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CONSANGUINITY

    4.1.18  
CONSANGUINITY The relation subsisting among all the different persons descendiug from the same stock, or common ancestor. Vaughan, 322, 329; 2 Bl. Com. 202 Toull. Dr. Civ.. Fr. liv. 3, t. 1, ch. n 115 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1955, et seq.
2. Some portion of the blood of the common ancestor flows through the veins of all his descendants, and though mixed with the blood flowing from many other families, yet it constitutes the kindred or alliance by blood between any two of the individuals. This relation by blood is of two kinds, lineal and collateral.
3. Lineal consanguinity is that relation which exists among persons, where one is descended from the other, as between the son and the father, or the grandfather, and so upwards in a direct ascending line; and between the father and the son, or the grandson, and so downwards in a direct descending line. Every generation in this direct course males a degree, computing either in the ascending or descending line. This being the natural mode of computing the degrees of lineal, consanguinity, it has been adopted by the civil, the canon, and the common law.

CONFLICT, CONFLICT OF LAWS

    4.1.18  
CONFLICT OF LAWS. This phrase is used to signify that the laws of different countries, on the subject-matter to be decided, are in opposition to each other; or that certain laws of the same country are contradictory.
2. When this happens to be the case, it becomes necessary to decide which law is to be obeyed. This subject has occupied the attention and talents of some of the most learned jurists, and their labors are comprised in many volumes. A few general rules have been adopted on this subject, which will here be noticed.
3. - 1. Every nation possesses an exclusive sovereignty and jurisdiction within its own territory. The laws of every state, therefore, affect and bind directly all property, whether real or personal, within its territory; and all persons who are resident within it, whether citizens or aliens, natives or foreigners; and also all contracts made, and acts done within it. Vide Lex Loci contractus; Henry, For. Law, part 1, c. 1, 1; Cowp. It. 208; 2 Hag. C. R. 383. It is proper, however, to observe, that ambassadors and other public ministers, while in the territory of the state to, which they are delegates, are exempt from the local jurisdiction. Vide Ambassador. And the persons composing a foreign army, or fleet,

CONSENT, CONSENT RULE

    4.1.18  
CONSENT. An agreement to something proposed, and differs from assent. (q. v.) Wolff, Ins. Nat. part 1, SSSS 27-30; Pard. Dr. Com. part 2, tit. 1, n. 1, 38 to 178. Consent supposes, 1. a physical power to act; 2. a moral power of acting; 3. a serious, determined, and free use of these powers. Fonb. Eq. B; 1, c. 2, s. 1; Grot. de Jure Belli et Pacis, lib. 2, c. 11, s. 6.
2. Consent is either express or implied. Express, when it is given viva voce, or in writing; implied, when it is manifested by signs, actions, or facts, or by inaction or silence, which raise a presumption that the consent has been given.
3. - 1. When a legacy is given with a condition annexed to the bequest, requiring the consent of executors to the marriage of the legatee, and under such consent being given, a mutual attachment has been suffered to grow up, it would be rather late to state terms and conditions on which a marriage between the parties should take place;. 2 Ves. & Beames, 234; Ambl. 264; 2 Freem. 201; unless such consent was obtained by deceit or fraud. 1 Eden, 6; 1 Phillim. 200; 12 Ves. 19.
4. - 2. Such a condition does not apply to a second marriage. 3 Bro. C. C. 145; 3 Ves. 239.

CONSIDERATION

    4.1.18  
CONSIDERATION, contracts. A compensation which is paid, or all inconvenience suffered by the, party from whom it proceeds. Or it is the reason which moves the contracting party to enter into the contract. 2 Bl. Com. 443. Viner defines it to be a cause or occasion meritorious, requiring a mutual recompense in deed or in law. Abr. tit. Consideration, A. A consideration of some sort or other, is so absolutely necessary to the forming a good contract, that a nudum pactum, or an agreement to do or to pay any thing on one side, without any compensation to the other, is totally void in law, and a man cannot be compelled to perform it. Dr. & Stud. d. 2, c. 24 3 Call, R. 439 7 Conn. 57; 1 Stew. R. 51 5 Mass. 301 4 John. R. 235; C. Yerg. 418; Cooke, R. 467; 6 Halst. R. 174; 4 Munf. R. 95. But contracts under seal are valid without a consideration; or, perbaps, more properly speaking, every bond imports in itself a sufficient consideration, though none be mentioned. 11 Serg. & R. 107. Negotiable instruments, as bills of exchange and promissory notes, carry with them prima facie evidence of consideration. 2 Bl. Com. 445.

CONNECTICUT

    4.1.18  
CONNECTICUT. The name of one of the original states of the United States of America. It was not until the year 1665 that the territory now known as the state of Connecticut was united under one government. The charter was granted by Charles II. in April, 1662, but as it included the whole colony of New Haven, it was not till 1665 that the latter ceased its resistance, when both the colony of Connecticut and that of New Haven agreed, and then they were indissolubly united, and have so remained. This charter, with the exception of a temporary suspension, continued in force till the American revolution, and afterwards continued as a fundamental law of the state till the year 1818, when the present constitution was adopted. 1 Story on the Const. 86-88.

CONFESSION

    4.1.18  
CONFESSION, crim. law, evidence. The voluntary declaration made by a person who has committed a crime or misdemeanor, to another, of the agency or participation which he had in the same.
2. When made without bias or improper influence, confessions are admissible in evidence, as the highest and most satisfactory proof: because it is fairly presumed that no man would make such a confession against himself, if the facts confessed were not true but they are excluded, if liable to the of having been unfairly obtained.
3. Confessions should be received with great caution, as they are liable to many objections. There is danger of error from the misapprehension of witnesses, the misuse of words, the failure of a party to express his own meaning, the prisoner being oppressed by his unfortunate situation, and influenced by hope, fear, and sometimes a worse motive, to male an untrue confession. See the case of the two Boorns in Greenl. Ev . 214, note 1; North American Review, vol. 10, p. 418; 6 Carr. & P. 451; Joy on Confess. s. 14, p. 100; and see1 Chit. Cr. Law, 85.

CONGRESS

    4.1.18  
CONGRESS. This word has several significations. 1. An assembly of the deputies convened from different governments, to treat of peace or of other political affairs, is called a congress.
2. - 2. Congress is the name of the legislative body of the United States, composed of the senate and house of representatives. Const. U. S. art. 1,s. 1.
3. Congress is composed of two independent houses. 1. The senate and, 2. The house of representatives.

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