND SEA. This phrase is used in the acts of limitations of several of the states, in imitation of the phraseology of the English statute of limitations. In Pennsylvania, the term has been construed to signify out of the United States. 9 S. & R. 288; 2 Dall. R. 217; 1 Yeates, R. 329. In Georgia, it is equivalent to without the limits of the state; 3 Wheat. R. 541; and the same construction prevails in Maryland; 1 Har. & John. 350; 1 Harr. & M'H. 89; in South Carolina; 2 McCord, Rep. 331; and in Massachusetts. 3 Mass. R. 271; 1 Pick. R. 263. Vide Kirby, R. 299; 3 Bibb. R. 510; 3 Litt. R. 48; 1 John. Cas. 76. Within the four seas, infra quatuor maria, and beyond the four seas, extra quatuor maria, in English law books signify within and without the kingdom of England, or the jurisdiction of the king of England. Co. Lit. 244 a; 1 Bl. Com. 457.
BIAS. A particular influential power which sways the judgment; the inclination or propensity of the mind towards a particular object.
2. Justice requires that the judge should have no bias for or against any individual; and that his mind should be perfectly free to act as the law requires.
3. There is, however, one kind of bias which the courts suffer to influence them in their judgments it is a bias favorable to a class of cases, or persons, as distinguished from an individual case or person. A few examples will explain this. A bias is felt on account of convenience. 1 Ves. sen. 13, 14; 3 Atk. 524. It is also felt in favor of the heir at law, as when there is an heir on one side and a mere volunteer on the other. Willes, R. 570 1 W. Bl. 256; Amb. R. 645; 1 Ball & B. 309 1 Wils. R. 310 3 Atk. 747 Id. 222. On the other hand, the court leans against double portions for children; M'Clell. R. 356; 13 Price, R. 599 against double provisions, and double satisfactions; 3 Atk. R. 421 and against forfeitures. 3 T. R. 172. Vide, generally, 1 Burr. 419 1 Bos. & Pull. 614; 3 Bos. & Pull. 456 Ves. jr. 648 Jacob, Rep. 115; 1 Turn. & R. 350.
BID, contracts. A bid is an offer to pay a specified price for an article about to be sold at auction. The bidder has a right to withdraw his bid at any time before it is accepted, which acceptance is generally manifested by knocking down the hammer. 3 T. R. 148; Hardin's Rep. 181; Sugd. Vend. 29; Babington on Auct. 30, 42; or the bid may be withdrawn by implication. 6 Penn. St. R. 486; 8, Id. 408. Vide 0ffer.
BIDDER, contracts. One who makes an offer to pay a certain price for an article which is for sale.
2. The term is applied more particularly to a person who offers a price for goods or other property, while up for sale at an auction. The bidder is required to act in good faith, and any combination between him and others, to prevent a fair competition, would avoid the sale made to himself.
3. But there is nothing illegal in two or more persons agreeing together to purchase a property at sheriff's sale, fixing a certain price which they are. willing to give, and appointing one of their number to be the bidder. 6 Watts & Serg. 122.
4. Till the bid is accepted, the bidder may retract it. Vide articles, Auction and Bid; 3 John. Cas. 29 6 John. R. 194; 8 John. R. 444 1 Fonbl. Eq. b. 1, c. 4, §4, note (x).
BIENS. A French word, which signifies property. In law, it means property of every description, except estates of freehold and inheritance. Dane's Ab. c. 133, a, 3 Com. Dig. h. t.; Co. Litt. 118, b; Sugd. Vend. 495.
2. In the French law, this term includes all kinds of property, real and personal. Biens are divided into biens meubles, movable or personal property; and biens immeubles, immovable property or real estate. This distinction between movable and immovable property, is, however, recognized by them, and gives rise in the civil, as well as in the common law, to many important distinctions as to rights and remedies. Story, Confl. of Laws, §13, note 1.
BIGAMUS, Canon law, Latin. One guilty of bigamy.
BIGAMY, crim. law, domestic relations. The wilful contracting of a second marriage when the contracting party knows that the first is still subsisting; or it is the state of a man who has two wives, or of a woman who has two hushands living at the same time. When the man has more than two wives, or the woman more than two hushands living at the same time, then the party is said to have committed polygamy, but the name of bigamy is more frequently given to this offence in legal proceedings. 1 Russ. on Cr. 187.
2. In England this crime is punishable by the stat. 1 Jac. 1, c. 11, which makes the offence felony but it exempts from punishment the party whose hushand or wife shall continue to remain absent for seven years before the second marriage, without being heard from, and persons who shall have been legally divorced. The statutory provisions in the U. S. against bigamy or polygamy, are in general similar to, and copied from the statute of 1 Jac. 1, c. 11, excepting as to the punishment. The several exceptions to this statute are also nearly the same in the American statutes, but the punishment of the offence is different in many of the states. 2 Kent, Com. 69; vide Bac. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. Justices, §5; Merlin, Repert. mot Bigamie; Code, lib. 9, tit. 9, 1. 18; and lib. 5, tit. 5, 1. 2.
3. According to the canonists, bigamy is three-fold, viz.: (vera, interpretative, et similitudinaria,) real, interpretative and similitudinary. The first consisted in marrying two wives successively, (virgins they may be,) or in once marrying a widow; the second consisted, not in a repeated marriage, but in marrying (v. g. meretricem vel ab alio corruptam) a harlot; the third arose from two marriages indeed, but the one metaphorical or spiritual, the other carnal. This last was confined to persons initiated in sacred orders, or under the vow Of continence. Deferriere's Tract, Juris Canon. tit. xxi. See also Bac. Abr. h. t.; 6 Decret, 1. 12. Also Marriage.
BILAN. A book in which bankers, merchants and traders write a statement of all they owe and all that is due to them. This term is used in the French law, and in the state of Louisiana. 5 N. S; 158. A balance sheet. See 3 N. S. 446, 504.
BILATERAL CONTRACT, civil law. A contract in which both the contracting parties are bound to fulfil obligations reciprocally towards each other; Lec. Elem. §781; as a contract of sale, where one becomes bound to deliver the, thing sold, and the other to pay the price of it. Vide Contract; Synallagmatic contract.
BILINGUIS, English law. One who uses two tongues or languages. Formerly a jury, part Englishmen and part foreigners, to give a verdict between an Englishman and a foreigner. Vide Medietas Linguae, Plowd. 2. It is abolished in Pennsylvania. Act April 14, 1834, §149.
BILL, legislation. An instrument drawn or presented by a member or committee to a legislative body for its approbation and enactment. After it has gone through both houses and received the constitutional sanction of the chief magistrate, where such approbation is requisite, it becomes a law. See Meigs, R. 237.
BILL, chancery practice. A complaint in writing addressed to the chancellor, containing the names of the parties to the suit, both complainant and defendant, a statement of the facts on which the complainant relies, and the allegations which he makes, with an averment that the acts complained of are contrary to equity , and a prayer for relief and proper process. Its office in a chancery suit, is the same as a declaration in an action at law, a libel in a court of admiralty or an allegation in, the spiritual courts.
2. A bill usually consists of nine parts. 1. The address, which must be to the chancellor, court or judge acting as such. 2. The second part consists of the names of the plaintiffs and their descriptions; but the description of the parties in this part of the bill does not, it seems, constitute a sufficient averment, so as to put that fact in issue. 2. Ves. & Bea. 327. 3. The third part is called the premises or stating part of the bill, and contains the plaintiff's case. 4. In the fourth place is a general charge of confederacy. 5. The fifth part consists of allegations of the defendant's pretences, and charges in evidence of them. 6. The sixth part contains the clause of jurisdiction and in averment that the acts complained of are contrary to equity. 7. The seventh part consists of a prayer that the parties answer the premises, which is usually termed the interrogatory part. 8. The prayer for relief sought forms the eighth part. And, 9. The ninth part is a prayer for process. 2 Mad. Ch. 166; Blake's Ch. P. 35; 1 Mitf. Pl. 41. The facts contained in the bill, as far as known to the complainant, must, in some cases, be sworn to be true; and such as are not known to him, he must swear he believes to be true; and it must be signed by counsel; 2 Madd. Ch. Pr. 167; Story, Eq. Pl. §26 to 47; and for cases requiring an affidavit, see, 3 Brow. Chan. Cas. 12, 24, 463; Bunb. 35; 2 Brow. 11 1 Fow. Proc. 256 Mitf. Pl. 51; 2 P. Wms. 451; 3 Id. 77; 1 Atk. 450; 3 Id. 17, 132; 3 Atk. 132 Preced. in Ch. 332 Barton's Equity, 48 n. 1, 53 n. 1, 56 n. 1 2 Brow. Ch. Cas. 281, 319; 4 Id. 480
3. Bills may be divided into three classes, namely: 1. Original bills. 2. Bills not original. 3. Bills in the nature of original bills.
4. - 1. An original bill is one which prays the decree of the court, touching some right claimed by the person exhibiting the bill, in opposition to some right claimed by the person against whom the bill is exhibited. Hinde, 19; Coop. Eq. Pl. 43. Original bills always relate to some matter not before litigated in the court by the same persons, and standing in the same interests. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 34; Story, Eq. Pl., §16. They may be divided into those which pray relief, and those which do not pray relief.
5. - 1st. Original bills praying relief are of three kinds. First. Bills Praying the decree or order of the court, touching some right claimed by the party exhibiting the bill, in opposition to some right, real or supposed, claimed by the party against whom the bill is exhibited, or touching some wrong done in violation of the plaintiff's right. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 32.
6. - Secondly. A bill of interpleader, is one in which the person exhibiting it claims no right in opposition to the rights claimed by the person against whom the bill is exhibited, but prays the decree of the court touching the rights of those persons, for the safety of the person exhibiting the bill. Hinde, 20; Coop. Eq. Pl. 43; Mitf. Pl. 32. The Practical Register defines it to be a bill exhibited by a third person, who, not knowing to whom he ought of right to render a debt or duty, or pay his rent, fears he may be hurt by some of the claimants, and therefore prays be may interplead, so that the court may judge to whom the thing belongs, and he be thereby safe on the payment. Pr. Reg. 78; Harr. Ch. Pr. 45; Edw. Inj. 393; 2 Paige, 199 Id. 570; 6 John. Ch. R. 445.
7. The interpleader has been compared to the intervention (q. v.) of the civil law. Gilb. For. Rom. 47. But there is a striking difference between them. The tertius in our interpleader in equity, professes to have no interest in the subject, and calls upon the parties who allege they have, to come forward and discuss their claims: the tertius of the civil law, on the other hand, asserts a right himself in the 'Subject, which two persons are at the time actually contesting, and insists upon his right to join in the discussion. A bill of interpleader may be filed, though the party has not been sued at law, or has been sued by one only of the conflicting claimants, or though the claim of one of the defendants is actionable at law, and the other in equity. 6 Johns. Chan. R. 445. The requisites of a bill of this kind are, 1. It must admit the want of interest in the plaintiff in the subject matter of dispute. 2. The plaintiff must annex an affidavit that there is no collusion between him and either of the parties. 3. The bill must contain an offer to bring the money into court, when there is any due; the want of which is a ground of demurrer, unless the money has actually been paid into court. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 49; Coop. Eq. Pl. 49; Barton, Suit in Eq. 47, note 1. 4. The plaintiff should state his own rights, and thereby negative any interest in the thing in controversy; and also should state the several claims of the opposite parties; a neglect on this subject is good cause of demurrer. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 142; 2 Story on Eq. §821; Story, Eq. Pl. 292. 5. The bill should also show that there are persons in esse capable of interpleading, and setting up opposite claims. Coop. Eq. Pl. 46; 1 Mont. Eq. Pl. 234; Story, Eq. Pl. §295; Story on Eq. §821; 1 Ves. 248. 6. The bill should pray that the defendants set forth their several titles, and interplead, settle, and adjust their demands between themselves. The bill also generally prays an injunction to restrain the proceedings of the claimants, or either of them, at law; and, in this case, the bill should offer to bring the money into court and the court will not in general act upon this part of the prayer, unless the money be actually brought into court. 4 Paige's R. 384 6 John. Ch. R. 445.
8. Thirdly. A bill of certiorari, is one praying the writ of certiorari to remove a cause from an inferior court of equity. Coop. El q. 44. The requisites of this bill are that it state, 1st. the proceedings in the inferior court; 2d. the incompetency of such court, by suggesting that the cause is out of its jurisdiction; or that the witnesses live out of its jurisdiction; or are not able, by age or infirmity, or the distance of the place, to follow the suit there or that, for some other cause, justice is not likely to be done-, 3d. the bill must pray a writ of certiorari, to certify and remove the record and the cause to the superior court. Wyatt, Pr. Reg. 82; Harr. Ch. Pr. 49; Story, Eq. Pl. §298. This bill is seldom used in the United States.
9. - 2d. Original bills not praying relief are of two kinds. First,. Bills to secure evidence, which are bills to perpetuate the testimony of witnesses or bills to examine witnesses de bene esse. These will be separately considered.
10. - 1. A bill to perpetuate the testimony of witnesses, is one which prays leave to examine them, and states that the witnesses are old, infirm, or sick, or going beyond the jurisdiction of the court, whereby the party is in danger of losing the benefit of their testimony. Hinde, 20. It does not pray for relief. Coop. Eq. Pl. 44.
11. In order to maintain such a bill, it is requisite to state on its face all the material facts to support the jurisdiction. It must state, 1. the subject-matter toucbing which the plaintiff is desirous of giving evidence. Rep. Temp. Finch, 391; 4 Madd. R. 8, 10. 2. It must show that the plaintiff has some interest in the subject-matter, which may be endangered if the testimony in support of it be lost; and a mere expectancy, however strong, is not sufficient. 6 Ves. 260 1 Vern. 105; 15 Ves. 136; Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 51 Coop. Eq. Pl., 52. 3. It must state that the defendant has, or pretends to have, or that he claims an interest to contest the title of the plaintiff in the subject-matter of the proposed testimony. Coop. Pl. 56; Story, Eq. Pl. §302. 4. It must exhibit some ground of necessity for perpetuating the evidence. Story, Eq. Pl. §303 Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 52, 148 and note y; Coop. Eq. Pl. 53. 5. The right of which the bill is brought to perpetuate the evidence or testimony, should be described with reasonable certainty in the bill, so as to point the proper interrogations on both sides to the true merits of the controversy. 1 Vern. 312; Coop. Eq. Pl. 56. 6. It should pray leave to examine the witnesses touching the matter stated, to the end that their testimony maybe preserved and perpetuated. Mitf. Pl 52. A bill to perpetuate testimony differs from a bill to take testimony de bene esse, in this, that the latter is sustainable only when there is a suit already depending, while the former can be maintained only when no present suit can be brought at law by the party seeking the aid of a court to try his right. Story, Eq. Pl. §307. The canonists had a similar rule. According to the canon law, witnesses could be examined before any action was commenced, for fear that their evidence might be lost. x, cap. 5 Boehmer, n. 5 8 Toull. n. 23.
12. - 2. Bill to take testimony de bene esse. This bill, the name of which is sufficiently descriptive of its object, is frequently confounded with a bill to perpetuate testimony; but although it bears a close analogy to it, ,it is very different. Bills to perpetuate testimony can be maintained only, when no present suit can be maintained at law by the party seeking the aid of the court to try his right; whereas bills to take testimony de bene esse, are sustainable only in aid of a suit already depending. 1 Sim. & Stu. 83. The latter may be brought by a person who is in possession, or out of possession; and whether he be plaintiff or defendant in the action at law. Story, Eq Pl. §307 and 303, note; Story on Eq. 1813, note 3. In many respects the rules which regulate the framing of bills to perpetuate testimony, are applicable to bills to take testimony ae bene esse.
13. - Secondly. A bill of discovery, emphatically so called, is one which prays for the discovery of facts resting within the knowledge of the person against whom the bill is exhibited, or of deeds, writings, or other things in his custody or power. Hinde, 20; Blake's Ch. Pr. 37. Every bill, except the bill of certiorari, may in truth, be considered a bill of discovery, for every bill seeks a disclosure of circumstances relative to the plaintiff's case; but that usually and emphatically distinguished by this appellation is a bill for the discovery of facts, resting in the knowledge of the defendant, or of deeds or writings, or other things in his custody or power, and seeking no relief in consequence of the discovery.
14. This bill is commonly used in aid of the jurisdiction of some other court as to enable the plaintiff Ito prosecute or defend an action at law. Mitf. Pl. 52. "The plaintiff, in this species of bill, must be entitled to the discovery he seeks, and shall only have a discovery of what is necessary for his own title, as of deeds he claims under, and not to pry into that of the defendant. 2 Ves. 445. See Blake's Ch. Pr. 45 Mitf. Pl. 52 Coop. Eq. Pl. 58 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 196 Hare on Disc. passim Wagr. on Disc. passim.
15. The action ad exhibendum, in the Roman law, was not unlike a bill of discovery. Its object was to force the party against whom it was instituted, to exhibit a thing or a title in his power. It was always preparatory to another, which was always a real action in the sense of the word in the Roman law. See Action ad exhibendum; Merlin, Questions de Droit, tome i. 84.
16. - II . Bills not original. These are either in addition to, or a continuance of an original bill, or both. Mitf. c. 1, s . 2; Story, Eq. Pl. §388; .4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4100.
17. - 1st. Of the first class are, 1. A supplemental bill. This bill is occasioned by some defect in a suit already instituted, whereby the parties cannot obtain complete justice, to which otherwise the case by their bill would have entitled them. It is used for the purpose of supplying some irregularity discovered in the formation of the original bill, or some of the proceedings there upon; or some defect in a suit, arising from events happening since the points in the original were at issue, which give an interest to˜20persons not parties to the suit. Blake's Ch. Pr. 50. See 3 Johns. Ch. R. 423.
18. It is proper to consider more minutely 1. in what cases such a bill may be filed; 2. its particular requisites.
19.- 1. A supplemental bill may be filed, 1st. whenever the imperfection in the original bill arises from the omission of some material fact, which existed before the filing of the bill, but the time has passed in which it can be introduced into the bill by amendment,, Mitf. Eq. Pl. 55, 61, 325 but leave of court must be obtained, before a bill which seeks to change the original structure of the bill, and to introduce a new and different case, can be filed. 2d. When a party necessary to the proceedings has been omitted, and cannot be admitted by an amendment. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 61 6 Madd. R. 369; 4 John. Ch. R. 605. 3d. When, after the court has decided upon the suit as framed, it appears necessary to bring some other matter before the court to obtain the full effect of the decision; or before a decision has been obtained, but after the parties are at issue upon the points in the original bill, and witnesses have been examined, (in which case, an amendment is not in general permitted,) some other point appears necessary to be made, or some additional discovery is found requisite. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 55; Coop Eq. Pl. 73; 3 Atk. R. 110; 12 Paige, R. 200. 4th. When new events or new matters have occurred since the filing of the bill; Coop. Eq. Pl. 74; these events or matters, however, are confined to such as refer to and support the rights and interests already mentioned in the bill. Story, Eq. Pl. §336.
20. - 2. The supplemental bill must state the original bill, and the proceedings thereon and when it is occasioned by an event which has occurred subsequently to the original bill, it must state that event, and the consequent alteration with regard to the parties. In general, the supplemental bill must pray that all defendants appear and answer the charges it contains. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 75 Story, Eq. Pl. §343.
21. - 2. A bill of revivor, which is a continuance of the original bill, when by death some party to it has become incapable of prosecuting or defending a suit, or a female plaintiff has by marriage incapacitated herself from suing alone. Mitf. Pl. 33, 70; 2 Madd. Ch. Pr. 526. See 3 Johns. Ch. R. 60: Story, Eq. Pl. §354, et. seq.
22. - 3. A bill of revivor and supplement. This is a compound of a supple-mental bill and bill of revivor, and not only continues the suit, which has abated by the death of the plaintiff, or the like, but supplies any defects in the original bill, arising from subsequent events, so as to entitle the party to relief on the whole merits of his case. 5 Johns.Ch R. 334; Mitf. Pl. 32, 74.
23. - 2d. Among the second class may be placed, 1. A cross bill. This is one which is brought by a defendant in a suit against the plaintiff, respecting the matter in question in that bill. Coop. Eq. Pl. 85 Mitf. Pl. 75.
24. A bill of this kind is usually brought to obtain, either a necessary discovery, or full relief to all the parties. It frequently happens, and particularlly if any questions arises between two defendants to a bill, that the court cannot make a complete decree without a cross bill, or cross bills to bring every matter in dispute completely before the court, litigated by the proper parties, and upon proper proofs. In this case it becomes necessary for some one of the defendants to the original bill to file a bill against the plaintiff and other defendants in that bill, or some of them, and bring the litigated point properly before the court.
25. A cross bill should state the original bill, and the proceedings thereon, and the rights of the party exhibiting the bill which are necessary to be made the subject of a cross litigation, or the grounds on which he resists the claims of the plaintiff in the original bill, if that is the object of the new bill.
26. A cross bill may be filed to answer the purpose of a plea puis darrein continuance at the common law. For example, where, pending a suit, and after replication and issue joined, the defendant having obtained a release and attempted to prove it viva voce at the bearing, it was determined that the release not being in issue in the cause, the court could not try the facts, or direct a trial at law for that purpose, and that a new bill must be filed to put the release in issue. Mitf. Pl. 75, 76 Coop. Eq. Pl. 85; 1 Harr. Ch. Pr. 135.
27. A cross bill must be brought before publication is passed on the first bill, 1 Johns. Ch. R. 62, and not after, except the plaintiff in the cross bill go to the hearing on the depositions already published; because of the danger of perjury and subornation, if the parties should, after publication of the former depositions, examine witnesses, de novo, to the same matter before examined into. 7 Johns. Ch. Rep. 250; Nels. Ch. R. 103.
28. - 2. A bill of review. Bills of review are in the nature of writs of error. They are brought to have decrees of the court reviewed, altered, or reversed, and there are two sorts of these bills. The first is brought where the decree has been signed and enrolled and the second, where the decree has not been signed and enrolled. 1 Ch. Cas. 54; 3 P. Wms. 371. The first of these is called, by way of preeminence, a bill of review; while the other is distinguished by the appellation of a bill in the nature of a bill of review, or a supplemental bill iii the nature of a bill of review. Coop. Eq. Pl. 88; 2 Madd. Ch. Pr. 537.
29. A bill of review must be either for error in point of law; 2 Johns. C. R. 488; Coop. Eq. Pl. 89; or for some new matter of fact, relevant to the case, discovered since publication passed in the cause; and which could not, with reasonable diligence, have been discovered before. 2 Johns. C. R. 488; Coop. Eq. Pl. 94. See 3 Johns. R. 124,
30. - 3. Bill to impeach a decree on the ground of fraud. When a decree has been obtained by fraud, it may be impeached by original bill, without leave of court. As the principal point in issue, is the fraud in obtaining it, it must be established before the propriety of the decree can be investigated, and the fraud must be distinctly stated in the bill. The prayer must necessarily be varied according to the nature of the fraud used, and the extent of its operation in obtaining an improper decision of the court. When the decree to set aside a fraudulent decree has been obtained, the court will restore the parties to their former situation, whatever their rights may be. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 84; Sto. Eq. Pl. §426.
>31. - 4. Bill to suspend a decree. The operation of a decree may be suspended under special circumstances, or avoided by matter subsequent to the decrees upon a new bill for that purpose. See 1 Ch. Cas. 3, 61 2 Ch . Cal 8 Mitf. Eq. Pl. 85 , 86.
32. - 5. Bill to carry a decree into execution. This is one which is filed when from the neglect of parties, or some other cause, it may become impossible to carry a decree into execution without the further decree of the court. Hinde, 68; 1 Harr. Ch. 148.
33. - 6. Bills partaking of the qualities of some one or more of other bills. These are,
34. First. Bill in the nature of a bill of revivor. A bill in the nature of a bill of revivor, is one which is filed when the death of a party, whose interest is not determined by his death, is attended with such a transmission of his interest, that the title to it, as well as the person entitled, may be litigated in the court of chancery, as in the case of a devise of real estate, the suit is not permitted to be continued by bill of revivor. 1 Ch. Cas. 123; Id. 174; 3 Ch. Rep. 39; Mosely, R. 44. In such cases an original bill, upon which the title may be litigated, must be filed, and this bill will have so far the effect of a bill of revivor, that if the, title of the representative by the act of the deceased party is established, the same benefit may be had of the proceedings upon the former bill, as if the suit had been continued by bill of revivor. 1 Vern. 427; 2 Vern. 548 Id. 672; 2 Bro. P. C. 529; 1 Eq. Cas. Ab. 83; Mitf. Pl. 66, 67.
35. Secondly. Bill in the nature. of a supplemental bill. An original bill in the nature of a supplemental bill, is one filed when the interest of the plaintiff or defendant, suing or defending, wholly determines, and the same property becomes vested in another person not claiming under him. Hinde, 71; Blake's Ch. Pr. 38. The principal difference between this and a supplemental bill, seems to be, that a supplemental bill is applicable to such cases only, where the same parties or the same interests remain before the court; whereas, an original bill in the nature of a supplemental bill, is properly applicable where new parties, with new interests, arising from events occurring since the institution of the suit, are brought before the court. Coop. Eq. Pl. 75; Story, Eq. Pl. §345.
36. Thirdly. Bill in the nature of a bill of review. A bill in the nature of a bill of review, is one brought by a person not bound by a decree, praying that the same may be examined and reversed; as where a decree is made against a person who has no interest at all in the matter in dispute, or had not an interest sufficient to render the decree against him binding upon some person claiming after him. Relief may be obtained against error in the decree, by a bill in the nature of a bill of review. This bill in its frame resembles a bill of review, except that instead of praying that the former decree may be reviewed and reversed, it prays that the cause may be heard with respect to the new matter made the subject of the supplemental bill, at the same time that it is reheard upon the original bill; and that the plaintiff may have such relief as the nature of the case made by the supplemental bill may require. 1 Harr. Ch. P. 145.
37. There are also bills which derive their names from the object which the complainant has in view. These will be separately considered.
38.- 1. Bill of foreclosure. A bill of foreclosure is one filed by a mortgagee against the mortgagor, for the purpose of having the estate, sold, thereby to obtain the sum mortgaged on the premises, with interest and costs. 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 528. As to the persons who are to be made parties to a bill of foreclosure, see Story, Eq. Pl. §199-202.
39. - 2. Bill of information. A bill of information is a bill instituted in behalf of the state, or those whose rights are the object of its care and protection. It is commenced by information exhibited in the name of the attorney-general, and differs from other bills little more than in name. If the suit immediately concerns the right of the state, the information is generally exhibited without a relator. If it does not immediately concern those rights, it is conducted at the instance and under the immediate direction of, some person whose name is inserted in the information, and is termed the relator; the officers of the state, in such or the like cases, are not further concerned than as they are instructed and advised by those whose rights the state is called upon to protect and establish. Blake's Ch. Pl. 50; see Harr. Ch. Pr. 151.
40. - 3. Bill to marshal assets. A bill to marshal assets is one filed in favor of simple contract creditors, and of legatees, devisees, and heirs, but not in favor of next of kin, to prevent specialty. creditors from exhausting the personal estate. See Marshaling of Assets.
41. - 4. Bill to marshal securities. A bill to marshal securities is one which is filed against a party who has two funds by which his debt is secured, by a person having an interest in only one of those funds. As if A has two mortgages and B has but one, B has a right to throw A upon the security which B cannot touch. 2 Atk. 446; see 8 Ves. 388, 395. This last case contains a luminous exposition in all its bearings. In Pennsylvania, and perhaps in some other states, the object of this bill is reached by subrogation, (q. v.) that is, by substituting the creditor, having but one fund to resort to, to the rights of the other creditor, in respect to the other fund.
42. - 5. Bill for a new trial. This is a bill filed in a court of equity praying for an injunction after judgment at law, when there is any fact, which renders it against conscience to execute such judgment, and of which the injured party could not avail himself in a court of law-, or, if he could, was prevented by fraud or accident, unmixed with any fault or negligence of himself or his agents. Mitf. Pl. by Jer. 131; 2 Story Eq. §887. Of late years bills of this description are not countenanced. Id.˜201 John. Ch. R. 432 6 John. Ch. R. 479.
43. - 6. Bill of peace. A bill of peace is one which is filed when a person has a right which may be controverted by various persons, at different times, and by different actions. In such a case the court will prevent a multiplicity of suits, by directing an issue to determine the right, and ultimately grant an injunction. 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 166; 1 Harr. Ch. Pr. 104; Blake's Ch. Pr. 48; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. §852 to 860; Jeremy on Eq. Jurisd. 343 2 John. Ch. R. 281; 8 Cranch, R. 426.
44. There is another class of cases in which a bill of peace is now ordinarily applied; namely, when the plaintiff, after repeated and satisfactory trials, has established his right at law, and is still in danger of new attempts to controvert it. In order to quiet the possession of the plaintiff, and to suppress future litigation, courts of equity, under such circumstances, will interfere, and grant a perpetual injunction. 3 John. R. 529; 8 Cranch, R. 462; Mit. Pl. by Jeremy, 143; 2 John. Ch. R. 281; Ed. on Inj. 356.
45. - 7. Bill quia timet. A bill quia timet, is one which is filed when a person is entitled to property of a personal nature after another's death, and has reason to apprehend it may be destroyed by the present possessor; or when he is apprehensive of being subjected to a future inconvenience, probable or even possible to happen or be occasioned by the neglect, inadvertance, or culpability of another. Upon a proper case being made out, the court will, in one case, secure the property for the use of the party (which is the object of the bill) by compelling the person in possession of it, to give a proper security against any subsequent disposition or wilful destruction and in the other case, they will quiet the party's apprehension of future inconvenience, by removing the causes which may lead to it. 1 Harr. Ch. Pr. 107; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 218: Blake's Ch. Pr. 37, 47; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. §825 to 851. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
BILL, merc. law. An account containing the items of goods sold, or of work done by one person against another. It differs from an account stated (q. v.) in this, that the latter is a bill approved and sanctioned by the debtor, whereas a bill is made out by the creditor alone.
BILL OF ADVENTURE, com. law, contracts. A writing signed by a merchant, to testify that the goods shipped on board a certain vessel belong to another person who is to take the hazard, the subscriber signing only to oblige himself to account to him, for the proceeds.
BILL OP ATTAINDER, legislation, punishment. An act of the legislature by which one or more persons are declared to be attainted, and their property confiscated.
2. The Constitution of the United States declares that no state shall pass any bill of attainder.
3. During the revolutionary war, bills of attainder, and ox post facto acts of confiscation, were passed to a wide extent. The evils resulting from them, in times of more cool reflection, were discovered to have far outweighed any imagined good. Story on Const. §1367. Vide Attainder; Bill of Pains and Penalties.
BILL-BOOK, commerce, accounts. One in in which an account is kept of promissory notes, bills of exchange, and other bills payable or receivable: it ought to contain all that a man issues or receives. The book should show the date of the bill, the term it has to run before it becomes due, the names of all the parties to it, and the time of its becoming due, together with the amount for which it was given.
BILL OF CONFORITY. The name of a bill filed by an executor or administrator, who finds the affairs of the deceased so much involved that he cannot safely administer the estate, except under the direction of a court of chancery. This bill is filed against the creditors generally, for the purpose of having all their claims adjusted, and procuring a final decree settling the order of payment of the assets. 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 440.
BILL 0F COST, practice. A statement of the items which form the total amount of the costs of a suit or action. This is demandable as a matter of right before the payment of the costs.
BILL OF CREDIT. It is provided by the Constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 10, that no state shall " emit bills of credit, or make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment or debts." Such bills of credit are declared to mean promissory notes or bills issued exclusively on the credit of the. state, and for the payment of which the faith of the state only is pledged. The prohibition, therefore, does not apply to the notes of a state bank, drawn on the credit of a particular fund set apart for the purpose. 2 M'Cord's R. 12; 2 Pet. R. 818; 11 Pet. R. 257. Bills of credit may be defined to be paper issued and intended to circulate through the community for its ordinary purposes, as money redeemable at a future day. 4 Pet. U. S. R. 410; 1 Kent, Com. 407 4 Dall. R. xxiii.; Story, Const. §§ 1362 to 1364 1 Scam. R. 87, 526.
2. This phrase is used in another sense among merchants it is a letter sent by an agent or other person to a merchant, desiring him to give credit to the bearer for goods or money. Com. Dig. Merchant, F 3; 5 Sm. & Marsh. 491; R. M. Charlt. 151; 4 Pike, R. 44; 3 Burr. Rep. 1667.
BILL OP DEBT, BILL OBLIGATORY, contracts. When a merchant by his writing acknowledges himself in debt to another, in a certain sum to be paid on a certain day and subscribes it at a day and place certain. It may be under seal or not. Com. Dig. Merchant, F 2.
BILL OF EXCEPTION, practice. The statement in writing, of the objection made by a party in a cause, to the decision of the court on a point of law, which, in confirmation of its accuracy, is signed and sealed by the judge, or court who made the decision. The object of the bill of exceptions is to put the question of law on record, for the information of the court of error having cognizance of such cause.
2. The bill of exception is authorized by the statute of Westminster 2, 13 Ed. I. c. 31, the principles of which have, been adopted in all the states of the Union. It is thereby enacted, "when one impleaded before any of the justices, alleges an exception praying they will allow it, and if they will not, if he that alleges the exception writes the same, and requires 'that the justices will put their seals, the justices shall do so, and if one will not, another ,shall; and if, upon complaint made of the justice, the king cause the record to come before him, and the exception be not found in the roll, and the plaintiff show the written exception, with the seal of the justices thereto put, the justice shall be commande to appear at a certain day, either to confess or deny his seal, and if he cannot deny his seal, they shall proceed to judgment according to the exception, as it ought to be allowed or disallowed." The statute extends to both plaintiff and defendant. Vide the, form of confessing a bill of exceptions, Burr. 1692. And for precedents see Bull. N. P. 317; Brownlow's Entries; Latine Redivio, 129; Trials per pais, 222, 3; 4 Yeates, 317, 18; 2 Yeates, 295, 6. 485, 6; 1 Morgan's Vade Mecum, 471-5. Bills of exception differ materially from special verdicts; 2 Bin. 92; and from the opinions of the court filed in the cause. 10 S. & R. 114, 15.
3. Here will be considered, 1 the cases in which a bill of exceptions may be had; 2. the time of making the exception; 3. the form of the bill; 4. the effect of the bill.
4. - 1. In general a bill of exception can be had only in a civil case. When in the course of the trial of a cause, the judge, either in his charge to the jury, or in deciding an interlocutory question, mistakes the law, or is supposed by the counsel on either. side, to have mistaken the law, the counsel against whom the decision is made may tender an exception to his opinion, and require him to seal a bill of exceptions. 3 Bl. Com. 372. See Salk. 284, pl. 16 7 Serg. & Rawle, 178; 10 Id. 114, 115 Whart. Dig. Error, D, E 1 Cowen, 622; 2 Caines, 168; 2 Cowen, 479 5, Cowen, 243 3 Cranch, 298 4 Cranch, 62; 6 Cranch, 226; 17 Johns. R. 218; 3 Wend. 418 9 Wend. 674. In criminal cases, the judges, it seems, are not required to seal a bill of exceptions. 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 622; 13 John. R. 90; 1 Virg. Cas. 264; 2 Watts, R. 285; 2 Sumn. R. 19. In New York, it is provided by statute, that on the trial of any indictment, exceptions to any decision of the court may be made by the defendant, in the same cases and manner provided by law in civil cases and a bill thereof shall be settled, signed and sealed, and filed with the clerk of the court. But such bill of exception shall not stay or delay the rendering of judgment, except in some specified cases. Grah. Pr. 768, note.. Statutory provisions have been made in several other states authorizing the taking of exceptions in criminal cases. 2 Virg. Cas. 60 and note 14 Pick. R. 370; 4 Ham. R. 348; 6 Ham. R. 16 7 Ham. R. 214; 1 Leigh, R. 598; 14 Wend. 546. See also 1 Halst. R. 405; 2 Penn. R. 637.
5. - 2. The bill of exceptions must be tendered at the time the decision complained of is made or if the exception be to the charge of the court, it must be made before the jury have given their verdict. 8 S. & R. 216 4 Dall. 249; S. C. 1 Binn. 38; 6 John. 279; 1 John. 312; 5 Watts, R. 69; 10 John. R. 312; 5 Monr. R. 177; 7 Wend. R. 34; 7 S. & R. 219; 11 S. & R. 267 4 Pet. R. 102; Ala. R. 66; 1 Monr. 215 11 Pet. R. 185; 6 Cowen, R. 189. In practice, however, the, point is merely noted, at the time, and the bill is afterwards settled. 8 S. & R. 216; 11 S. & R. 270; Trials per pais, 467; Salk. 288; Sir T. Ray. 405 Bull. N. P. 315-16; Jacob's Law Dict. They may be sealed by the judge after the record has been removed by a writ of error, and after the expiration of his office. Fitz. N. B. 21 N, note.
6. - 3. The bill of exception must be signed by the judge who tried the cause; which is to be done upon notice of the time and place, when and where it is to be done. 3 Cowen, 32; 8 Cowen, 766; Bull. N. P. 316 3 Bl. Com. 372. When the bill of exception is sealed, both parties are concluded by lit. 3 Dall. 38; Bull. N. P. 316.
7.- 4. The bill of exceptions, being part of the record, is evidence between the parties, as to the facts therein stated. 3 Burr. 1765. No notice can be taken of objections or exceptions not appearing on the bill. 8 East, 280; 3 Dall. 38, 422, n.; 2 Binn. 168. Vide, generally, Dunlap's Pr.; Grah. Pr.; Tidd's Pr.; Chit. Pr.; Penna. Pr.; Archibold's Pr. Sellon's Pr.; in their several indexes, h. t.; Steph. Pl. 111; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 1 Phil. Ev. 214; 12 Vin. Ab. 262; Code of Pract. of Louisiana, art. 487, 8, 9; 6 Watts & Serg, 386, 397; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3228-32.
BILL OF EXCHANGE, contracts. A bill of exchange is defined to be an open letter of request from, and order by, one person on another, to pay a sum of money therein mentioned to a third person, on demand, or at a future time therein specified. 2 Bl. Com. 466; Bayl. on Bills, 1; Chit. Bills, 1; 1 H. Bl. 586; 1 B. & P. 291, 654; Selw. N. P. 285. Leigh's N. P. 335; Byles on Bills, 1; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 895.
2. The subject will be considered with reference, 1 . to the parties to a bill; 2. the form; 3. their different kinds 4. the indorsement and transfer; 5. the acceptance 6. the protest.
3. - §1. The parties to a bill of exchange are the drawer, (q. v.) or he who makes the order; the drawee, (q. v.) or the person to whom it is addressed; the acceptor, (q. v.) or he who accepts -the bill; the payee, (q. v.) or the party to whom, or in whose favor the bill is made. The indorser, (q. v.) is he who writes his name on the back of a bill; the indorsee, (q. v.) is one to whom a bill is transferred by indorsement; and the holder, (q. v.) is in general any one of the parties who is in possession of the bill, and entitled to receive the money therein mentioned.
4. Some of the parties are sometimes fictitious persons. When a bill is made payable to a fictitious person, and indorsed in the name of the fictitious payee, it is in effect a bill to bearer, and a bona fide holder, ignorant of that fact, may recover on it, against all prior parties, who were privy to the transaction. 2 H. Bl. 178, 288; 3 T. R. 174, 182, 481; 1 Camp. 130; 19 Ves. 311. In a case where the drawer and payee were fictitious persons, the acceptor was held liable to a bona fide holder. 10 B. & C. 468; S. C. 11 E. C. L. R. 116. Vide, as to parties to a bill, Chit. Bills, 15 to 76, (ed. of 1836.)
5. - §2. The form of the bill. 1. The general requisites of a bill of exchange, are, 1st. that it be in writing. R. T. Hardw. 2; 2 Stra. 955; 1 Pardess. 344-5.
6.- 2d. That it be for the payment of money, and not for the payment of merchandise. 5 T. R. 485; 3 Wils. 213; 2 Bla. Rep. 782; 1 Burr. 325; 1 Dowl. & Ry. N. P. C. 33; 1 Bibb's R. 502; 3 Marsh. (Kty.) R. 184; 6 Cowen, 108; 1 Caines, R. 381; 4 Mass. 245; 10 S. & R. 64; 14 Pet. R. 293; 1, M'Cord, 115; 2 Nott & M'Cord, 519; 9 Watts, R. 102. But see 9 John. R. 120; and 19 John. R. 144, where it was held that a note payable in bank bills was a good negotiable note.
7. - 3d. That the money be payable at all events, not depending on any contingency, either with regard to the fund out of which payment is to be made, or the parties by or to whom payment is to be made. 8 Mod. 363; 4 Vin. Ab. 240, pl. 16; 1 Burr. 323; 4 Dougl. 9; 4 Ves. 372; Russ. & Ry. C. C. 193; 4 Wend. R. 576; 2 Barn. & Ald. 417.
8. - 2. The particular requisites of a bill of exchange. It is proper here to remark that no particular form or set of words is necessary to be adopted. An order " to deliver money," or a promise that " A B shall receive money," or a promise " to be accountable" or " responsible" for it, have been severally held to be sufficient for a bill or note. 2 Ld. Raym. 1396; 8 Mod, 364.
9. The several parts of a bill of exchange are, 1st. that it be properly dated as to place
10.- 2d. That it be properly dated as to the time of making. As the time a bill, becomes due is generally regulated by the time when it was made, the date of the instrument ought to be clearly expressed. Beawes, pl. 3 1 B . & C. 398; 2 Pardess. n. 333.
11. - 3d. The superscription of the sum for which the bill is payable is not indispensable, but if it be not mentioned in the bill, the superscription will aid. the omission. 2 East, P. C. 951.
12. - 4th. The time of payment ought to be expressed in the bill; if no time be mentioned, it is considered as payable on demand. 7 T. R. 427; 2 Barn. & C. 157.
13. - 5th. Although it is proper for the drawer to name the place of payment, either in the body or subscription of the bill, it is not essential; and it is the common practice for the drawer merely to write the address of the drawee, without pointing out any, place of payment; in such case the bill is considered payable, and to be presented at the residence of the drawee, where the bill was made, or to him personally any where. 2 Pardess. n. 337 10 B. & C. 4; Moody & M. 381; 4 Car. & Paine, 35. It is at the option of the drawer whether or not to prescribe a particular place of payment, and make the payment there part of the contract. Beawes, pl. 8. The drawee, unless restricted by the drawer, may also fix a place of payment by his acceptance. Chit. Bills, 172.
14. - 6th. There must be an order or request to pay and that must be a matter of right, and not of favor. Mood. & M. 171. But it seems that civility in the terms of request cannot alter the legal effect of the instrument. "il vous plair a de payer," is, in France, the proper language of a bill. Pailliet, Manuel de Droit Francais, 841. The word pay is not indispensable, tor the word deliver is equally operative. Ld. Raym. 1397.
15. - 7th. Foreign bills of exchange consist, generally, of several parts; a party who has engaged to deliver a foreign bill, is bound to deliver as many parts as may be requested. 2 Pardess. n. 342. The several parts of a bill of exchange are called a set; each part should contain a condition that it shall be paid, provided the others remain unpaid. Id. The whole set make but one bill.
16. - 8th. The bill ought to specify to whom it is to be paid. 2 Pardess. n. 338; 1 H. Bl. 608; Russ. & Ry. C. C. 195. When the name of the payee is in blank, and the bill has been negotiated by indorsement, the holder may fill the blank with his own name. 2 M. & S. 90; 4 Camp. 97. It may, however, be drawn payable to bearer, and then it is assignable by delivery. 3 Burr. 1526.
17. - 9th. To make a bill negotiable, it must be made payable to order, or bearer, or there must be other operative and equivlent words of transfer. Beawes, pl. 3; Selw. N. P. 303, n. 16; Salk. 133. if, however, it is not intended to make the bill negotiable, these words need not be inserted, and the instrument will, nevertheless, be valid as a bill of exchange. 6 T. R. 123; 6 Taunt. 328; Russ. & Ry. C. C. 300; 3 Caines' R. 137; 9 John. It. 217. In France, a bill must be made payable to order. Code de Com. art. 110; 2 Pardess. n. 339.
18. - 10th. The sum for which the bill is drawn, must be clearly expressed in the body of it, in writing at length. The sum must be fixed and certain, and not contingent. 2 Stark. R. 375. And it may be in the money of any country. Payment of part of the bill, the residue being unpaid, cannot be indorsed. The, contract is indivisible, and the acceptor would thereby be compelled to make two payments instead of one. But when part of a bill has been paid the residue may be assigned, since then it becomes a contract for the residue only. 12 Mod. 213; 1 Salk. 65; Ld. Ray. 360.
19. - 11th. It is usual to insert the words, value received, but it is. implied that every bill and indorsement has been made for value received, as much as if it had been expressed in totidem verbis. 3 M. & S. 352; Bayl. 40, n. 83.
20. - 12th. It is usual, when the drawer of the bill is debtor to the drawee, to insert in the bill these words: " and put it to my account but when the drawee, or the person to whom it is directed, is debtor to the drawer, then he inserts these words : "and put it to your account;" and, sometimes, where a third person is debtor to the drawee, it may be expressed thus: "and put it to the account of A B;" Marius, 27;. C, om. Dig. Merchant, F 5; R. T. Hardw. 1, 2, 3; but it is altogether unnecessary to insert any of these words. 1 B. & C. 398; S. C. 8 E. C. L. R. 108.
21. - 13th. When the drawer is desirous to inform the drawee that he has drawn a bill, he inserts in it the words, "as per advice;" but when he wishes the bill paid without any advice from him, he writes, "without further advice." In the former case the drawee is not authorized to pay the bill till he has received the advice; in the latter he may pay before he has received advice.
22. - 14th. The drawee must either subscribe the bill, or, it seems, his name may be simply inserted in the body of the instrument. Beawes, pl. 3; Ld. Raym. 1376 1 Stra. 609.
23. - 15th. The bill being a letter of request from the maker to a third person, should be addressed to that person by the Christian name and surname, or by the full style of their firm. 2 Pardess. n. 335 Beawes, pl. 3; Chit. Bills, 186, 7.
24. - 16th. The place of payment should be stated in the bill.
25. - 17th. As a matter of precaution, the drawer of a foreign bin may, in order to prevent expenses, require the holder to apply to a third person, named in the bill for that purpose, when the drawee refuses to accept the bill. This requisition is usually in these words, placed in a corner, under the drawee's address: " Au besoin chez Messrs. - at -," in other words, ((In case of need apply to Messrs. at -. "
26. - 18th. The drawer may also add a request or direction, that in case the bill should not be honored by the drawee, it shall be returned without protest or without expense, by subscribing the words, " retour sans protet," or " sans frais;" in. this case the omission of the holder to protest, having been induced by the drawer, he, and perhaps the indorsers, cannot resist the payment on that account, and thus the expense is avoided. Chit. Bills, 188.
27. - 19th. The drawer may also limit the amount of damages, by making a memorandum on the bill, that they shall be a definite sum; as, for example: "In case of non-acceptance or uon-payment, re-exchange and expenses not to, exceed dollars." Id.
28. - §3. Bills of, exchange are either foreign or inland. Foreign, when drawn by a person out of, on another in, the United States, or vice versa; or by a person in a foreign country, on another person in another foreign country; or by a person in one state, on another in another of the United States. , 2 Pet. R. 589 .; 10 Pet. R. 572; 12 Pick. 483 15 Wend. 527; 3 Marsh. (Kty.) R. 488 1. Rep. Const.; Ct. 100 4 Leigh's R. 37 4 Wash. C. C. Rep. 148; 1 Whart. Dig. tit. Bills of Exchange, pl. 78. But see 5 John. R. 384, where it is said by Van Ness, Justice, that a bill drawn in the United States, upon any place within the United States, is an inland bill.
29. An inland bill is one drawn by a person in a state, on another in the same state. The principal difference between foreign and inland bills is, that the former must be protested, and the latter need not. 6 Mod. 29; 2 B. & A. 656; Chit Bills, (ed. of 1836,) p. 14. The English rule requiring protest and notice of non-acceptance of foreign bills, has been adopted and followed as the true rule of mercantile law, in the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut) New York, Maryland, and South Carolina. 3 Mass. Rep. 557; 1 Day's R. 11; 3 John. Rep. 202; 4 John. R. 144; 1 Bay's Rep. 468; 1 Harr. & John. 187. But the supreme court of the United States, in Brown v. Berry, 3 Dall. R. 365, and in Clark v. Russel, cited in 6 Serg. & Rawle, 358, held, that in an action on a foreign bill of exchange, after a protest for non-payment, protest for non-acceptance, or notice of non-acceptance need not be shown, inasmuch as they were not required by the custom of merchants in this country; and those decisions have been followed in Pennsylvania. 6 Serg. & Rawle, 356. It becomes a little difficult, therefore, to know what is the true rule of the law-merchant in the United States, on this point, after such contrary decisions." 3 Kent's Com. 95. As to what will be considered a foreign or an inland bill, when part of the bill is made in one place and part in another, see 1 M. & S. 87; Gow. R. 56; S. c. 5 E. C. L. R. 460; 8 Taunt., 679; 4 E. C. L. R. 245; 5 Taunt. 529; 1 E. C. L. R. 179.
30. - §4. The indorsement. Vide articles Indorsement; Indorser; Indorsee.
31. - §5. The acceptance. Vide article, Acceptance.
32. - §6. The protest. Vide article, Protest. Vide, generally, Chitty on Bills; Bayley on Bills; Byles on Bills; Marius on Bills; Kyd on Bills; Cunningham on Bills; Pothier, h. t.; Pardess. Index, Lettre de Change; 4 Vin. Ab. 238; Bac. Ab. Merchant and Merchandise, M.; Com. Digest, Merchant; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 1 Sup: to Ves. Jr. 86, 514; Smith on Mer. Law, Book 3, c. 1; Bouv. Inst. Index,.h. t.
BILL OF GROSS ADVENTURE. A phrase used in French maritime law; it comprehends every instrument of writing which contains a contract of bottomry, respondentia, and every species of maritime loan. We have no word of similar import. Hall on Mar. Loans, 182, n. See Bottomry; Gross adventure; Respondentia.
BILL OF HEALTH; commercial law. A certificate, properly authenticated, that a certain ship or vessel therein named, comes from a place where no contagious distempers prevail, and that none of the crew at the time of her departure were infected with any such distemper.
2. It is generally found on board of ships coming from the Levant, or from the coast of Barbary, where the plague so frequently prevails. 1 Marsh. on Ins. 408. The bill of health is necessary whenever a ship sails from a suspected port; or when it is required at the port of destination. Holt's R. 167; 1 Bell's Com. 553, 5th ed.
3. In Scotland the name of bill of health, has been given to an application.made by an imprisoned debtor for relief under the Act of Sederunt. When the want of health of the prisoner requires it, the prisoner is indulged, under proper regulations, with such a degree of liberty as may be necessary to restore him. 2 Bell's Com. 549, 5th ed.
BILL OF INDICTMENT. A written accusation of one or more persons, of a crime or misdemeanor, lawfully presented to a grand jury, convoked, to consider whether there is sufficient evidence of the charge contained therein to put the accused on trial. It is returned to the court with an indorsement of true bill (q. v.) when the grand jury are satisfied that the accused ought to be tried; or ignoramus, when they are ignorant of any just cause to put the accused upon hi.% trial.
BILL, contracts. A bill or obligation, (which are the same thing, except that in English it iis commonly called bill, but in Latin obligatio, obligation,) is a deed whereby the obligor acknowledges himself to owe unto the obligee a certain sum of money or some other thing, in which, besides the names of the parties, are to be considered the sum or thing due, the time, place, and manner of payment or delivery thereof. It may be indented, or poll, and with or without a penalty. West's Symboleography s. 100, 101, and the various forms there given.
BILL OF LADING, contracts and commercial law. A memorandum or acknowledgment in writing, signed by the captain or master of a ship or other vessel, that he has received in good order, on board of his ship or vessel, therein named, at the place therein mentioned, certain goods therein specified, which he promises to deliver in like good order, (the dangers of the seas excepted,) at the place therein appointed for the delivery of the same, to the consignee therein named or to his assigns, he or they paying freight for the same. 1 T. R. 745; Bac. Abr. Merchant L Com. Dig. Merchant E 8. b; Abbott on Ship. 216 1 Marsh. on Ins. 407; Code de Com. art. 281. Or it is the written evidence of a contract for the carriage and delivery of goods sent by sea for a certain freight. Per Lord Loughborougb, 1 H. Bl. 359.
2. A bill of lading ought to contain the name of the consignor; the name of the consignee the name of the master of the vessel; the name of the vessel; the place of departure and destination; the price of the freight; and in the margin, the marks and numbers of the things shipped. Code de Com. art. 281; Jacobsen's Sea Laws.
3. It is usually made in three original's, or parts. One of them is commonly sent to the consignee on board with the goods; another is sent to him by mail or some other conveyance; and the third is retained by the merch ant or shipper. The master should also take care to have another part for his own use. Abbotton Ship. 217.
4. The bill of lading is assignable, and the assignee is entitled to the goods, subject, however, to the shipper's right, in some cases, of stoppage in transitu. See In transitu; Stoppage in transitu. Abbott on Shipping. 331; Bac. Ab. Merchant, L; 1 Bell's Com. 542, 5th ed.
BILLS OF MORTALITY. Accounts of births and deaths which have occurred in a certain district, during a definite space of time.
BILL OBLIGATORY. An instrument in common use and too well known to be misunderstood. It is a bond without condition, sometimes called a single bill, and differs in nothing from a promissory note, but the seal which is affixed to it. 2 Serg. & Rawle, 115. See Read's Pleaders' Assistant, 256, for a declaration setting forth such a bill. Also West's Symboleography, s. 100, 101, for the forms both with and without a penalty.
BILL OF PAINS AND PENALTIES. A special act of the legislature which inflicts a punishment, less than death, upon persons supposed to be guilty of high offences, Such as; treason and felony, without any conviction in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings. 2 Wood. Law Lect. 625. It differs from a bill of attainder in this, that the punishment inflicted by the latter is death.
2. The Constitution of the United States Provides that "no bill of attainder shall be passed." It has been judicially said by the supreme court of the United States, that " a bill of attainder may affect the life of an individual, or i-nay confiscate his property, or both." 6 Cranch, R. 138. in the sense of the constitution, then, it seems that bills of attainder include bills of pains and penalties. Story, Const. §1338. Vide Attainder; Bills of Attainder.
BILL OP PARCELS, merc. law. An account containing in detail the names of the items which compose a parcel or package of goods; it is usually transmitted with the goods to the purchaser, in order that if any mistake have been made, it may be corrected.
BILL OF PARTICULARS, practice. A detailed informal statement of a plaintiff is cause of action, or of the defendants's set-off.
2. In all actions in which the plaintiff declares generally, without specifying his cause of action, a judge upon application will order him to give the defendant a bill of the particulars, and in the meantime stay, proceedings. 3 John. R. 248. And when the defendant gives notice or pleads a set-off, he will be required to give a bill of the particulars of his set-off, on failure of which he will be precluded from giving any evidence in support of it at the trial. The object in both cases is to prevent surprise and procure a fair trial. 1 Phil. Ev. 152; 3 Stark Ev. 1055. The bill of particulars is an account of the items of the demand, and states in what manner they arose. Mete. & Perk. Dig. h. t. For forms, see Lee's Dict. of Pr., Particulars of demand.
BILL PENAL, contracts. A written obligation, by which a debtor acknowledges himself indebted in a certain sum, may one hundred dollars, and for the payment of the debt binds himself in a larger sum, say two hundred dollars. Bills penal do not frequently occur in modern practice; bonds, with conditions, have superseded them. Steph. on Pl. 265, note. See 2 Vent. 198. Bills-penal are sometimes called bills obligatory. Cro. Car. 515; 2 Vent. 106. But a bill obligatory is not necessarily a bill penal. Com. Dig. Obligations, D.
BILL OF PRIVILEGE, Eng. law. A process issued out of the court against an attorney, who is privileged from arrest, instead of process demanding bail. 3 Bl. Com. 289.
BILL OF PROOF. In the mayor's court, London, the claim made by a third person to the subject-matter in dispute between two others in a suit there, is called bill of Proof. It is somewhat similar to an intervention. (q. v.) 3 Chit. Com. Law, 633; 2 Chit. Pr. 492; 1 Marsh, R. 233.
BILL OF SUFFRANCE, Eng. law. The name of a license granted at the custom house to a merchant, authorizing him to trade from one English port to another without paying custom. Cunn. L. D.
BILL OF RIGHTS. English law. A statute passed in the reign of William and Mary, so called, because it declared the true rights of British subjects. W. & M. stat. 2, c. 2.
BILL OF SALE, Contracts. An agreement in writing, under seal, by which a man transfers the right or interest he has in goods and cbattels, to another. As the law imports a consideration when an agreement is made by deed, a bill of sale alters the property. Yelv. 196; Cro. Jac. 270 6 Co. 18.
2. The Act of Congress of January 14, 1793, 1 Story, L. U. S. 276, provides, that when any ship or vessel which shall have been registered pursuant to that act, or the act thereby partially repealed, shall in whole or in part be sold or transferred to a citizen of the United States, in every such sale or transfer, there shall be some instrument or writing in the nature of a bill of sale, which shall recite at length the certificate of registry; otherwise the said ship or vessel shall be incapable to be registered anew.
3. In England a distinction is made between a bill of sale for the transfer of a ship at sea, and one for the conveyance of a ship in the country; the former is called a grand bill of sale, the latter, simply, a bill of sale. In this country there does not appear to be such a distinction. 4 Mass. 661.
4. In general, the maritime law requires that the transfer of a ship should be evidenced by a bill of sale. 1 Mason, 306. But a contract to sell, accompanied by delivery of possession, is sufficient. 8 Pick. 86 16 Pick. 401; 16 Mass. 336; 7 John. 308. See 4 Mason, 515; 4 John. 54 16 Pet. 215; 2 Hall, 1; 1 Wash. C. C. 226.
BILL OF SIGHT, English commercial law. When a merchant i's ignorant of the real quantities or qualities of any goods consigned to him, so that he is unable to make a perfect entry of them, he is required to acquaint the collector or comptroller of the circumstances and such officer is authorized, upon the importer or his agent making oath that he cannot, for want of full information, make a perfect entry, to receive an entry by bill of sight, for the packages, by the best description which can be given, and to grant a warrant that the same be landed and examined by the importer in presence of the officer; and within three days after the goods have been so landed, the importer is required to make a perfect entry. See stat. 3 & 4 Will. IV. c . 52, §24.
BILL, SINGLE, contracts. A writing by which one person or more, promises to another or others, to pay him or them a sum of money at a time therein specified, without any condition. It is usually under seal; and when so, it is sometimes, if not commonly, called a bill obligatory. (q. v.) 2 S. & R. 115.
2. It differs from a promissory note in this, that the latter is always payable to order; and from a bond, because that instrument has always a condition attached to it, on the performance of which it is satisfied. 5 Com. Dig. 194; 7 Com. 357.
BILL OF STORE, English commercial law. A license granted by custom house officers to merchants, to carry such stores and provisions as are necessary for a voyage, free of duty. See stat. 3 and 4 Will. IV., c. 5 2.
BILL, TRUE. A true bill is an indictment approved of by a grand jury. Vide Billa Vera; True Bill.
BILLS PAYABLE, COMMERCE. Engagements which a merchant has entered into in writing, and which he is to pay on their becoming due. Pard. n. 85.
BILLS RECEIVABLE, Commerce. Promissory notes, bills of exchange, bonds, and other evidences or securities which a merchant or trader holds, and which are payable to him. Pard. n. 85.
BILLA VERA, practice. When the proceedings of the courts were recorded in Latin, and the grand jury found a bill of indictment to be supported by the evidence, they indorsed on it billa vera; now they indorse in plain English " a true bill."
TO BIND, BINDING, contracts. These words are applied to the contract entered into, between a master and an apprentice the latter is said to be bound.
2. In order to make a good binding, the consent of the apprentice must be had, together with that of his father, next friend, or some one standing in loco parentis. Bac. Ab. Master and Servant, A; 8 John. 328; 2 Pen. 977; 2 Yerg. 546 1 Ashmead, 123; 10 Sergeant & Rawle, 416 1 Massachusetts, 172; 1 Vermont, 69. Whether a father has, by the common law, a right to bind out his child, during his minority without his consent, seems not to be settled. 2 Dall. 199; 7 Mass. 147; 1 Mason, 78; 1 Ashm. 267. Vide Apprentice; Father; Mother; Parent.
3. The words to bind or binding, are also used to signify that a thing is subject to an obligation, engagement or liability; as, the judgment binds such an estate. Vide Lien.
TO BIND, OR TO BIND OVER, crim. law. The act by which a magistrate or a court hold to bail a party, accused of a crime or misdemeanor.
2. A person accused may be bound over to appear at a court having jurisdiction of the offence charged, to answer; or he may be bound over to be of good behaviour, (q. v.) or to keep the peace. See Surety of the Peace.
3. On refusing to enter into the requisite recognizance, the accused may be committed to prison.
BIPARTITE. Of two parts. This term is used in conveyancing as, this indenture bipartite, between A, of the one part, and B, of the other part. But when there are only two parties, it is not necessary to use this word.
BIRRETUM or BIRRETUS. A cap or coif used formerly in England, by judges and sergeants at law. Spelm. h. t.; Cunn. Dict. Vide Coif.
BIRTH. The act of being wholly brought into the world. The whole body must be detached from that of the mother, in order to make the birth complete. 5 C. & P. 329; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 344 6 C. & P. 349; S. C. 25 E. C. L. R. 433.
2. But if a child be killed with design and maliciously after it has wholly come forth from the body of the mother, although still connected with her by means of the umbilical cord, it seems that such killing will be murder. 9 C. & P. 25 S . C. 38 E. C. L. R. 21; 7 C. & P. 814. Vide articles Breath; Dead Born; Gestation; Life; and 1 Beck' s Med. Jur. 478, et seq.; 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 438; 7 C. & P. 814; 1 Carr. & Marsh. 650; S. C. 41 E. C. L. R. 352; 9 C. & P. 25.
3. It seems that unless the cbild be born alive, it is not properly a birth, but a carriage. 1 Chit. Pr. 35, note z. But see Russ. & Ry. C. C. 336.
BISAILE, domestic relations. A corruption of the French word besaieul, the father of the grandfather or grandmother. In Latin he is called proavus. Inst. 3, 6, 3 Dig. 38, 10, 1, 5. Vide Aile.
BISHOP. An ecclesiastical officer, who is the chief of the clergy of his diocese, and is the archbishop's assistant. Happily for this country, these officers are not recognized by law. They derive all their authority from the churches over which they preside. Bishop's COURT, Eng. law. An ecclesiastical court held in the cathedral of each diocese, the judge of which is the bishop's chancellor.
BISHOPRICK, eccl. law. The extent of country over which a bishop has jurisdiction a see; a diocese. For their origin, see Francis Duarenus de sacris Eccles. Ministeriis ac beneficiis, lib. 1, cap. 7; Abbe Fleury, 2d Discourse on Ecclesiastical History, §v.
BISSEXTILE. The day which is added every fourth year to the month of February, in order to make the year agree with the course of the sun. It is called bissextile, because in the Roman calendar it was fixed on the sixth day before the calends of March, (which answers to the 24th day of February,) and this day was counted twice; the first was called bissextus prior, and the other bissextus posterior, but the latter was properly called bissextile or intersalary day. Although the name bissextile is still retained in its obsolete import, we intercalate the 29th of February every fourth Year, which is called leap year; and for still greater accuracy, make only one leap year out of every four centenary years. The years 1700 and 1800 were not leap years, nor will the .year A. D. 1900 be reckoned as one, but the year A. D. 2000 will be a leap year or bissextile. For a learned account of the Julian and Gregorian calendars, see Histoire du Calendrier Romain, by Mons. Blondel; also, Savigny Dr. Rom. §192; and Brunacci's Tract on Navigation, 275, 6. BLACK ACT, English law. An act of parliament made in the 9 Geo. II., which tears this name, to punish certain marauders who committed great outrages, in disguise, and with black faces. See Charlt. R. 166.
BLACK BOOK OF THE ADMIRALTY. An ancient book compiled in the reign of Edw. III. It has always been deemed of the highest authority in matters concerning the admiralty. It contains the laws of Oleron, At large; a view of the crimes and offences cognizable in the admiralty; ordinances and commentaries on matters of prize and maritime torts, injuries and contracts, 2 Gall. R. 404.
BLACK BOOK OP THE EXCHEQUER. The name of a book kept in the English exchequer, containing a collection of treaties) conventions, charters, &c.
BLACK MAIL. When rents were reserved payable in work, grain, and the like, they were called reditus nigri, or black mail, to distinguish them from white rents or blanch farms, or such as were paid in money. Vide Alba firma.
BLANCH FIRMES. The same as white rent. (q. v.)
BLANK. A space left in writing to be filled, up with one or more words, in order to make sense. 1. In what cases the ambiguity occasioned by blanks not filled before execution of the writing may be explained 2. in what cases it cannot be explained.
2. - 1. When a blank is left in a written agreement which need not -have been reduced to writing, and would have been equally binding whether written or unwritten, it is presumed, in an action for the non-performance of the contract, parol evidence might be admitted to explain the blank. And where a written instrument, which was made professedly to record a fact, is produced as evidence of that fact which it purports to record, and a blank appears in a material part, the omission may be supplied by other proof. 1 Phil. Ev. 475 1 Wils. 215; 7 Verm. R. 522; 6 Verm. R. 411. Hence a blank left in an award for a name, was allowed to be supplied by parol proof. 2 Dall. 180. But where a creditor signs a deed of composition leaving the amount of his debt in blank, he binds himself to all existing debts. 1 B. & A. 101; S. C. 2 Stark. R. 195.
3. - 2. If a blank is left in a policy of insurance for the name of the place of destination of a ship, it will avoid the policy. Molloy, b. 2, c. 7, s. 14; Park, Ins. 22; Wesk. Ins. 42. A paper signed and sealed in blank, with verbal authority to. fill it up, which is afterwards done, is void, unless afterwards delivered or acknowledged and adopted. 1 Yerg. 69, 149; 1 Hill, 267 2 N. & M. 125; 2 Brock. 64; 2 Dev. 379 1 Ham. 368; 6 Gill & John. 250; but see contra, 17 S. & R. 438. Lines ought to be drawn wherever there are blanks, to prevent anything from being inserted afterwards. 2 Valin's Comm. 151.
4. When the filling up blanks after the execution of deeds and other writings will vitiate them or not, see 3 Vin. Abr. 268; Moore, 547; Cro. Eliz. 626; 1 Vent. 185; 2 Lev. 35; 2 Ch. R. 187; 1 Anst. 228; 5 Mass. 538; 4 Binn. 1; 9 Crancb, 28; Yelv. 96; 2 Show. 161; 1 Saund. Pl. & Ev. 77; 4 B. & A. 672; Com. Dig. Fait, F 1; 4 Bing. 123; 2 Hill. Ab. c. 25, §80; n. 33, §54-and 72; 1 Ohio, R. 368; 4 Binn. R. 1; 6 Cowen, 118; Wright, 176.
BLANK BAR, pleading. The same with that called a common bar, whicb, in an action of trespass, is put in to oblige the plaintiff to assign the certain' place where the trespass was committed. Cro. Jac. 594, pl. 16.
BLANK INDORSEMENT, contrad. An indorsement which does not mention the name of the person in whose favor it is made; it is usually made by writing the name of the indorser on the back of the bill. Chit. Bills, 170.
2. When a bill or note has been indorsed in blank, its negotiability cannot afterwards be restrained. 1 Esp. N. P. Cas. 180; 1 Bl. Rep. 295. As many persons as agree may join in suing on a bill when indorsed in blank; for although it was given to one alone, yet by allowing the others to join in the suit, he has 'Made them sharers in his rights. 8 Camp. N. P. Cas. 239. Vide Indorsement; Negotiable paper; Restrictive indorsement.
BLASPHEMY, crim. law. To attribute to God that which is contrary to his nature, and does not belong to him, and to deny what does or it is a false reflection uttered with a malicious, design of reviling God. Elym's Pref. to vol. 8, St. Tr.
2. This offence has been enlarged in Pennsylvania, and perhaps most of the states, by statutory provision. Vide Christianity; 11 Serg. & Rawle, 394. In England all blasphemies against God, the Christian religion, the Holy Scriptures, and malicious revilings of the established church, are punishable by indictment. 1 East, P. C. 3; 1 Russ. on Cr. 217.
3. In France, before the 25th of September, 1791, it was a blasphemy also to speak against the holy virgin and the saints, to deny one's faith, to speak with impiety of holy things, and to swear by things sacred. Merl. Rep. h. t. The law relating to blasphemy in that country was totally repealed by the code of 25th of September, 1791, and its present penal code, art. 262, enacts, that any person who, by words or gestures, shall commit any outrage upon objects of public worship, in the places designed or actually employed for the performance of its rites, or shall assault or insult the ministers of such worship in the exercise of their functions, shall be fined from sixteen to five hundred francs, and be imprisoned for a period not less than fifteen days nor more than six months.
4. The civil law forbad the crime of blasphemy; such, for example, as to swear by the hair or the head of God; and it punished its violation with death. Si enim contra homines factae blasphemiae impunitae non relinquuntur; multo magis qui ipsum Deum Blasphemant, digni sunt supplicia sustinere. Nov. 77, ch. 1, §1.
5. In Spain it is blasphemy not only to speak against God and his government, but to utter injuries against the Virgin Mary and the saints. Senen Villanova Y Manes, Materia Criminal, forense, Observ. 11, cap. 3, n
BLIND. One who is deprived of the faculty of seeing.
2. Persons who are blind may enter into contracts and make wills like others. Carth. 53; Barn. 19, 23; 3 Leigh, R. 32. When an attesting witness becomes blind, his handwriting may be proved as if he were dead. 1 Stark. Ev. 341. But before proving his handwriting the witness must be produced, if within the jurisdiction of the court, and examined. Ld. Raym. 734; 1 M. & Rob. 258; 2 M. & Rob. 262.
BLOCKADE, international law. The actual investment of a port or place by a hostile force fully competent to cut off all communication therewith, so arranged or disposed as to be able to apply its force to every point of practicable access or approach to the port or place so invested.
2. It is proper here to consider, 1. by what authority a blockade can be established; 2. what force is sufficient to constitute a blockade; 3. the consequences of a violation of the blockade.
>3. - 1. Natural sovereignty confers the right of declaring war, ana the right which nations at war have of destroying or capturing each other's citizens, subjects or goods, imposes on neutral nations the obligation not to interfere with the exercise of this right within the rules prescribed by the law of nations. A declaration of a siege or blockade is an act of sovereignty, 1 Rob. Rep. 146; but a direct declaration by the sovereign authority of the besieging belligerent is not always requisite; particularly when the blockade is on a distant station; for its officers may have power, either expressly or by implication, to institute such siege or blockade. 6 Rob. R. 367.
4. - 2. To be sufficient, the blockade must be effective, and made known. By the convention of the Baltic powers of 1780, and again in 1801, and by the ordinance of congress of 1781, it is required there should be a number of vessels stationed near enough to the port to make the entry apparently dangerous. The government of the United States has, uniformly insisted, that the blockade should be effective by the presence of a competent force, stationed and present, at or near the entrance of the port. 1 Kent, Com. 145, and the authorities by him cited; and see 1 Rob. R. 80; 4 Rob. R. 66; 1 Acton's R. 64, 5; and Lord Erskine's speech, 8th March, 1808, on the orders in council, 10 Cobber's Parl. Debates, 949, 950. But "it is not an accidental absence of the blockading force, nor the circumstance of being blown off by wind, (if the suspension and the-reason of the suspension are known,) that will be sufficient in law to remove a blockade." But negligence or remissness on the part of the cruizers stationed to maintain the blockade, may excuse persons, under circumstances, for violating the blockade. 3 Rob. R. 156 .) 1 Acton's R. 59. To involve a neutral in the consequences of violating a blockade, it is indispensable that he should have due notice of it: this information may be communicated to him in two ways; either actually, by a formal notice from the blockading power, or constructively by notice to his government, or by the notoriety of the fact. 6 Rob. R. 367; 2 Rob. R. 110; Id. 111, note; Id. 128; 1 Acton's R. 6 1.
4. - 3. In considering the consequences of the violation of a blockade, it is proper to take a view of what will amount to such a violation, and, then, of its effects. As all criminal acts require an intention to commit them, the party must intend to violate the blockade, or his acts will be perfectly innocent; but this intention will be judged of by the circumstances. This violation may be, either, by going into the place blockaded, or by coming out of it with a cargo laden after the commencement of the blockade. Also placing himself so near a blockaded port as to be in a condition to slip in without observation, is a violation of the blockade, and raises the presumption of a criminal intent. 6 Rob. R. 30, 101, 182; 7 John. R. 47; 1 Edw. R. 202; 4 Cranch, 185. The sailing for a blockaded port, knowing it to be blockaded, is, it seems, such an act as may charge the party with a breach of the blockade. 5 Cranch, 335 9 Cranch, 440, 446; 1 Kent, Com. 150. When the ship has contracted guilt by a breach of the blockade, she may be taken at any time before the end of her voyage, but the penalty travels no further than the end of her return voyage. 2 Rob. R. 128; 3 Rob. R. 147. When taken, the ship is confiscated; and the cargo is always, prima facie, implicated in the guilt of the owner or master of the ship and the burden of rebutting the presumption that the vessel was going in for the benefit of the cargo, and with the direction of the owners, rests with them. 1 Rob. R. 67, 130 3 Rob. R. 173 4 Rob. R. 93; 1 Edw. It 39. Vide, generally, 2 Bro. Civ. & Adm. Law, 314 Chit. Com. Law, Index, h. t.; Chit. Law of Nations, 128 to 147; 1 Kent's Com. 143 to 151; Marsh. Ins. Index, h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Mann. Com. B. 3, c. 9.
BLOOD, kindred. This word, in the law sense, is used to signify relationship, stock, or family; as, of the blood of the ancestor. 1 Roper on Leg. 103; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 365. In a more extended sense, it means kindred generally. Bac. Max. Reg. 18.
2. Brothers and sisters are said to be of the whole blood, (q. v.) if they have the same father and mother of the half blood, (q. v.) if they have only one parent in common. 5 Whart. Rep. 477.
BLOTTER, mer. law. A book among merchants, in which entries of sales, &c.;are first made.
2. This book, containing the original entries, is received in evidence, when supported by the oaths or affirmations of those who keep it. See Original entry.
BOARD. This word is used to designate all the magistrates of a city or borough, or all the managers or directors of any institution; as, the board of aldermen; the board of directors of the Bank of North America. The majority of the board have in general the power to perform the acts of the whole board, but sometimes they are restrained by their charters, and it requires a greater number to perform certain acts.
BOARD OF CIVIL AUTHORITY. A used in Vermont. This board is composed of the selectmen and justices of the peace of their respective towns. They are authorized to abate taxes, and the like.
BOCKLAND, Eng. law. The name of an ancient allodial tenure, which was exempt from feudal services. Bac. Ab. Gavelkind, A Spelman's English Works, vol. 2, 233.
BODY. A person.
2. In practice, when the sheriff returns cepi corpus to a capias, the plaintiff may obtain a rule, before special bail has been entered, to bring in the body and this must be done either by committing the defendant or entering special bail. See Dead Body.
BODY POLITIC, government, corporations. When applied to the government this phrase signifies the state.
2. As to the persons who compose the body politic, they take collectively the name, of people, or nation; and individually they are citizens, when considered in relation to their political rights, and subjects as being submitted to the laws of the state.
3. When it refers to corporations, the term body politic means that the members of such corporations shall be considered as an artificial person.
BOILARY. A term used to denote the water which arises from a salt well, belonging to one who has no right to the soil. Ejectment may be maintained for it. 2 Hill, Ab. c. 14, §5; Co. Litt. 4 b.
BONA, goods and chattels. In the Roman law, it signifies every kind of property, real, personal, and mixed, but chiefly it was applied to real estates; chattels being chiefly distinguished by the words, effects, movables, &c. Bona were, however, divided into bona mobilia, and bona immobilia. It is taken in the civil law in nearly the sense of biens (q. v.) in the French law.
BONA FIDE. In or with good faith.
2. The law requires all persons in their transactions to act with good faith and a contract where the parties have not acted bonafide is void at the pleasure of the innocent party. 8 John. R. 446; 12 John. R. 320; 2 John. Ch. R. 35. If a contract be made with good faith, subsequent fraudulent acts will not vitiate it; although such acts may raise a presumption of antecedent fraud, and thus become a means of proving the want of good faith in making the contract. 2 Miles' Rep. 229; and see also, Rob. Fraud. Conv. 33, 34; Inst. 2, 6 Dig. 41, 3, 10 and 44; Id. 41, 1, 48; Code, 7, 31; 9 Co. 11; Wingate's Maxims, max. 37; Lane, 47; Plowd. 473; 9 Pick. R. 265; 12 Pick. R. 545; 8 Conn. R. 336; 10 Conn. R. 30; 3 Watts, R. 25; 5 Wend. R. 20, 566. In the civil law these actions are called (actiones) bonae fidei, in which the judge has a. more unrestrained power (liberior potestas) of estamating how much one person ought to give to or do, for another; whereas, those actions are said to be stricti juris, in which the power of the judge is confined to the agreement of the parties. Examples of the foraier are the actions empti-venditi, locati-conducti, negitiorum gestorum, &c.; of the latter, the actions ex mutus, ex chirographo, ex stipilatu, ex indebito, actions proescriptis verbis, &c.
BONA GESTURA. Good behaviour.
BONA MOBILIA. Movable goods, personal property.
BONA NOTABILIA Engl. ecclesiastical law. Notable goods. When a person dies having at the time of his death, goods in any other diocese, beside's the goods in the diocese where he dies, amounting to the value of five pounds in the whole, he is said to have bona notabilia; in which case proof of his will, or granting letters of administration, belongs to the archbishop of the province. 1 Roll. Ab. 908; Toll. Ex. 51 Williams on Ex. Index, h. t.
BONA PERITURA. Perishable goods.
2. An executor, administrator, or trustee, is bound to use due diligence in disposing of perishable goods, such as fattened cattle, grain, fruit, or any other article which may be worse for keeping. Bac. Ab. Executors, &c.;D; 11 Vin. Ab. 102; 1 Roll. Ab. 910; 5 Cro. Eliz.518; Godb.104; 3 Munf. R. 288; 1 Beat. R. 5,14; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
3. In Pennsylvania, when goods are attached, they may be sold by order of court, when they are of a perishable nature. Vide Wesk. on Ins. 390; Serg. on Attachm. Index.
BONA VACANTIA. Goods to which no one claims a property, as, shipwrecks, treasure trove, &c.; vacant goods.
BONA WAVIATA. Goods waived or thrown away by a thief, in his flight, for fear of being apprehended.
BOND, contract. An obligation or bond is a deed whereby the obligor, obliges himself, his heirs, executors and administrators, to pay a certain sum of money to another at a day appointed. But see 2 Shepl. 185. If this be all, the bond is called a single one, simplex obligatio; but there is generally a condition added, that if the obligor pays a smaller sum, or does, or omits to do some particular act, the obligation shall be void. 2 Bl. Com. 840. The word bond ex vi termini imports a sealed instrument. 2 S. & R. 502; 1 Bald. R. 129; 2 Porter, R. 19; 1 Blackf. R. 241; Harp. R. 434; 6 Verm. R. 40. See Condition; Interest of money; Penalty. It is proposed to consider: 1. The form of a bond, namely, the words by which it may be made, and the ceremonies required. 2. The condition. 3. The performance or discharge.
2.-I. 1. There must be parties to a bond, an obligor and obligee : for where a bond was made with condition that the obligor should pay twenty pounds to such person or persons; as E. H. should, by her last will and testament in writing, name and appoint the same to be paid, and E. H. did not appoint any person to, whom the same should be paid, it was held that the money was not payable to the executors of E. H. Hob. 9. No particular form of words are essential to create an obligation, but any words which declare the intention of the parties, and denote that one is bound to the other, will be sufficient, provided the ceremonies mentioned below have been observed. Shep. Touch. 367-8; Bac. Abr. Obligations, B; Com. Dig. Obligations, B 1.
3. - 2. It must be in writing, on paper or parchment, and if it be made on other materials it is void. Bac. Abr. Obligations, A.
4. - 3. It must be sealed, though it is not necessary that it should be mentioned in the writing that it is sealed. As to what is a sufficient sealing, see the above case, and the word Seal.
5. - 4. It must be delivered by the party whose bond it is, to the other. Bac. Abr. Obligations, C. But the delivery and acceptance may be by attorney. The date is not considered of the substance of a deed, and therefore a bond which either has no date or an impossible one is still good, provided the real day of its being dated or given, that is, delivered, can be proved. 2 Bl. Com. 304; Com. Dig. Fait, B 3; 3 Call, 309. See Date.
6. - II. The condition is either for the payment of money, or for the performance of something else. In the latter case, if the condition be against some rule of law merely, positively impossible at the time of making it, uncertain or insensible, the condition alone is void, and the bond shall stand single and unconditional; for it is the folly of the obligor to enter into such an obligation, from which he can never be released. If it be to do a thing malum in se, the obligation itself is void, the whole contract being unlawful. 2 Bl. Com. 340; Bac. Abr. Conditions, K, L; Com. Dig. Conditions, D 1, D 2, D 3, D 7, D 8.
7. - III. 1. When, by the condition of an obligation, the act to be done to the obligee is of its own nature transitory, as payment of money, delivery of charters, or the like, and no time is limited, it ought to be performed in convenient time. 6 Co. 31 Co. Lit. 208; Roll. Abr. 436.
8. - 2. A payment before the day is good; Co. Lit. 212, a; or before action brought. 10 Mass. 419; 11 Mass. 217.
9.-3. If the condition be to do a thing within a certain time, it may be performed the last da of the time appointed. Bac. Abr. Conditions, P 3.
10. - 4. If the condition be to do an act, without limiting any time, he who has the benefit may do it at what time he pleases. Com. Dig. Conditions, G 3.
11. - 5. When the place where the act to be performed is agreed upon, the party who is to perform it, is not obliged to seek the opposite party elsewhere; nor is he to whom it is to be performed bound to accept of the performance in another place. Roll. 445, 446 Com. Dig. Conditions, G 9 Bac. Abr. Conditions, P 4. See Performance.
12. - 6. For what amounts to a breach of a condition in a bond see Bac. Abr. Conditions, 0; Com. Dig. Conditions, M; and this Dict. tit. Breach.
BOND TENANT, Eng. law. Copyholders and customary tenants are sometimes so called. Calth. on Copyh. 51, 54.
BONDAGE. Slavery.
BONIS NON AMOVENDIS. The name of a writ addressed to the sheriff, when a writ of error has been brought, commanding that the person against whom judgment has been obtained, be not suffered to remove his goods till the error be tried and determined. Reg. Orig. 131.
BONO ET MALO. The name of a special writ of jail delivery, which formerly issued of course for each particular prisoner. 4 Bl. Com. 270.
BONUS, contrads. A premium paid to a grantor or vendor; as, e. g. the bank paid a bonus to the state for its charter. A consideration given for what is received.
BOOK. A general name given to every literary composition which is printed; but appropriately to a printed composition bound in a volume.
2. The copyright, (q. v.) or exclusive right to print and publish a book, may be secured to the author and his assigns for the term of twenty-eight years; and, if the author be living, and a citizen of the United States, or resident therein, the same right shall be continued to him for the further term of fourteen years, by complying with the conditions of the act of Congress; one of which is, that he shall, within three months after publication, deliver, or cause to be delivered, a copy of the same to the clerk of the said district. Act of February 3, 1831. 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2223.
BOOK-LAND, English law. Land, also called charter-land, which was held by deed under certain rents and fee services, and differed in nothing from free socage land. 2 Bl. Com. 90. See 2 Spelman's English Works, 233, tit. Of Ancient Deeds and Charters.
BOOKS, commerce, accounts. Merchants, traders, and other persons, who are desirous of understanding their affairs, and of explaining them when necessary, keep, 1. a day book; 2. a journal; 3. a ledger; 4. a letter book; 5. an invoice book; 6. a cash book; 7. a bill book; 8. a bank book; and 9. a cheek book. The reader is referred to these several articles. Commercial books are kept by single or by double entry.
BOOTY, war. The capture of personal property by a public enemy on land, in contradistinction to prize, which is a capture of such property by such an enemy, on the sea.
2. After booty has been in complete possession of the enemy for twenty-four hours, it becomes absolutely his, without any right of postliminy in favor of the original owner, particularly when it has passed, bona fide, into the hands of a neutral. 1 Kent, Com. 110.
3. The right to the booty, Pothier says, belongs to the sovereign but sometimes the right of the sovereign, or the public, is transferred to the soldiers, to encourage them. Tr. du Droit de Propriete, part 1, c. 2, art. 1, §2; Burl. Nat. and Pol. Law, vol. ii. part 4, o. 7, n. 12.
BOROUGH. An incorporated town; so called in the charter. It is less than a city. 1 Mann. & Gran. 1; 39 E. C. L. R. 323.
BOROUGH ENGLISH, English law. This, as the name imports, relates exclusively to the English law.
2. It is a custom, in many ancient boroughs, by which the youngest son succeeds to the burgage tenement on the death of the father. 2 Bl. Com. 83.
3. In some parts of France, there was a custom by which the youngest son was entitled to an advantage over the other children in the estate of their father. iller. Rep. mot Mainete.
BORROWER, contracts. He to whom a thing is lent at his request.
2. The contract of loan confers rights, and imposes duties on the borrower' 1. In general, he has the right to use the thing borrowed, during the time and for the purpose intended between the parties; the right of using the thing bailed, is strictly confined to the use, expressed or implied, in the particular transaction, and by any excess, the borrower will make himself responsible. Jones' Bailment, 58 6 Mass. R. 104; Cro. Jac. 244; 2 Ld. Raym. 909; Ayl. Pand. B. 4, t. 16, p. 517; Domat, B. 1, t. 5, §2, n. 10, 11, 12; Dio. 13, 6, 18 Poth. Pret a Usage, c. 2, §1, n. 22; 2 Bulst. 306; Ersk. Pr. Laws of ScotI. B. 3, t. 1, §9; 1 Const. Rep. So. Car. 121 Bracton, Lib. 3, c. 2, §l, p. 99. The loan is considered strietly personal, unless, from other circumstances, a different intention may be presumed. 1 Mod. Rep. 210; S. C. 3 Salk. 271.
3. - 2. The borrower is bound to take extraordinary care of the thing borrowed; to use it according to the intention of the lender, to restore it in proper time; to restore it in a proper condition. Of these, in their order.
4. - 1. The loan being gratuitous, the borrower is bound to extraordinary diligence, and is responsible for slight neglect in relation to the thing loaned. 2 Ld. Raym. 909, 916 Jones on Bailm. 65; 1 Dane's Abr. c. 17, art. 12; Dig. 44, 73 1, 4; Poth. Pret. a Usage, c. 2, §2, art. 21, n. 48.
5. - 2. The use is to be according to the condition of the loan; if there is an excess in the nature, time, manner, or quantity of the use, beyond what may be inferred to be within the intention of the parties, the borrower will be responsible, not only for any damages occasioned by the excess, but even for losses by accidents, which could not be foreseen or guarded against. 2 Ld. Raym. 909; Jones on Bailm. 68, 69.
6. - 3. The borrower is bound to make a return of the thing loaned, at the time, in the place, and in the manner contemplated by the contract.. Domat, Liv. 1, t. 5, §1, n. 11; Dig. 13, 6, 5, 17. If tho borrower does not return the thing at the proper time, he is deemed to be in default, and is geneally responsible for all injuries, even for accidents. Jones on Bailm. 70; Pothier, Pret a Usage , ch. 2, §3, art. 2, n. 60; Civil Code Of Louis. art. 2870; Code Civil, art. 1881; Ersk. Inst. B. 3, t. 1, §22 Ersk. Pr. Laws of Scotl. B. 3, t. 1, §9.
7. - 4. As to the condition in which the thing is to be restored. The borrower not being liable for any loss or deterioration of the thing, unless caused by his own neglect of duty, it follows, that it is sufficient if he returns it in the proper manner, and at the proper time, however much it may be deteriorated from accidental or other causes, not connected with any such neglect. Story on Bailm. eh. 4, §268. See, generally, Story on Bailm. oh. 4; Poth. Pret A Usage; 2 Kent, Com. 446-449; Vin. Abr. Bailment, B 6; Bac. Abr. Bailment; Civil Code of Louis. art. 2869-2876; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1078-1090. Vide Lender.
BOSCAGE, Eng. law. That food which wood and trees yield to cattle.
BOTE, contracts A recompense, satisfaction, amends, profit or advantage : hence came the word man-bote, denoting a compensation for a man slain; house-bote, cart-bote, plough-bote, signify that a tenant is privileged to cut wood for these uses. 2 Bl. Com. 35; Woodf. L. & T. 232.
BOTELESS, or bootless. Without recompense, reward or satisfaction made unprofitable or without success.
BOTTOMRY, maritime law. A contract, in nature of a mortgage of a ship, on which the owner borrows money to enable him to fit out the ship, or to purchase a cargo, for a voyage proposed: and he pledges the keel or bottom of the ship, pars pro toto, as a security for the repayment; and it is stipulated that if the ship should be lost in the course of the voyage, by any of the perils enumerated in the contract, the lender also shall lose his money but if the ship should arrive in safety, then he shall receive back his principal, and also the interest agreed upon, which is generally called marine interest, however this may exceed the legal rate of interest. Not only the ship and tackle, if they arrive safe, but also the person of the borrower, is liable for the money lent and the marine interest. See 2 Bl. Com. 458; Marsh. Ins. B. 21 c. 1; Ord. Louis XIV. B. 3, tit. 5; Laws of Wishuy, art. 45 Code de Com. B. 2, tit. 9.
2. The contract of bottomry should specify the principal lent, and the rate of marine interest agreed upon; the subject on which the loan is effected the names of the vessel and of the master those of the lender and borrower whether the loan be for an entire voyage; for what voyage and for what space of time; and the period of re-payment. Code de Com. art. 311 Marsh. Ins. B. 2.
3. Bottomry differs materially from a simple loan. In a loan, the money is at the risk of the borrower, and must be paid at all events. But in bottomry, the money is at the risk of the lender during the voyage. Upon a loan, only legal interest can be received; but upon bottomry, any interest may be legally reserved which the parties agree upon. See, generally, Metc. & Perk. Dig. h. t.; Marsh. lnst. B. 2; Bac. Abr. Merchant, K; Com. Dig. Merchant. E 4; 3 Mass. 443; 8 Mass. 340; 4 Binn. 244; 4 Cranch, 328; 3 John. R. 352 2 Johns. Cas. 250; 1 Binn. 405; 8 Cranch, 41 8; 1 Wheat. 96; 2 Dall. 194. See also this Dict. tit. Respondentia; Vin. Abr. Bottomry Bonds 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1246-57.
BOUGHT NOTE, contracts. An instrument in writing, given by a broker to the seller of merchandise, in which it is stated that the goods therein mentioned have been sold for him. There appears, however, some confusion in the books, on the subject of these notes sometimes they are called sold notes. 2 B. & Ald. 144 Blackb. on Sales, 89.
2. This note is signed in the broker's name, as agent of the buyer and seller; and, if he has not exceeded his authority, the parties are thereby respectively bound. 1 Bell's Com. (5th ed.) 435; Holt's C. 170; Story on Agency, §28; 9 B. & Cr. 78; 17 E. C. L. R. 335; 5 B. & Ad. 521; 1 N. R. 252; 1 Moo. & R. 368; Moo. & M. 43; 22 E. C. L. R. 243; 2 M. & W. 440; Moo. & M. 43; 6 A. & E. 486; 33 E. C. L. R. 122; 16 East, 62 Gow, R. 74; 1 Camp. R. 385; 4 Taunt. 209; 7 Ves. 265. Vide Sold Note.
BOUND BAILIFFS. Sheriff's officers, who serve writs and make arrests; they are so called because they are bound to the sheriff for the due execution of their office. 1 Bl. Com. 345.
BOUNDARY, estates. By this term is understood in general, every separation, natural or artificial, which marks the confines or line of division of two contiguous estates. 3 Toull. n. 171.
2. Boundary also signifies stones or other materials inserted in the earth on the confines of two estates.
3. Boundaries are either natural or artificial. A river or other stream is a natural boundary, and in that case the centre of the stream is the line. 20 John. R. 91; 12 John. R. 252; 1 Rand. R. 417; 1 Halst. R. 1; 2 N. H. Rep. 369; 6 Cowen, R. 579; 4 Pick. 268; 3 Randolph's R. 33 4 Mason's R. 349-397.
4. An artificial boundary is one made by man.
5. The description of land, in a deed, by specific boundaries, is conclusive as to the quantity; and if the quantity be expressed as a part of the description, it will be inoperative, and it is immaterial whether the quantity contained within the specific boundaries, be greater or less than that expressed; 5 Mass. 357; 1 Caines' R. 493; 2 John. R. 27; 15 John. 471; 17 John. R. 146; Id. 29; 6 Cranch, 237; 4 Hen. & Munf. 125; 2 Bay, R. 515; and the same rule is applicable, although neither the courses and distances, nor the estimated contents, correspond with such specific boundaries; 6 Mass. 131; 11 Mass. 193; 2 Mass. 380; 5 Mass. 497; but these rules do not apply in cases where adherence to them would be plainly absurd. 17 Mass. 207. Vide 17 S. & R. 104; 2 Mer. R. 507; 1 Swanst. 9; 4 Ves. 180; 1 Stark. Ev. 169; 1 Phil. Ev. Index, h. t.; Chit. Pr. Index, h. t.; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 276; 2 Hill. Ab. c. 24, §209, and Index, h. t.
6. When a boundary, fixed and by mutual consent, has been permitted to stand for twenty-one years, it cannot afterwards be disturbed. In accordance with this rule, it has been decided, that where town lots have been occupied up to a line fence between them, for more than twenty-one years, each party gained an incontrovertible right to the line thus established, and this whether either party knew of the adverse claim or not; and whether either party has more or less ground than was originally in the lot he owns. 9 Watts, R. 565. See Hov. Fr. c. 8, p. 239 to 243; 3 Sum. R 170 Poth. Contr. de Societe, prem. app. n. 231.
7. Boundaries are frequently marked by partition fences, ditches, hedges, trees, &c. When such a fence is built by one of the owners of the land, on his own premises, it belongs to him exclusively; when built by both at joint expense, each is the owner of that part on his own land. 5 Taunt. 20. When the boundary is a hedge and a single ditch, it is presumed to belong to him on whose side the hedge is, because he who dug the ditch is presumed to have thrown the earth upon his own land, which was alone lawful to do, and that the hedge was planted, as is usual, on the top of the bank thus raised. 3 Taunt. 138. But if there is a ditch on each side of the hedge, or no ditch at all, the hedge is presumed to be the common property of both proprietors. Arch. N. P. 328; 2 Greenl. Ev. §617. A tree growing in the boundary line is the joint property of both owners of the land. 12 N. H. Rep. 454.
8. Disputes arising from a confusion of boundaries may be generally settled by an action at law. But courts of equity will entertain a bill for the settlement of boundaries, when the rights of one of the parties may be established upon equitable grounds. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3923.
BOUNTY. A sum of money or other thing, given, generally by' the government, to certain persons, for some service they have done or are about to do to the public. As bounty upon the culture of silk; the bounty given to an enlisted soldier; and the like. It cliffers from a reward, which is generally applied to particular cases; and from a payment, as there is no contract on the part of the receiver of the bounty.
BOVATA TERRAE. As much land as one ox can plough.
BRANCH. This is a metaphorical expression, which designates, in the genealogy of a numerous family, a portion of that family which has sprang from the same root or stock; these latter expressions, like the first, are also metaphorical.
2. The whole of a genealogy is often called the genealogical tree; and sometimes it is made to take the form of a tree, which is in the first place divided into as many branches as there are children, afterwards into as many branches as there are grand-children, then of great grandchildren, &c. If, for example, it be desired to have a genealogical tree of Peter's family, Peter will be made the trunk of the tree; if he has had two children, John and James, their names will be written on the first two branches; which will themelves shoot out as many smaller branches as John and James have children; from these other's proceed, till the whole family is represented on the tree; thus the origin, the application, and the use of the word branch in genealogy will be at once perceived.
BRANCHES. Those solid parts of trees which grow above the trunk.
2. In general the owner of a tree is the owner of the branches; but when they grow beyond his line, and extend over the adjoining estate, the proprietor of the latter may cut them off as far as they grow over his land. Rolle's R. 394.; 3 Bulst. 198. But as this nuisance is one of omission, and, as in the case of such nuisances, it is requisite to give notice before abating them, it would be more prudent, and perhaps necessary, to give notice to the owner of the tree to remove such nuisance. 1 Chit. Pr. 649, 650, 652. See Root; Tree.
TO BRAND. An ancient mode of punishment, which was to inflict a mark on an offender with a hot iron. This barbarous punishment has been generally disused.
BRANDY. A spirituous liquor made of wine by distillation. See stat. 22 Car. H. c. 4.
BREACH, contract, torts. The violation of an obligation, engagement or duty; as a breach of covenant is the non-performance or violation of a covenant; the breach of a promise is non-performance of a promise; the breach of a duty, is the refusal or neglect to execute an office or public trust, according to law.
2. Breaches of a contract are single or continuing breaches. The former are those which are committed at one single time. Skin. 367; Carth. 289. A continuing breach is one committed at different times, as, if a covenant to repair be broken at one time, and the same covenant be again broken, it is a continuing breach. Moore, 242; 1 Leon. 62; 1 Salk. 141; Holt, 178; Lord Raym. 1125. When a covenant running with the land is assigned after a single breach, the right of action for such breach does not pass to the assignee but if it be assigned after the commencement of a continuing breach, the right of action then vests in such assignee. Cro. Eliz. 863; 8 Taunt. 227;, 2 Moore, 164; 1 Leon. 62.
3. In general the remedy for breaches of contracts, or quasi contracts, is by a civil action.
BREACH OF THE PEACE. A violation of public order; the offence of disturbing the public peace. One guilty of this offence may be held to bail for his good behaviour. An act of public indecorum is also a breach of the peace. The remedy for this offence is by indictment. Vide Pace,
BREACH OF PRISON. An unlawful escape out of prison. This is of itself a misdemeanor. 1 Russ. Cr. 378; 4 Bl. Com. 129 2 Hawk. P. C. c. 18, s. 1 7 Conn. 752. The remedy for this offence is by indictment. See Escape.
BREACH OF TRUST. The wilful misappropriation, by a trustee, of a thing which had been lawfully delivered to him in confidence.
2. The distinction between larceny and a breach of trust is to be found chiefly in the terms or way in which the thing was taken originally into the party's possession; and the rule seems to be, that whenever the article is obtained upon a fair contract, not for a mere temporary purpose, or by one who is in the. employment of the deliverer, then the subsequent misappropriation is to be considered as an act of breach of trust. This rule is, however, subject to many nice distinctions. 15 S. & R. 93, 97. It has been adjudged that when the owner of goods parts with the possession for a particular purpose, and the person who receives them avowedly for that purpose, has at the time a fraudulent intention to make use of the possession as the weans of converting the goods to his own use, and does so convert them, it is larceny; but if the owner partwith the property, although fraudulent means have been used to obtain it, the, act of conversion is not larceny. Id. Alis. Princ. c. 12, p. 354.
3. In the Year Book, 21 H. VII. 14, the distinction is thus stated: Pigot. If I deliver a jewel or money to my servant to keep, and he flees or goes from me with the jewel, is it felony ? Cutler said, Yes : for so long as he is with me or in my house, that which I have delivered to him is adjudged to be in my possession; as my butler, who has my plate in keeping, if he flees with it, it is felony. Same law; if he who keeps my horse goes away with, him: The reason is, they are always in my possession. But if I deliver a horse to my servant to ride to market or the fair and he flee with him, it is no felony; for e comes lawfully to the possession of the horse by delivery. And so it is, if I give him a jewel to carry to London, or to pay one, or to buy a thing, and he flee with it, it is not felony : for it is out of my possession, and he comes lawfully to it. Pigot. It can well be: for the master in these cases has an action against him, viz., Detinue, or Account. See this point fully discussed in Stamf. P. C. lib. 1; Larceny, c. 15, p. 25. Also, 13 Ed. IV. fo. 9; 52 H. III. 7; 21 H. VII. 15.
BREACH. pleading. That part of the declaration in which the violation of the defendant's contract is stated.
2. It is usual in assumpsit to introduce the statement of the particular breach, with the allegation that the defendant, contriving and fraudulently intending craftily and subtilely to deceive and defraud the plaintiff, neglected and refused to perform, or performed the particular act contrary to the previous stipulation. ?
3. In debt, the breach or cause of action. complained of must proceed only for the non-payment of money previously alleged to be payable; and such breach is nearly similar, whether the action be in debt on simple contract, specially, record or statute, and is usually of the following form: " Yet the said defendant, although often requested so to, do, hath not as yet paid the said sum of ____ dollars, above demanded, nor any part thereof, to the said plaintiff, but bath hitherto wholly neglected and refused so to do, to the damage of the said plaintiff _________ dollars, and therefore he brings suit," &c.
4. The breach must obviously be governed by the nature of the stipulation; it ought to be assigned in the words of the contract, either negatively or affirmatively, or in words which are co-extensive with its import and effect. Com. Dig. Pleader, C 45 to 49; 2 Saund. 181, b, c; 6 Cranch, 127; and see 5 John. R. 168; 8 John. R. 111; 7 John. R. 376; 4 Dall. 436; 2 Hen. & Munf. 446.
5. When the contract is in the disjunctive, as, on a promise to deliver a horse by a particular day, or pay a sum of money, the breach ought to be assigned that the defendant did not do the one act nor the other. 1 Sid. 440; Hardr. 320; Com. Dig. Pleader, C.
BREAKING. Parting or dividing by force and violence a solid substance, or piercing, penetrating, or bursting through the same.
2. In cases of burglary and house-breaking, the removal, of any part of the house, or of the fastenings provided to secure it, with violence and a felonious intent, is called a breaking.
3. The breaking is actual, as in the above case; or constructive, as when the burglar or house-breaker gains an entry by fraud, conspiracy or threats. 2 Russ. on Cr. 2; 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 1092; 1 Hale, P. C. 553; Alis. Prin. 282, 291. In England it has been decided that if the sash of a window be partly open, but not sufficiently so to admit a person, the raising of it so as to admit a person is not a breaking of the house. 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 178. No reasons are assigned. It is difficult to conceive, if this case be law, what further opening will amount to a breaking. But see 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 327, 377; and Burglary.
BREAKING DOORS. The act of forcibly removing the fastenings of a house, so that a person may enter.
2. It is a maxim that every man's house is his castle, and it is protected from every unlawful invasion. An officer having a lawful process, of a criminal nature, authorizing him to do so, may break an outer door, if upon making a demand of admittance it is refused. The house may also be broken open for the purpose of executing a writ of habere facias possessionem. 5 Co. 93; Bac. Ab. Sheriff, N 3.
3. The house protects the owner from the service of all civil process in the first instance, but not, if once lawfully arrested, he takes refuge in his own house; in that case the officer may pursue him, and break open any door for the Purpose. Foster, 320; 1 Rolle's R. 138 Cro. Jac. 555. Vide Door; House.
BREATH, med. juris. The air expelled from the chest at each expiration.
2. Breathing, though a usual sign of life, is not conclusive that a child was wholly born alive, as breathing may take place before the whole delivery of the mother is complete. 5 Carr. & Payn, 329; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 344. Vide Birth; Life; Infanticide.
BREPHOTROPHI, civil law. Persons appointed to take care of houses destined to receive foundlings. Clef des Lois Rom. mot Administrateurs.
BREVE, practice. A writ in which the cause of action is briefly stated, hence its name. Fleta, lib. 2, c. 13, §25; Co. Lit. 73 b.
2. Writs are distributed into several classes. Some are called brevia formata, others brevia de cursu, brevia judicialia, or brevia magistralia. There is a further distinction with respect to real actions into brevia nominata and innominata. The former, says Bacon, contain the time, place and demand very particularly; and therefore by such writ several lands by several titles cannot be demanded by the same writ. The latter contain only a general complaint, without expressing time, damages, &c., as in trespass quare clausum fregit, &o., and therefore several lands coming to the demandant by several titles may be demanded in such writ. F. N. B. 209; 8 Co. 87; Kielw. 105; Dy. 145; 2 Brownl. 274; Bac. Ab. Actions in General, C. See Innominate contracts.
BREVE DE RECTO. A writ of right. (q. v.)
BREVE TESTATUM, feudal law. A declaration by a superior lord to his vassal, made in the presence of the pares curias, by which he gave his consent to the grant of land, was so called. Ersk. Inst. B. 2, tit. 3, s. 17. This was made in writing, and had the operation of a deed. Dalr. Feud. Pr. 239.
BREVET. In France, a brevet is a warrant granted by the government to authorize an individual to do something for his own benefit, as a brevet d'invention, is a patent to secure a man a right as inventor.
2. In our army, it signifies a commission conferring on an officer a degree of rank immediately above the one which he holds in his particular regiment, without, however conveying a right to receive a corresponding pay.
BREVIA, writs. They were called brevia, because of the brevity in which the cause of action was stated in them.
BREVIA ANTICIPANTIA. This name is given to a number of writs, which are also called writs of prevention. See Quia Ti. met.
BREVIA FORMATA, Eng law. The collection of writs found in the Registrum Brevium was so called. The author of Fleta says, these writs were formed upon their cases. They were different from the writs de cursu, which were approved by the council of the whole realm, and could not be changed without the will of the same. Fleta, lib. 2, c. 13, §2. See 17 S. & R. 194-5, and authorities there cited.
BREVIA JUDICIALIA. Subsidiary process issued pending a suit, or process issued in execution of the judgment. They varied, says the author of Fleta, according to the variety of the pleadings of the parties and of their responses. Lib. 2. c. 13, §3; Co. Lit. 73 b, 54 b. Many of them, however, long since became fixed in their forms, beyond the power of the courts to alter them, unless authorized to do so by the legislature. See 1 Rawle, Rep. 52; Act of Pennsylvania, June. 16, 1836, §§3, 4, 5.
BREVIA MAGISTRALIA. These were writs formed by the masters in chancery, pursuant to the stat. West. 2, c. 24. They vary according to the diversity of cases and complaints, of which, says the author of Fleta, some are personal, some real, some mixed, according as actions are diverse or various, because so many will be the forms of writs as there are kinds of actions. Fleta, lib. 2, c. 13, §4; Co. Lit. 73 b, 54 b.
BREVIARIUM. The name of a code of laws of Alaric II., king of the Visigoths.
BREVIBUS ET ROTULIS LIBERANDIS, Eng. law. A writ or mandate directed to a sheriff, commanding him to deliver to his successor the county and the appurtenances, with all the briefs, rolls, remembrances, and all other things belonging to his office.
BRIBE, crim. law. The gift or promise, which is accepted, of some advantage, as the inducement for some illegal act or omission; or of some illegal emolument, as a consideration, for preferring one person to another, in the performance of a legal act.
BRIBERY, crim. law. The receiving or offering any undue reward by or to any person whomsoever, whose ordinary profession or business relates to the administration of public justice, in order to influence his behaviour in office, and to incline him to act contrary to his duty and the known rules of honesty and integrity. 3 Inst. 149; 1 Hawk. P. C. 67, s. 2 4 Bl. Com. 139; 1 Russ. Cr. 156.
2. The term bribery extends now further, and includes the offence of giving a bribe to many other officers. The offence of the giver and of the receiver of the bribe has the same name. For the sake of distinction, that of the former, viz : the briber, might be properly denominated active. bribery; while that of the latter, viz : the person bribed, might be called passive bribery.
3. Bribery at elections for members of parliament, has always been a crime at common law, and punishable by indictment or information. It still remains so in England notwithstanding the stat. 24 Geo. H. c. 14 3 Burr. 1340, 1589. To constitute the offence, it is not necessary that the person bribed should, in fact, vote as solicited to do 3 Burr. 1236; or even that he should have a right to vote at all both are entirely immaterial. 3 Bur. 1590-1.
4. An attempt to bribe, though unsuccessful, has been holden to be criminal, and the offender may be indicted. 2 Dall. 384; 4 Burr. 2500 3 Inst. 147; 2 Campb. R. 229; 2 Wash. 88; 1 Virg. Cas. 138; 2 Virg. Cas. 460.
BRIBOUR. One that pilfers other men's goods; a thief. See 28 E. II., c. 1.
BRIDGE. A building constructed over a river, creek, or other stream, or ditch or other place, in order to facilitate the passage over the same. 3 Harr. 108.
2. Bridges are of several kinds, public and private. Public bridges may be divided into, 1st. Those which belong to the public; as state, county, or township bridges, over which all the people have a right to pass, with or without paying toll these are built by public authority at the public expense, either of the state itself, or a district or part of the state.
3. - 2d. Those which have been built by companies, or at the expense of private individuals, and over Which all the people have a right to pass, on the payment of a toll fixed by law. 3d. Those which have been built by private individuals and which have been dedicated to public uscs. 2 East, R. 356; 5 Burr. R. 2594; 2 Bl. R. 685 1 Camp. R. 262, n.; 2 M. & S. 262.
4. A private bridge is one erected for the use of one or more private persons; such a bridge will not be considered a public bridge, although it may be occasionally used by the public. 12 East, R. 203-4. Vide 7 Pick. R. 844; 11 Pet. R. 539; 7 N. H. Rcp. 59; 1 Pick. R. 432; 4 John. Ch. R. 150.
BRIEF, eccl. law. The name of a kind of papal rescript. Briefs are writings sealed with wax, and differ in this respect from bulls, (q. v.) which are scaled with lead. They are so called, because they usually are short compendious writings. Ayl. Parerg. 132. See Breve.
BRIEF, practice. An abridged statement of a party's case.
2. It should contain : 1st. A statement of the names of the parties, and of their residence and occupation, the character in which they sue and are sued, and wherefore they prosecute or resist the action. 2d. An abridgment of all the pleadings. 3d. A regular, chronological, and methodical statement of the facts in plain common language. 4th. A summary of the points or questions in issue, and of the proof which is to support such issues, mentioning specially the names of the witnesses by which the facts are to be proved, or if there be written evidence, an abstract of such evidence. 5th. The personal character of the witnesses should be mentioned; whether the moral character is good or bad, whether they are naturally timid or over-zealous, whether firm or wavering. 6th. If known, the evidence of the opposite party, and such facts as are adapted to oppose, confute, or repel it. Perspicuity and conciseness are the most desirable qualities of a brief, but when the facts are material they cannot be too numerous when the argument is pertinent and weighty, it cannot be too extended.
3. Brief is also used in the sense of breve. (q. v.)
BRIEF OP TITLE, practice, conveyancing. An abridgment of all the patents, deeds, indentures, agreements, records, and papers relating to certain real estate.
2. In making a brief of title, the practitioner should be careful to place every deed and other paper in chronological order. The date of each deed; the names of the parties; the consideration; the description of the property; should be particularly, noticed, and all covenants should also be particularly inserted.
3. A vendor of an interest in realty ought to have his title investigated, abstracted, and evidence in proof of it ready to be produced and established before he sells; for if he sell with a confused title, or without being ready to produce deeds and vouchers, he must be at the expense of clearing it. 1 Chit. Pr. 304, 463.
BRINGING MONEY INTO COURT. The act of depositing money in the hands of the proper officer of the court, for the purpose of satisfying a debt or duty, or of an interpleader.
2. Whenever a tender of money is pleaded, and the debt is not discharged by the tender and refusal, money may be brought into court, without asking leave of the court; indeed, in such cases the money must be brought into court inorder to have the benefit of the tender. In other cases, leave must be had, before the money can be brought into court.
3. In general, if the money brought into court is sufficient to satisfy the plaintiff 's claim, he shall not recover costs. See Bac. Ab. Tender, &c.
BROCAGE, contracts. The wages or commissions of a broker his occupation is also sometimes called brocage. This word is also spelled brokerage.
BROKERAGE, contracts. The trade or occupation of a broker; the commissions paid to a broker for his services.
BROKERS, commerce. Those who are engaged for others, in the negotiation of contracts, relative to property, with the custody of which they have no concern. Paley on Agency, 13; see Com. Dig. Merchant, C.
2. A broker is, for some purposes, treated as the agent of both parties; but in the first place, he is deemed the agent only of the person by whom he is originally employed; and does not become the agent of the other until the bargain or contract has been definitely settled, as to the terms, between the principals. Paley on Ag. by Lloyd, 171, note p; 1 Y. &, J. 387.
3. There are several kinds of brokers, as, Exchange Brokers, such as negotiate in all matters of exchange with foreign countries.
4. Ship Brokers. Those who transact business between the owners of vessels, and the merchants who send cargoes.
5. Insurance Brokers. Those who manage the concerns both of the insurer and the insured.
6. Pawn Brokers. Those who lend money, upon goods, to necessitous people, at interest.
7. Stock Brokers. Those employed to buy and sell shares of stocks in corporations and companies. Vide Story on Ag. §28 to 32; T. L. h. t.; Maly. Lex Mer. 143; 2 H. Bl. 555; 4 Burr, R. 2103; 4 Kent, Com. 622, note d, 3d ed.; Liv. on Ag. Index, h. t.; Chit. Com. L. Index, h. t.; and articles Agency; dgent; Bought note; Factor; Sold note.
BROTHELS, crim. law. Bawdy-houses, the common habitations of prostitutes; such places have always been deemed common nuisances in the United States, and the keepers of them may be fined and imprisoned.
2. Till the time of Henry VIII, they were licensed in England, when that lascivious prince suppressed them. Vide 2 Inst. 205, 6; for the history of these pernicious places, see Merl. Rep. mot Bordel Parent Duchatellet, De la Prostitution dans la ville de Paris, c. 5, §1; Histoire de la Legislation sur les femmes publiques, & c., par M. Sabatier.
BROTHER, domest. relat. He who is born from the same father and mother with another, or from one of them only.
2. Brothers are of the whole blood, when they are born of the same father and mother, and of the half blood, when they are the issue of one of them only.
3. In the civil law, when they are the children of the same father and mother, they are called brothers germain; when they descend from the same father, but not the same mother, they are consanguine brothers; when they are the issue of the same mother, but not the same father, they are uterine brothers. A half brother, is one who is born of the same father or mother, but not of both. One born of the same parents before they were married, a left-sided brother; and a bastard born of the same father or mother, is called a natural brother. Vide Blood; Half-blood; Line; and Merl. Repert. mot Frere; Dict. de Jurisp. mot Frere; Code, 3, 28, 27 Nov. 84, praef; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.
BROTHER-IN-LAW, domestic relat. The brother of a wife, or the hushand of a sister. There is no relationship, in the former case, between the hushand and the brother-in-law, nor in the latter, between the brother and the hushand of the sister; there is only affinity between them. See Vaughan's Rep. 302, 329.
BRUISE, med. jurisp. An injury done with violence to the person, without breaking the skin; it is nearly synonymous with contusion. (q . v.) 1. Ch. Pr. 38; vide 4 Car. & P. 381, 487, 558, 565; Eng. C. L. Rep. 430, 526, 529. Vide Wound.
BUBBLE ACT, Eng. law. The name given to the statute 6 Geo. I., c. 18, which was passed in 1719, and was intended " for restraining several extravagant and unwarrantable practices therein mentioned." See 2 P. Wms. 219.
BUGGERY, crim. law. The detestable crime of having commerce contrary to the order of nature, by mankind with mankind, or with brute beasts, or by womankind with brute beasts. 3 Inst. 58; 12 Co. 36; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Merl. Repert. mot Bestialie. This is a highly penal offence.
BUILDING, estates. An edifice erected by art, and fixed upon or over the soil, composed of stone, brick, marble, wood, or other proper substance, 'Connected together, and designed for use in the position in which it is so fixed. Every building is an accessory to the soil, and is, therefore, real estate: it belongs to the owner of the soil. Cruise, tit. 1, S. 46. Vide 1 Chit. Pr. 148, 171; Salk. 459; Hob. 131; 1 Mete. 258; Broom's Max. 172.
BULK, contracts. Said to be merchandise which is neither counted) weighed, nor measured.
2. A sale by bulk, is a sale of a quantity of goods,, such as they are, without measuring, counting, or weighing. Civ. Code of Louis. a. 3522, n. 6.
BULL, eccles. law. A letter from the pope of Rome, written on parchment, to which is attached a leaden seal, impressed with the images of Saint Peter and Saint Paul.
2. There are three kinds of apostolical rescripts, the brief, the signature, and the bull, which last is most commonly used in legal matters. Bulls may be compared to the edicts and letters-patent of secular princes: when the bull grants a favor, the seal is attached by means of silken strings; and when to direct execution to be performed, with flax cords. Bulls are written in Latin, in a round and Gothic hand. Ayl. Par. 132; Ayl. Pand. 21; Mer. Rep. h. t.
BULLETIN. An official account of public transactions on matters of importance. In France, it is the registry of the laws.
BULLION. In its usual acceptation, is uncoined gold or silver, in bars, plates, or other masses. 1 East, P. C. 188.
2. In the acts of Congress, the term is also applied to copper properly manufactured for the purpose of being coined into money. For the acts of Congress, authorizing the coinage of bullion for private individuals, see Act of April 2, 1792, s. 14, 1 Story, 230; Act of May 19, 1828, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's Laws U. S. 2120; Act of June 28, 1834, Id. 2376; Act of January 18, 1837, Id. 2522 to 2529. See, for the English law on the subject of crimes against bullion, 1 Hawk. P. C. 32 to 41.
BUOY. A piece of wood, or an empty barrel, floating on the water, to show the place where it is shallow, to indicate the danger there is to navigation. The act of Congress, approved the 28th September, 1850, enacts, " that all buoys along the coast, in bays, harbors, sounds, or channels, shall be colored and numbered, so that passing up the coast or sound, or entering the bay, harbor or channel, red buoys with even numbers, shall be passed on the starboard hand, black buoys, with uneven numbers, on the port hand, and buoys with red and black stripes on either hand. Buoys in channel ways to be colored with alternate white and black perpendicular stripes."
BURDEN OF PROOF. This phrase is employed to signify the duty of proving the facts in dispute on an issue raised between the parties in a cause.
2. The burden of proof always lies on the party who takes the affirmative in pleading. 1 Mass. 71, 335; 4 Mass. 593; 9 Pick. 39.
3. In criminal cases, as every man is presumed to be innocent until the contrary is proved, the burden of proof rests on the prosecutor, unless a different provision is expressly made by statute. 12 Wheat. See Onus probandi.
BUREAU. A French word, which literally means a large writing table. It is used figuratively for the place where business is transacted: it has been borrowed by us, and used in nearly the same sense; as, the bureau of the secretary of state. Vide Merl. Repert. h. t.
BUREAUCRACY. The abuse of official influence in the affairs of government; corruption. This word has lately been adopted to signify that those persons who are employed in bureaus abuse their authority by intrigue to promote their own benefit, or that of friends, rather than the public good. The word is derived from the French.
BURGAGE, English law. A species of tenure in socage; it is where the king or other person is lord of an ancient borough, in which the tenements are held by a rent certain. 2 B1. Com. 82.
BURGESS. A magistrate of a borough; generally, the chief officer of the corporation, who performs, within the borough, the same kind of duties which a mayor does in a city. In England, the word is sometimes applied to all the inhabitants of a borough, who are called burgesses sometimes it signifies the representatives of a borough in parliament.
BURGH. A borough; (q. v.) a castle or town.
BURGLA. One who commits a burglary. (q. v.)
BURGLARIOUSL, pleadings. This is a technical word, which must be introduced into an indictment for burglary; no other word will answer the same purpose, nor will any circumlocution be sufficient. 4 Co. 39; 5 Co. 121; Cro. Eliz. 920; Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 1; Com. Dig. Indictment, G 6; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 242.
BURGLARY, crim. law. The breaking and entering the house of another in the night time, with. intent to commit a felony therein, whether the felony be actually committed or not. 3 Inst. 63; 1 Hale, 549; 1 Hawk. c. 38, s. 1; 4 Bl. Com. 224; 2 East, P. C. C. 15, s. 1, p. 484; 2 Russell on Cr. 2; Roscoe, Cr. Ev. 252; Coxe, R. 441; 7 Mass. Rep. 247.
2. The circumstances to be considered are, 1. in what place the offence can be committed; 2. at what time 3. by what means; 4. with what intention.
3.- 1. In what place a burglary can be committed. It must, in general, be committed in a mansion house, actually occupied as a dwelling; but if it be left by the owner animo revertendi, though no person resides in it in his absence, it is still his mansion. Fost. 77; 3 Rawle, 207. The principal question, at the present day, is what is to be deemed a dwelling-house. 1 Leach, 185; 2 Leach, 771; Id. 876; 3 Inst. 64; 1 Leach, 305; 1 Hale, 558; Hawk. c. 38, s. 18; 1 Russ. on Cr. 16; 3 Berg. & Rawle, 199 4 John. R. 424 1 Nott & M'Cord, 583; 1 Hayw. 102, 242; Com. Dig. Justices, P 5; 2 East, P. C. 504.
4. - 2. At what time it must be committed. The offence must be committed in the night, for in the day time there can be no burglary. 4 Bl. Com. 224. For this purpose, it is deemed night when by the light of the sun a person cannot clearly discern the face or countenance of another 1 Hale, 550; 3 nst. 63. This rule, it is evident, does not apply to moonlight. 4 Bl. Com. 224; 2 Russ. on Cr. 32. The breaking and entering need not be done the same night 1 Russ. & Ry. 417; but it is necessary the breaking and entering should be in the night time, for if the breaking be in daylight and the entry in the night, or vice versa, it will not be burglary. 1 Hale, 551; 2 Russ. on Cr. 32. Vide Com. Dig. Justices, P 2; 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 1092.
5.-3. The means used. There must be both a breaking and an entry. First, of the breaking, which may be actual or constructive. An actual breaking tal-,es place when the burglar breaks or removes ally part of, the house, or the fastenings provided for it, with violence. Breaking a window, taking a pane of glass out, by breaking or bending the nails, or other fastenings, raising a latch where the door is not otherwise fastened; picking open a lock with a false key; putting back the lock of a door or the fastening of a window, with an instrument; turning the key when the door is locked in the inside, or unloosening any other fastening which the owner has provided, are several instances of actual breaking. According to the Scotch law, entering a house by means of the true key, while in the door, or when it had been stolen, is a breaking. Alis. Pr. Cr. Law, 284. Constructive breakings occur when the burglar gams an entry by fraud, conspiracy or threats. 2 Russ. on Cr. 22 Chit. Cr. Law, 1093. The breaking of an inner door of the house will be sufficient to constitute a burglary. 1 Hale, 553. Any, the least, entry, with the whole or any part of the body , hand, or foot, or with any instrument or weapon, introduced for the purpose of committing a felony, will be sufficient to constitute the offence. 3 Inst. 64; 4 Bl. Com. 227; Bac. Ab. Burglary, B Com. Dig. Justices, P 4. But the introduction of an instrument, in the act of breaking the house, will not be a sufficient entry, unless it be introduced for the purpose of committing a felony.
6. - 4. The intention. The intent of the breaking and entry must be felonious; if a felony however be committed, the act will be prima facie evidence of an intent to commit it. If the breaking and entry be with an intention to commit a bare trespass, and nothing further is done, the offence will not be a burglary. 1 Hale, 560; East, P., C. 509, 514, 515; 2 Russ. on Cr. 33.
BURGOMASTER. In Germany this is, the title by which an officer who performs the duties of a mayor is, called.
BURIAL. The act of interring the dead.
2. No burial is lawful unless made in conformity with the local regulations; an when a dead body has been found, it cannot be lawfully buried until the coroner has holden an inquest over it. In England. it is the practice for coroners to issue warrants to bury, after a view. 2 Umf. Lex. Coron. 497, 498.
BURNING. Vide Accident; Arson; Fire, accidental.
BURYING-GROUND. A place appropriated for depositing the dead; a cemetery. In Massachusetts, burying-grounds cannot, be appropriated to roads without the consent of the owners. Massachusetts Revised St. 239.
BUSHEL, measure. The Winchester bushel, established by the 13 W. III. c. 5, A. D. 1701, was made the standard of grain; a cylindrical vessel, eighteen and a half inches in diameter, and eight inches deep inside, contains a bushel; the capacity is 2145.42 cubic inches. By law or usage it is established in most of the United States. The exceptions, as far as known, are Connecticut, where the bushel holds 2198 cubic inches Kentucky, 2150 2/3; Indiana, Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri, where it contains 2150.4 cubic inches. Dane's Ab. c. 211, a. 12, s. 4. See the whole subject discussed in report of the Secretary of State of the United States to the Senate, Feb. 22, 1821.
BUSINESS HOURS. The time of the day during which business is transacted. In respect to the time of presentment and demand of bills and notes, business hours generally range through the whole day down to the hours of rest in the evening, except when the paper is payable it a bank or by a banker. 2 Hill, N. Y. R. 835. See 3 Shepl. 67; 5 Shepl. 230.
BUTT. A measure of capacity, equal to one hundred and eight gallons. See Measure.
BUTTS AND BOUNDS. This phrase is used to express the ends and boundaries of an estate. The word butt, being evidently derived from the, French bout, the end; and bounds, from boundary.
TO BUY. To purchase. Vide Sale.
BUYER, contracts. A purchaser; (q. v.) a vendee.
BUYING OF TITLES. The purchase of the rights of a person to a piece of land when the seller is disseised.
2. When a deed is made by one who, though having a legal right to land, is at the time of the conveyance disseised, as a general rule of the common law, the sale is void; the law will not permit any person to sell a quarrel, or, as it is commonly termed, a pretended title. Such a conveyance is an offence at common law, and by a statute of Hen. VIII. This rule has been generally adopted in the United States, and is affirmed by express statute. In some of the states, it has been modified or abolished. It has been recognized in Massachusetts and Indiana. 1 Ind. R. 127. In Massacbusetts, there is no statute on the subject, but the act has always been unlawful. 5 Pick. R. 356. In Connecticut the seller and the buyer forfeit, each one half the value of the land. 4 Conn. 575. In New York, a person disseised cannot convey, except by way of mortgage. But the statute does not apply to judicial sales. 6 Wend. 224; see 4 Wend. 474; 2 John. Cas. 58; 3 Cow. 89; 5 Wend. 532; 5 Cow. 74; 13 John. 466; 8 Wend. 629; 7 Wend. 53, 152 11 Wend. 442; 13 John. 289. In North Carolina and South Carolina, a conveyance by a disseisee is illegal; the seller forfeits the land, andthe buyer its value. In Kentucky such sale is void. 1 Dana, R. 566. But when the deeds were made since the passage of the statute of 1798, the grantee might, under that act, sue for land conveyed to him, which was adversely possessed by another, as the grantor might have done before. The statute rendered transfers valid to pass the title. 2 Litt. 393; 1 Wheat. 292; 2 Litt. 225; 3 Dana, 309. The statute of 1824, " to revive and amend the champerty and maintenance law," forbids the buying ot titles where there is an adverse possession. See 3 J. J. Marsh. 549; 2 Dana, 374; 6 J. J. Marsh. 490, 584. In Ohio, the purchase of land from one against whom a suit is pending for it, is void, except against himself, if he prevails. Walk. Intr. 297, 351, 352. In Pennsylvania. 2 Watts, R. 272 Illinois, 111. Rev. L. 130; Missouri, Misso. St. 119, a deed is valid, though there be an adverse possession. 2 Hill, Ab. c. 33, §42 to 52.
3. The Roman law forbade the sale of a right or thing in litigation. Code, 8. 37, 2.
BY ESTIMATION, contracts. In sales of land it not unfrequently occurs that the property is said to contain a certain number of acres, by estimation, or so many acres, more or less. When these expressions are used, if the land fall short by a small quantity, the purchaser will receive no relief. In one case of this kind, the land fell short two-fifths, and the purchaser received no relief. 2 Freem. 106. Vide 1 Finch, 109 1 Call, R. 301; 6 Binn. Rep. 106 1 Serg. & Pawle, R. 166; 1 Yeates, R. 322 2 John. R. 37 5 John. R. 508; 15 John. R. 471; 1 Caines, R. 493; 3 Mass. Rep. 380; 5 Mass. R. 355; 1 Root: R. 528; 4 Hen. & Munf. 184. The meaning of these words has never been precisely ascertained by judicial decision. See Sugd. Vend. 231 to 236; Wolff, Inst. §658 and the cases cited under the articles Constitution; More or less; Subdivision.
BY-LAWS. Rules and ordinances made by a corporation for its own government.
2. The power to make by-laws is usually conferred by express terms of the charter creating the corporation, though, when not expressly granted, it is given by implication, and it is incident to the very existence of a corporation. When there is an express grant, limited to certain cases and for certain purposes, the corporate power of legislation is confined to the objects specified, all others being excluded by implication. 2 Kyd on Corp. 102; 2 P. Wms. 207; Ang. on Corp. 177. The power of making by-laws, is to be exercised by those persons in whom it is vested by the charter; but if that intrument is silent on that subject, it resides in the members of the corporation at large. Harris & Gill's R. 324; 4 Burr. 2515, 2521; 6 Bro. P. C. 519.
3. The constitution of the United States, and acts of congress made in conformity to it the constitution of the state in which a corporation is located, and acts of the legislature, constitutionally made, together with the common-law as there accepted, are of superior force to any by-law; and such by-law, when contrary to either of them, is therefore void, whether the charter authorizes the making of such by-law or not; because no legislature can grant power larger than they themselves possess. 7 Cowen's R. 585; Id. 604 5 Cowen's R. 538. Vide, generally, Aug. on Corp. ch. 9; Willc. on Corp. ch. 2, s. 3; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 4 Vin. Ab. 301 Dane's Ab. Index, h. t., Com. Dig. h. t.; and Id. vol. viii. h. t.
BY THE BYEEng. law. A declaration may be filed without a new process or writ, when the defendant is in court in another case, by the plaintiff in that case having filed common bail for him; the declaration thus filed is called a declaration by the bye. 1 Crompt. 96; Lee's Diet. of Pr. Declaration IV.

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